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Synaptic connections formed by patchy projections of pyramidal cells in the superficial layers of cat visual cortex

The present study is the first to describe quantitatively the patterns of synaptic connections made by the patchy network of pyramidal cell axons in the superficial layers of cat V1 in relation to the orientation map. Intrinsic signal imaging of the orientation map was combined with 3D morphological reconstructions of physiologically-characterized neurons at light and electron ...

Time to harmonize national ambient air quality standards

Objectives The World Health Organization has developed ambient air quality guidelines at levels considered to be safe or of acceptable risk for human health. These guidelines are meant to support governments in defining national standards. It is unclear how they are followed. Methods We compiled an inventory of ambient air quality standards for 194 countries worldwide for six air ...

Acellular Mouse Kidney ECM can be Used as a Three-Dimensional Substrate to Test the Differentiation Potential of Embryonic Stem Cell Derived Renal Progenitors

The development of strategies for tissue regeneration and bio-artificial organ development is based on our understanding of embryogenesis. Differentiation protocols attempt to recapitulate the signaling modalities of gastrulation and organogenesis, coupled with cell selection regimens to isolate the cells of choice. This strategy is impeded by the lack of optimal in vitro culture ...

The impact of intrinsic anhydrite in an experimental calcium sulfoaluminate cement from a novel, carbon-minimized production process

Calcium sulfoaluminate clinker produced through a previously described novel production process, generating further economies of carbon emission minimization and sulfur use efficiency, is tested for performance as a cementitious binder. The reactivity levels of major phases, including ye’elimite, two polymorphs of belite and anhydrite are found to produce a viable product ...

3D SPECT/CT fusion using image data projection of bone SPECT onto 3D volume-rendered CT images: feasibility and clinical impact in the diagnosis of bone metastasis

Purpose We developed a method of image data projection of bone SPECT into 3D volume-rendered CT images for 3D SPECT/CT fusion. The aims of our study were to evaluate its feasibility and clinical usefulness. Methods Whole-body bone scintigraphy (WB) and SPECT/CT scans were performed in 318 cancer patients using a dedicated SPECT/CT systems. Volume data of bone SPECT and CT were ...

The steel–concrete interface

Although the steel–concrete interface (SCI) is widely recognized to influence the durability of reinforced concrete, a systematic overview and detailed documentation of the various aspects of the SCI are lacking. In this paper, we compiled a comprehensive list of possible local characteristics at the SCI and reviewed available information regarding their properties as well as their ...

The Effect of Conducting Boundaries on the Onset of Convection in a Porous Layer Which is Heated from Below by Internal Heating

The onset of convection in a porous layer heated from below is considered, and we determine how the presence of two solid but heat-conducting bounding plates of finite thickness alters the manner in which convection ensues. Heat is generated by the lower plate (with an insulating lower boundary), but the upper one is passive with a fixed upper boundary temperature. It is shown that ...

Primary acquired spondylodiscitis shows a more severe course than spondylodiscitis following spine surgery: a single-center retrospective study of 159 cases

Spondylodiscitis may arise primarily via hematogenous spread or direct inoculation of virulent organisms during spine surgery. To date, no comparative data investigating the differences between primary and postoperative spondylodiscitis is available. Thus, the purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate differences between these two etiologies. One hundred fifty-nine ...

Desmodium mottle virus, the first legumovirus (genus Begomovirus) from East Africa

A novel bipartite legumovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae), that naturally infects the wild leguminous plant Desmodium sp. in Uganda, was molecularly characterized and named Desmodium mottle virus. The highest nucleotide identities for DNA-A, obtained from two field-collected samples, were 79.9% and 80.1% with the legumovirus, soybean mild mottle virus. DNA-B had the ...

A reliable and non-destructive method for estimating forage shrub cover and biomass in arid environments using digital vegetation charting technique

Despite the importance of fodder shrubs to small ruminant diets and production in arid and semi-arid ecosystems, they are often not considered when quantifying grazing land potential. This oversight is mainly due to the time consuming and costly traditional techniques used to estimate shrub biomass. The shrub fodder component should be measured to avoid underestimation of the ...

