Cellulose

http://link.springer.com/journal/10570

List of Papers (Total 140)

Transformation of Miscanthus and Sorghum cellulose during methane fermentation

The purpose of the paper is designation of the changes in the structure of cellulose after the methane fermentation process of Miscanthus and Sorghum harvested during the growing season and afterwards. The percentage and structure of cellulose before and after fermentation were studied. Investigations into changes of the cellulose structure were conducted by the SEC, FT-IR and XRD ...

Modulating cell response on cellulose surfaces; tunable attachment and scaffold mechanics

Combining surface chemical modification of cellulose to introduce positively charged trimethylammonium groups by reaction with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride (GTMAC) allowed for direct attachment of mammalian MG-63 cells, without addition of protein modifiers, or ligands. Very small increases in the surface charge resulted in significant increases in cell attachment: at a ...

Effect of xylanases on refining process and kraft pulp properties

Results of this study demonstrate that enzymatic pretreatment of pulps enables energy savings in the refining process. Pretreatments of NBSK pulp with 3 different commercial xylanases resulted in a faster increase in the pulp freeness that reduced energy input for refining. The partial xylan removal by these enzymes affected the properties of cellulosic pulp and paper. The tensile ...

Surface treatment of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC): effects on dispersion rheology

Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) were surface modified by grafting azetidinium salts onto the sulphate ester groups on the cellulosic surfaces. The modified CNC were characterized using NMR, FTIR spectroscopy, conductometric titration and measurement of the ζ-potential. Thermal gravimetrical analysis revealed that the onset temperature for the thermal degradation was shifted upwards by ...

Correction to: Comparative characteristics of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers and resulting nanopapers from bamboo, softwood, and hardwood pulps

The affiliation “Collaborative Innovation Center of Bamboo Resources & Highly Efficient Utilization in Zhejiang Province” in the published article should be corrected to read “Zhejiang Provincial Collaborative Innovation Center of Bamboo Resources and High-Efficiency Utilization”.

Properties and fibre characterisation of bleached hemp, birch and pine pulps: a comparison

The papermaking potential of bleached kraft pulps made from hemp stalks, hemp woody-core and hemp bast fibres was studied and compared with that of bleached birch pulp and pine kraft pulp. It has been shown that among the pulps from these raw materials, hemp stalk pulp has the most useful properties for papermaking. The disadvantages of hemp woody-core pulp and hemp bast fibre pulp ...

Toughening mechanisms in cellulose nanopaper: the contribution of amorphous regions

Cellulose nanopaper is a strong and tough fibrous network composed of hydrogen bonded cellulose nanofibres. Upon loading, cellulose nanopaper exhibits a long inelastic portion of the stress–strain curve which imparts high toughness into the material. Toughening mechanisms in cellulose nanopaper have been studied in the past but mechanisms proposed were often rather speculative. In ...

In-situ synthesised hydroxyapatite-loaded films based on cellulose nanofibrils for phenol removal from wastewater

Phenol removal from aqueous medium was studied by the batch method using novel and fully biobased solvent-cast films prepared from cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) and in situ synthesised hydroxyapatite (HAp) by the wet-chemical precipitation method and different concentrations of HAp precursors and weight mass of CNFs. The chemical and morphological structures of as-prepared films ...

Hot water treatment of hardwood kraft pulp produces high-purity cellulose and polymeric xylan

Hot water treatments (HWTs) of unbleached hardwood kraft pulps under various process conditions were conducted to extract the xylan and thus produce a high-purity cellulosic pulp that could be used in dissolving applications. Increasing treatment temperature up to 240 °C increased the removal of xylan over the degradation of cellulose in birch pulp, but this effect was minor at ...

Internalization of (bis)phosphonate-modified cellulose nanocrystals by human osteoblast cells

Covalent conjugation of (bis)phosphonate group-containing molecules, sodium Alendronate (Aln) and 3-AminoropylPhosphoric Acid (ApA), to Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) was performed via oxidation/Shiff-base reaction. Further fluorescent labelling with Rhodamine B Iso ThioCyanate (RBITC) was performed to follow CNCs interaction and potential internalization with/in human osteoblasts ...

