Veterinary Research

http://www.veterinaryresearch.org/

List of Papers (Total 762)

Evaluation of the efficacy of a commercial inactivated genogroup 2b-based porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) vaccine and experimental live genogroup 1b exposure against 2b challenge

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus strains from the G1b cluster are considered less pathogenic compared to the G2b cluster. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of G1b-based live virus exposure against use of a commercial G2b–based inactivated vaccine to protect growing pigs against G2b challenge. Thirty-nine PEDV naïve pigs were randomly divided into five groups: EXP-IM...

A review of virulent Newcastle disease viruses in the United States and the role of wild birds in viral persistence and spread

Newcastle disease is caused by virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), which causes substantial morbidity and mortality events worldwide in poultry. The virus strains can be differentiated as lentogenic, mesogenic, or velogenic based on a mean death time in chicken embryos. Currently, velogenic strains of NDV are not endemic in United States domestic poultry; however...

Synergistic effect of PB2 283M and 526R contributes to enhanced virulence of H5N8 influenza viruses in mice

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 virus has caused considerable economic losses to poultry industry and poses a great threat to public health. Our previous study revealed two genetically similar HPAI H5N8 viruses displaying completely different virulence in mice. However, the molecular basis for viral pathogenicity to mammals remains unknown. Herein, we generated a...

Longitudinal study of influenza A virus circulation in a nursery swine barn

Commercial production of swine often involves raising animals in large groups through the use of multi-stage production systems. In such systems, pigs can experience different degrees of contact with animals of the same or different ages. Population size and degree of contact can greatly influence transmission of endemic pathogens, including influenza A virus (IAV). IAV can...

Amplicon sequencing of bacterial microbiota in abortion material from cattle

Abortions in cattle have a significant economic impact on animal husbandry and require prompt diagnosis for surveillance of epizootic infectious agents. Since most abortions are not epizootic but sporadic with often undetected etiologies, this study examined the bacterial community present in the placenta (PL, n = 32) and fetal abomasal content (AC, n = 49) in 64 cases of bovine...

Which phenotypic traits of resistance should be improved in cattle to control paratuberculosis dynamics in a dairy herd: a modelling approach

Paratuberculosis is a worldwide disease causing production losses in dairy cattle herds. Variability of cattle response to exposure to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) has been highlighted. Such individual variability could influence Map spread at larger scale. Cattle resistance to paratuberculosis has been shown to be heritable, suggesting genetic selection...

Cross protective immune responses in nursing piglets infected with a US spike-insertion deletion porcine epidemic diarrhea virus strain and challenged with an original US PEDV strain

We investigated cross-protective immunity of a US spike-insertion deletion porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) Iowa106 (S-INDEL) strain against the original US PEDV (PC21A) strain in nursing piglets. Piglets were inoculated orally with S-INDEL, PC21A or mock. At 20–29 days post-inoculation (dpi), all pigs were challenged with the PC21A strain. The S-INDEL-inoculated pigs had...

Limitations of using feline coronavirus spike protein gene mutations to diagnose feline infectious peritonitis

Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal disease of cats, and a sequela of systemic feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection. Mutations in the viral spike (S) gene have been associated with FCoVs found in tissues from cats with FIP, but not FCoVs found in faeces from healthy cats, and are implicated in monocyte/macrophage tropism and systemic spread. This study was designed to...

Control of endemic swine flu persistence in farrow-to-finish pig farms: a stochastic metapopulation modeling assessment

Swine influenza viruses (swIAVs) are known to persist endemically in farrow-to-finish pig farms, leading to repeated swine flu outbreaks in successive batches of pigs at a similar age (mostly around 8 weeks of age). This persistence in European swine herds involves swIAVs from European lineages including H1avN1, H1huN2, H3N2, the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus and their reassortants...

Neutralizing immune responses induced by oligomeric H5N1-hemagglutinins from plants

Plant-based transient expression is an alternative platform to produce hemagglutinin-based subunit vaccines. This production system provides not only fast and effective response in the context of a pandemic but also enables the supply of big volume vaccines at low cost. Crude plant extracts containing influenza hemagglutinin are considered to use as vaccine sources because of...

Protecting effect of PrP codons M142 and K222 in goats orally challenged with bovine spongiform encephalopathy prions

Breeding towards genetic resistance to prion disease is effective in eliminating scrapie. In sheep, classical forms of scrapie have been eradicated almost completely in several countries by breeding programs using a prion protein (PrP) gene (PRNP) amino acid polymorphism. For goats, field and experimental studies have provided evidence for several amino acid polymorphisms that...

Current situation of H9N2 subtype avian influenza in China

In China, H9N2 subtype avian influenza outbreak is firstly reported in Guangdong province in 1992. Subsequently, the disease spreads into vast majority regions nationwide and has currently become endemic there. Over vicennial genetic evolution, the viral pathogenicity and transmissibility have showed an increasing trend as year goes by, posing serious threat to poultry industry...

