# Cellulose

## List of Papers (Total 140)

#### Switchable ionic liquids enable efficient nanofibrillation of wood pulp

Use of switchable ionic liquid (SIL) pulp offers an efficient and greener technology to produce nanofibers via ultrafine grinding. In this study, we demonstrate that SIL pulp opens up a mechanically efficient route to the nanofibrillation of wood pulp, thus providing both a low cost and chemically benign route to the production of cellulose nanofibers. The degree of fibrillation ...

#### High-temperature decomposition of the cellulose molecule: a stochastic molecular dynamics study

The kinetics and products of cellulose pyrolysis can be studied using large-scale molecular dynamics simulations at high temperatures, where the reaction rates are high enough to make the simulation times practical. We carried out molecular dynamics simulations employing the ReaxFF reactive force field to study the initial step of the thermal decomposition process. We gathered ...

#### A novel approach to determining the contribution of the fiber and fines fraction to the water retention value (WRV) of chemical and mechanical pulps

The swelling behavior of pulp fibers has a significant influence on process and product properties. The water uptake of fibers is controlled by a different mechanism. While fiber charge is a driving factor for swelling, the swelling is hindered by the solid structure of the fiber wall. In the case of the fines fraction of pulps, this structure is broken to some extent and the fines ...

#### Thickness difference induced pore structure variations in cellulosic separators for lithium-ion batteries

The pore structure of the separator is crucial to the performance of a lithium-battery as it affects the cell resistance. Herein, a straightforward approach to vary the pore structure of Cladophora cellulose (CC) separators is presented. It is demonstrated that the pore size and porosity of the CC separator can be increased merely by decreasing the thickness of the CC separator by ...

#### Rheological properties of nanocellulose suspensions: effects of fibril/particle dimensions and surface characteristics

The rheological properties of aqueous suspensions based on three different nanocelluloses were compared. One system was obtained via acid hydrolysis (thus yielding crystalline nanocellulose, CNC) and the other two from mechanical shearing, but from different origins and subjected to different pretreatments. Of the latter two, one was considered to be a rather typical cellulose ...

#### Chemisorption of air CO2 on cellulose: an overlooked feature of the cellulose/NaOH(aq) dissolution system

A natural abundance of the air CO2 in NaOH(aq) at low temperature was investigated in terms of cellulose-CO2 interactions upon cellulose dissolution in this system. An organic superbase, namely 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene, DBU, known for its ability to incorporate CO2 in carbohydrates, was employed in order to shed light on this previously overlooked feature of NaOH(aq) at ...

#### A cautionary note on thermal runaway reactions in mixtures of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids and N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide

N-Methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) cannot be completely separated by extraction from mixtures with common 1,3-dialkylimidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) due to strong ionic interactions between the two components. At elevated temperatures, above approx. 90 °C, especially under dry conditions and in the presence of acid, alkylating or acylating agents, remaining NMMO in ILs tends to ...

#### Hydroxyl accessibility in wood cell walls as affected by drying and re-wetting procedures

The first drying of wood cell walls from the native state has sometimes been described as producing irreversible structural changes which reduce the accessibility to water, a phenomenon often referred to as hornification. This study demonstrates that while changes do seem to take place, these are more complex than what has hitherto been described. The accessibility of wood cell ...

#### On the dissolution state of cellulose in cold alkali solutions

We have characterized the dissolved state of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) in cold alkali [2.0 M NaOH(aq)] solutions using a combination of small angle X-ray (SAXS) and static light scattering (SLS), $^1$H NMR, NMR self-diffusion, and rheology experiments. NMR and SAXS data demonstrate that the cellulose is fully molecularly dissolved. SLS, however, shows the presence of large ...

#### Electrically conductive coatings consisting of Ag-decorated cellulose nanocrystals

For the preparation of electrically conductive composites, various combinations of cellulose and conducting materials such as polymers, metals, metal oxides and carbon have been reported. The conductivity of these cellulose composites reported to date ranges from 10−6 to 103 S cm−1. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are excellent building blocks for the production of high added value ...

#### Multi-layer nanopaper based composites

Native cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) were prepared from bleached birch pulp without any chemical or enzymatic pretreatment. These CNF were modified by adsorption of a small amount of water-soluble polysaccharides and used to prepare nanopapers, which were processed into composites by lamination with an epoxy resin and subsequently cured. The results were compared to the properties of ...