Milestones in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

The past 10 years have been an exciting ride for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) aficionados. An overview of changes in management paradigms in CLL, ranging from insights into biology, via chemotherapy and chemoimmunotherapy to maintenance and novel drugs will be presented.

Increased CO2 evolution caused by heat treatment in wood-decaying fungi

Wood-decaying fungi are regarded as the main decomposers of woody debris in boreal forests. Given that fungal respiration makes a significant contribution to terrestrial carbon flows, it is important to understand how the wood-decaying fungal metabolism is regulated in relation to different environmental conditions and disturbances. In the present study, we investigated the effect ...

Haemophagocytic syndrome in an adult suffering from pyrexia of unknown origin: an uncommon presentation of tuberculosis: a case report

Background Tuberculosis is common, can involve various organs of the body and may have diverse presentations. Haemophagocytic syndrome is one of the rare presentations of tuberculosis carrying a very high mortality. Early detection and institution of anti-tuberculosis medications can be life-saving. Case presentation A 23-year-old Bengali man presented with prolonged fever, weight ...

Wear Resistance of Steels with Surface Nanocrystalline Structure Generated by Mechanical-Pulse Treatment

The influence of the surface mechanical-pulse treatment based on high-speed friction with a rapid cooling by the technological environment on the wear resistance of medium- and high-carbon steels was considered. The treatment due to a severe plastic deformation enabled obtaining the nanocrystalline structure with a grain size of 14–40 nm. A high positive effect of this treatment ...

Six-Minute Walk Test in Evaluation of Children with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

Six-minute walk test (6MWT) is a submaximal exercise test applied for evaluation of adults with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). It was widely used as an endpoint in the clinical trials. The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of 6MWT in management of children with PAH and to establish correlations with other clinical features. 164 6MWT were performed in 15 children ...

Utilization of outreach immunization services among children in Hoima District, Uganda: a cluster survey

Background The global vaccine action plan 2011–2020 was endorsed by 194 states to equitably extend the benefits of immunization to all people. However, gaps in vaccination coverage remain in developing countries such as Uganda. One of the strategies used to tackle existing inequities is implementation of outreach immunization services to deliver services to those with poor ...

Microalgal hydrogen production: prospects of an essential technology for a clean and sustainable energy economy

Modern energy production is required to undergo a dramatic transformation. It will have to replace fossil fuel use by a sustainable and clean energy economy while meeting the growing world energy needs. This review analyzes the current energy sector, available energy sources, and energy conversion technologies. Solar energy is the only energy source with the potential to fully ...

Strong Light Confinement in Metal-Coated Si Nanopillars: Interplay of Plasmonic Effects and Geometric Resonance

We investigated the influence of metal coating on the optical characteristics of Si nanopillar (NP) arrays with and without thin metal layers coated on the sample surface. The reflection dips of the metal-coated arrays were much broader and more pronounced than those of the bare arrays. The coated metal layers consisted of two parts—the metal disks on the Si NP top and the holey ...

Coherent Light Photo-modification, Mass Transport Effect, and Surface Relief Formation in AsxS100-x Nanolayers: Absorption Edge, XPS, and Raman Spectroscopy Combined with Profilometry Study

As x S100-x (x = 40, 45, 50) thin films top surface nanolayers affected by green (532 nm) diode laser illumination have been studied by high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, optical spectroscopy, and surface profilometry. It is shown that the composition of obtained films depends not only on the composition of the source material but as well on the ...

Changes in agonist neural drive, hypertrophy and pre-training strength all contribute to the individual strength gains after resistance training

Purpose Whilst neural and morphological adaptations following resistance training (RT) have been investigated extensively at a group level, relatively little is known about the contribution of specific physiological mechanisms, or pre-training strength, to the individual changes in strength following training. This study investigated the contribution of multiple underpinning neural ...

A robust estimator of parameters for \( {\mathcal{G}}_I^0 \) -modeled SAR imagery based on random weighting method

In mono-polarized synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery, \( {\mathcal{G}}_I^0 \) distribution often is assumed as the universal model to characterize a large number of targets, which is indexed by three parameters: the number of looks, the scale parameter, and the roughness parameter. The latter is closely related to the number of elementary backscatters in each pixel, and it is ...

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