Effect of the degree of substitution on the rheology of sodium carboxymethylcellulose solutions in propylene glycol/water mixtures

The linear dynamic viscoelastic properties and non-linear transient rheology of sodium carboxymethylcellulose solutions (Na-CMC) in propylene glycol/water mixtures were investigated. Measurements were carried out for the solutions of Na-CMC with three different degrees of substitution (DS), namely 0.62, 0.79, 1.04, and the similar average molecular weight (Mw ≈ 250,000 g/mol). The ...

Measurement of the flexibility of wet cellulose fibres using atomic force microscopy

Flexibility and modulus of elasticity data for two types of wet cellulose fibres using a direct force–displacement method by means of AFM are reported for never dried wet fibres immersed in water. The flexibilities for the bleached softwood kraft pulp (BSW) fibres are in the range of 4–38 × 1012 N−1 m−2 while the flexibilities for the thermomechanical pulp (TMP) fibres are about ...

Mechanical fabrication of high-strength and redispersible wood nanofibers from unbleached groundwood pulp

In the past, the direct production of lignin-containing nanofibers from wood materials has been very limited, and nanoscale fibers (nanocelluloses) have been mainly isolated from chemically delignified, bleached cellulose pulp. In this study, we have introduced a newly adapted, heat-intensified disc nanogrinding process for the enhanced nanofibrillation of wood nanofibers (WNF) ...

Chromophores from hexeneuronic acids: identification of HexA-derived chromophores

Hexeneuronic acids (HexA) have long been known as triggers for discoloration processes in glucuronoxylan-containing cellulosic pulps. They are formed under the conditions of pulping from 4-O-methylglucuronic acid residues, and are removed in an “A stage” along the bleaching sequences, which mainly comprises acidic washing treatments. The chemical structures of HexA-derived ...

Swelling properties and generation of cellulose fines originating from bleached kraft pulp refined under different operating conditions

Cellulose fines are—in general—small particles removed from natural cellulose fibres during refining process which is typically carried out in papermaking industry. Fines have been recognized as a separate component of papermaking fibrous raw material since their properties differ considerably from those of cellulosic fibres. Fines are characterized by low dewatering ability, very ...

Modification of cotton fabric with graphene and reduced graphene oxide using sol–gel method

Cotton fabrics were modified by xerogel coatings with dispersed particles of graphene (Gr) or reduced graphene oxide (RGO). To obtain a stable dispersion of Gr or RGO in organo-silicon sol, sodium lauryl sulfate as an anionic surfactant was used. The fabrics were padded with the organo-silicon sol containing dispersed Gr or RGO, forming a thin xerogel coating after drying. The ...

Chemically modified cellulose micro- and nanofibrils as paper-strength additives

Chemically modified cellulose micro- and nanofibrils were successfully used as paper strength additives. Three different kinds of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) were studied: carboxymethylated CNFs, periodate-oxidised carboxymethylated CNFs and dopamine-grafted carboxymethylated CNFs, all prepared from bleached chemical fibres of dissolving grade, and one microfibrillated cellulose ...

Alkali pretreatments and crosslinking of lyocell fabrics

Lyocell fabrics were pretreated with NaOH, KOH and LiOH and subsequently crosslinked with three urea–formaldehyde based crosslinkers DMDHEU, DMeDHEU and DMU. The mechanical properties varied with the alkali concentration in fabrics crosslinked after pretreatment with 2–8 mol/l NaOH and 4 mol/l LiOH. In fabrics crosslinked after pretreatment with 2–8 mol/l KOH and 1–3 mol/l LiOH, in ...

On the dissolution of cellulose in tetrabutylammonium acetate/dimethyl sulfoxide: a frustrated solvent

We have found that the dissolution of cellulose in the binary mixed solvent tetrabutylammonium acetate/dimethyl sulfoxide follows a previously overlooked near-stoichiometric relationship such that one dissolved acetate ion is able to dissolve an amount of cellulose corresponding to about one glucose residue. The structure and dynamics of the resulting cellulose solutions were ...