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New insight into inter-organ crosstalk contributing to the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver dysfunction and a significant global health problem with substantial rise in prevalence over the last decades. It is becoming increasingly clear that NALFD is not only predominantly a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, but also involves extra-hepatic organs and regulatory pathways. ...

Making sense of Heidegger’s ‘phenomenology of the inconspicuous’ or inapparent (Phänomenologie des Unscheinbaren)

In Heidegger’s last seminar, which was in Zähringen in 1973, he introduces what he called a “phenomenology of the inconspicuous” (Phänomenologie des Unscheinbaren). Despite scholars’ occasional references to this “approach” over the last 40 years, this approach of Heidegger’s has gone largely under investigated in secondary literature. This article introduces three different, ...

Residual ground-water levels of the neonicotinoid thiacloprid perturb chemosensing of Caenorhabditis elegans

This study investigated the neurological effects of residual ground-water levels of thiacloprid on the non-target organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Nematodes treated with thiacloprid showed a dose-dependent and significantly increased twitch response at concentrations above 50 ng mL−1 that disabled their forward locomotion in liquid culture. In comparison with untreated controls, 10 ...

Mitochondrial biogenesis and neural differentiation of human iPSC is modulated by idebenone in a developmental stage-dependent manner

Idebenone, the synthetic analog of coenzyme Q10 can improve electron transport in mitochondria. Therefore, it is used in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease and other cognitive impairments. However, the mechanism of its action on neurodevelopment is still to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that the cellular response of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) to idebenone ...

Lokale Antibiotikatherapie

Behandlungen oberflächlicher Wundinfektionen mit lokalen Antibiotika werden wegen der erhöhten Gefahr einer Resistenzentwicklung und fehlender Wirksamkeit in tieferen Regionen als problematisch angesehen. Im Gegensatz dazu ist der lokale Einsatz von Antibiotika in der Knochenchirurgie bei Verwendung von Implantaten sinnvoll. Grund dafür ist die Gefahr einer raschen Ausbildung eines ...

Mikroglia und Immuntherapien bei degenerativen Netzhauterkrankungen

Bei allen bisher im Detail untersuchten erblichen Netzhautdegenerationen liegt eine dem Erkrankungsverlauf abträgliche chronische Aktivierung des angeborenen Immunsystems zugrunde. Vor allem residente Mikrogliazellen der Netzhaut und verschiedene Proteine des löslichen Komplementsystems tragen zu einer Schädigung von Photorezeptoren und retinalem Pigmentepithel bei. Sowohl ...

Partnership Choice and Childbearing in Norway and Spain

Cohabitation has, in a number of countries, become a genuine alternative to marriage. Where this occurs, will we see a convergence in fertility behavior between the two partnership options? We address this question by comparing two societies, Norway and Spain, that contrast sharply not only in the evolution of cohabitation, but also in overall birth rates and public support for ...

An overview of recommender systems in the healthy food domain

Recently, food recommender systems have received increasing attention due to their relevance for healthy living. Most existing studies on the food domain focus on recommendations that suggest proper food items for individual users on the basis of considering their preferences or health problems. These systems also provide functionalities to keep track of nutritional consumption as ...

Catch them young: grooming a new generation of physicians in India

Aim Physicians are often accused of (un)intended medical malpractice, which is linked with their economic stimulus in one way or another. To disentangle the motivation behind this claim, this article digs into India’s existing medical training and the motivation of young graduates to practice medicine. Subjects and methods A narrative review was conducted by retrieving the existing ...

Randomized Controlled Trial of a Volitional Help Sheet to Encourage Weight Loss in the Middle East

In the Middle East, the prevalence of overweight/obesity is 80%; however, no studies have yet tested the efficacy of interventions to promote weight loss. The aim of the present study was to test the ability of implementation intentions formed using a volitional help sheet to support weight loss among people who were overweight/obese. Participants (N = 216) enrolling in a weight ...

Tuning Surface Chemistry of Polyetheretherketone by Gold Coating and Plasma Treatment

Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has good chemical and biomechanical properties that are excellent for biomedical applications. However, PEEK exhibits hydrophobic and other surface characteristics which cause limited cell adhesion. We have investigated the potential of Ar plasma treatment for the formation of a nanostructured PEEK surface in order to enhance cell adhesion. The specific ...

From prenatal anxiety to parenting stress: a longitudinal study

The objective of this study was to explore how maternal mood during pregnancy, i.e., general anxiety, pregnancy-specific anxiety, and depression predicted parenting stress 3 months after giving birth, thereby shaping the child’s early postnatal environmental circumstances. To this end, data were used from 1073 women participating in the Dutch longitudinal cohort Generations2, which ...