#### Steady-shear and viscoelastic properties of cellulose nanofibril–nanoclay dispersions

We have investigated the steady-shear and viscoelastic properties of composite dispersions of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) with medium or high charge density and two different nanoclays, viz. rod-like sepiolite or plate-like bentonite. Aqueous dispersions of CNFs with medium charge density displayed significantly lower steady-state viscosity and storage modulus but higher gelation ...

#### Synthesis of silver nanoparticles in NMMO and their in situ doping into cellulose fibers

We present a method for synthesis of silver nanoparticles in N-methylmorpholine N-oxide (NMMO) and the associated mechanism, as well as their use for in situ volume modification of cellulose fibers. The synthesized particles had diameter of about 4 nm, and their colloid solution was stable for 1 year. The nanoparticles were stabilized using polyethylenimine, which apart from ...

#### Effect of the size of the charged group on the properties of alkoxylated NFCs

The impact of the size of the charged group on the properties of alkoxylated NFC was studied by two chloroalkyl acid reagents. It was found that the employment of the larger 2-chloropropionic acid reagent leads to improved properties, e.g. higher fraction of nano-sized materials, and significantly better redispersion as compared to when the smaller monochloroacetic acid was ...

#### Drying of a cellulose II gel: effect of physical modification and redispersibility in water

The agglomeration of cellulosic materials upon drying, often called hornification, causes a reduction of water retention, among other undesired effects. It is one of the main issues in industrial cellulose processing, especially with regard to nanocelluloses. As a consequence, high transportation and storage costs arise since nanocelluloses need to remain in aqueous suspensions ...

#### Bound and free water distribution in wood during water uptake and drying as measured by 1D magnetic resonance imaging

Knowledge on moisture transport in wood is important for understanding its utilization, durability and product quality. Moisture transport processes in wood can be studied by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) imaging. By combining NMR imaging with relaxometry, the state of water within wood can be identified, i.e. water bound to the cell wall, and free water in the cell ...

#### Material properties of the cell walls in nanofibrillar cellulose foams from finite element modelling of tomography scans

The mechanical properties of the nanofibrillar cellulose foam depend on the microstructure of the foam and on the constituent solid properties. The latter are hard to extract experimentally due to difficulties in performing the experiments on the micro-scale. The aim of this work is to provide methodology for doing it indirectly using extracted geometry of the microstructure. X-ray ...

#### Grafting of thermosensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) from wet bacterial cellulose sheets to improve its swelling-drying ability

Thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) is grafted from wet bacterial cellulose (WBC) sheets using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). WBC is recognized as a highly swollen biocompatible material with broad application potential. However, native WBC undergoes drying relatively fast and its reswelling ability diminishes after losing a substantial amount of ...

#### Critical evaluation of approaches toward mass deacidification of paper by dispersed particles

Mass deacidification has been an important topic in cellulose science and will continue to be a critical issue as long as acidic books and paper-based materials are—a often major—part of library and archive stocks. Different means are available to judge the result of a deacidification treatment and to address its sustainability and efficacy. The present study compares ...

#### Surface modified cellulose scaffolds for tissue engineering

We report the ability of cellulose to support cells without the use of matrix ligands on the surface of the material, thus creating a two-component system for tissue engineering of cells and materials. Sheets of bacterial cellulose, grown from a culture medium containing Acetobacter organism were chemically modified with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride or by oxidation with ...

#### Temperature dependence of methanol and the tensile strength of insulation paper: kinetics of the changes of mechanical properties during ageing

This paper reports the temperature-dependence of methanol generation and the tensile index under ageing conditions for two paper/oil systems: one consisting of a standard wood Kraft paper and the other of a thermally-upgraded Kraft paper (TUK). A linear correlation between methanol and the tensile index for these paper/oil systems was observed in a previous study at 170 °C. In the ...

#### Investigation on functionalization of cotton and viscose fabrics with AgNWs

A study on the functionalization of cotton and viscose fabrics to achieve bifunctional conductive and antibacterial properties was carried out; 0.5 wt% AgNW ethanolic colloid was prepared, and fabrics were dipped and dried in the colloid 1, 10 and 15 times. After one dipping, both fabrics remained nonconductive, and the surface resistance (R s) of cotton was 4.9 × 1010 and of ...

#### Engineering microfluidic papers: determination of fibre source and paper sheet properties and their influence on capillary-driven fluid flow

In the present study, the surface chemistry of fibres from different sources (groundwood, cotton linters, eucalyptus sulphate and a mixture of pine sulphate and spruce sulphate) was initially assessed via inverse gas chromatography. Significant differences were revealed among the four fibre types, especially between groundwood and the other three with regard to the surface energy ...