Post-diagnosis serum insulin-like growth factors in relation to dietary and lifestyle changes in the Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) trial

Purpose The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is modifiable by diet and lifestyle, and has been linked to prostate cancer development and progression. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of 621 men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer to investigate the associations of dietary and lifestyle changes with post-diagnosis circulating levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3. ...

A standardized set of 3-D objects for virtual reality research and applications

The use of immersive virtual reality as a research tool is rapidly increasing in numerous scientific disciplines. By combining ecological validity with strict experimental control, immersive virtual reality provides the potential to develop and test scientific theories in rich environments that closely resemble everyday settings. This article introduces the first standardized ...

MATHsAiD: Automated mathematical theory exploration

The aim of the MATHsAiD project is to build a tool for automated theorem-discovery; to design and build a tool to automatically conjecture and prove theorems (lemmas, corollaries, etc.) from a set of user-supplied axioms and definitions. No other input is required. This tool would, for instance, allow a mathematician to try several versions of a particular definition, and in a ...

Work-Home Interference, Perceived Total Workload, and the Risk of Future Sickness Absence Due to Stress-Related Mental Diagnoses Among Women and Men: a Prospective Twin Study

Purpose Work-home interference has been proposed as an important explanation for sickness absence (SA). Previous studies show mixed results, have not accounted for familial factors (genetics and shared everyday environment), or investigated diagnosis specific SA. The aim was to study whether work-home interference and perceived total workload predict SA due to stress-related mental ...

The Impact of Speed of Play in Gambling on Psychological and Behavioural Factors: A Critical Review

Conceptually, there is a common association between gambling games with fast speeds of play and problem gambling. This relationship however, is largely correlational in nature, which comes at the expense of carefully controlled empirical investigation. Research that does exist aimed towards investigating the impact of gambling speeds on psychological and behavioural factors, is in ...

The impact of trained radiographers as concurrent readers on performance and reading time of experienced radiologists in the UK Lung Cancer Screening (UKLS) trial

Objectives To compare radiologists’ performance reading CTs independently with their performance using radiographers as concurrent readers in lung cancer screening. Methods 369 consecutive baseline CTs performed for the UK Lung Cancer Screening (UKLS) trial were double-read by radiologists reading either independently or concurrently with a radiographer. In concurrent reading, the ...

The Sport Mental Training Questionnaire: Development and Validation

Research in sports psychology has revealed that mental training is essential in the development of successful athletes. This project, comprised of five studies (a total of N = 2015) resulted in a novel approach towards the measurement of mental skills in sport. In Study 1 (N = 797) and Study 2 (N = 405) we used principal component analysis to identify and confirm the structure of a ...

Does clavicular shortening after nonoperative treatment of midshaft fractures affect shoulder function? A systematic review

Introduction Clavicular shortening due to non-anatomical healing of displaced clavicular fractures is believed to have a negative effect on shoulder function after recovery. The evidence for this, however, is equivocal. This review aimed to systematically evaluate the available literature to determine whether the current beliefs about clavicular shortening can be substantiated. ...

Quantitative characterization of polyacrylamide–shale interaction under various saline conditions

Interaction of polymer-containing injected fluids with shale is a widely studied phenomenon, but much is still unknown about the interaction of charged polyacrylamides such as anionic and cationic polyacrylamides with shale. The nature of interaction of charged polyacrylamides with shale is not well understood, especially from the perspective of assessing the potential for ...

Visual outcomes after endoscopic endonasal pituitary adenoma resection: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Purpose Patients with pituitary adenomas often present with visual deficits. While the aim of endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery (EETS) is to improve these deficits, permanent worsening is a possible outcome. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of EETS for pituitary adenomas on visual outcomes. Methods A meta-analysis was conducted according to the ...

Prognostic factors affecting outcomes in fistulating perianal Crohn’s disease: a systematic review

Background One in three patients with Crohn’s disease will develop a perianal fistulae, and one third of these will achieve long-term healing or closure. A barrier to conducting well-designed clinical trials for these patients is a lack of understanding of prognostic factors. This systematic review sets out to identify factors associated with prognosis of perianal Crohn’s fistulae. ...

Economic Evaluation of Tobramycin Inhalation Powder for the Treatment of Chronic Pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

Background Chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs in approximately 50% of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This infection further compromises lung function, and significantly contributes to the increased healthcare costs. Objectives Inhaled tobramycin, used to manage P. aeruginosa infection in CF patients, is available as powder (tobramycin inhalation powder, ...

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