RNA-seq comparative analysis of Peking ducks spleen gene expression 24 h post-infected with duck plague virulent or attenuated virus

Duck plague virus (DPV), a member of alphaherpesvirus sub-family, can cause significant economic losses on duck farms in China. DPV Chinese virulent strain (CHv) is highly pathogenic and could induce massive ducks death. Attenuated DPV vaccines (CHa) have been put into service against duck plague with billions of doses in China each year. Researches on DPV have been development...

Use of the mice passive protection test to evaluate the humoral response in goats vaccinated with Sterne 34F2 live spore vaccine

The Sterne live spore vaccine (34F2) is the most widely used veterinary vaccine against anthrax in animals. Antibody responses to several antigens of Bacillus anthracis have been described with a large focus on those against protective antigen (PA). The focus of this study was to evaluate the protective humoral immune response induced by the live spore anthrax vaccine in goats...

The role of phospholipase C signaling in bovine herpesvirus 1 infection

Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) infection enhanced the generation of inflammatory mediator reactive oxidative species (ROS) and stimulated MAPK signaling that are highly possibly related to virus induced inflammation. In this study, for the first time we show that BoHV-1 infection manipulated phospholipase C (PLC) signaling, as demonstrated by the activation of PLCγ-1 at both early...

Identification of two mutation sites in spike and envelope proteins mediating optimal cellular infection of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus from different pathways

Entry of the α-coronavirus porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) requires specific proteases to activate spike (S) protein for the membrane fusion of the virion to the host cell following receptor binding. Herein, PEDV isolate 85-7 could proliferate and induce cell–cell fusion in a trypsin independent manner on Vero cells, and eight homologous mutation strains were screened by...

Bovine cryptosporidiosis: impact, host-parasite interaction and control strategies

Gastrointestinal disease caused by the apicomplexan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum is one of the most important diseases of young ruminant livestock, particularly neonatal calves. Infected animals may suffer from profuse watery diarrhoea, dehydration and in severe cases death can occur. At present, effective therapeutic and preventative measures are not available and a better...

Congenital infection with atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) is associated with disease and viral persistence

In 2013, several Austrian piglet-producing farms recorded outbreaks of action-related repetitive myoclonia in newborn piglets (“shaking piglets”). Malnutrition was seen in numerous piglets as a complication of this tremor syndrome. Overall piglet mortality was increased and the number of weaned piglets per sow decreased by more than 10% due to this outbreak. Histological...

Evaluation of natural porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) subclinical infection and seroconversion dynamics in piglets vaccinated at different ages

This study aimed to determine the porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) serological and virological dynamics in piglets vaccinated at different ages in a PCV2 subclinical infection (PCV2-SI) scenario. Six hundred and forty-four 2 week-old healthy piglets were selected and distributed into four treatment groups: vaccination at 3, 6 or 10 weeks of age (3W-VAC, 6W-VAC and 10W-VAC groups...

p53 signaling modulation of cell cycle arrest and viral replication in porcine circovirus type 2 infection cells

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a ubiquitous pathogen in the swine industry worldwide. Previous studies have shown that PCV2 infection induces host cell apoptosis through up-regulation of p53. To further identify the regulatory roles of p53 signaling in the process of PCV2 infection, we established p53 gene knockout PK15 cell lines using the genomic editor tool CRISPR/Cas9...

Marek’s disease in chickens: a review with focus on immunology

Marek’s disease (MD), caused by Marek’s disease virus (MDV), is a commercially important neoplastic disease of poultry which is only controlled by mass vaccination. Importantly, vaccines that can provide sterile immunity and inhibit virus transmission are lacking; such that vaccines are only capable of preventing neuropathy, oncogenic disease and immunosuppression, but are unable...

Heterogeneous antigenic properties of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nucleocapsid

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an arterivirus responsible for a widespread contagious disease of domestic pigs with high economic impact. Switzerland is one of the rare PRRSV-free countries in Europe, although sporadic outbreaks have occurred in the past. The PRRSV isolate IVI-1173 from the short outbreak in Switzerland in 2012 was entirely...

Increased frequency of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus shedding and lesions in suckling pigs compared to nursery pigs and protective immunity in nursery pigs after homologous re-challenge

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes enteric disease in pigs and spreads rapidly after entering naïve pig populations. The objectives were to (1) compare the disease course following inoculation with PEDV isolate US/Colorado/2013 in naïve 10 day and 8 week-old pigs, and (2) contrast the naïve response to homologous challenge in 8 week-old pigs. Pigs were randomly...

Age is not a determinant factor in susceptibility of broilers to H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus

In 2014–2015, the US experienced an unprecedented outbreak of H5 clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus. The H5N2 HPAI virus outbreak in the Midwest in 2015 affected commercial turkey and layer farms, but not broiler farms. To assess any potential genetic resistance of broilers and/or age-related effects, we investigated the pathogenesis and transmission of...

Attenuation of the virulence of a recombinant influenza virus expressing the naturally truncated NS gene from an H3N8 equine influenza virus in mice

Equine influenza virus (EIV) causes a highly contagious disease in horses and other equids. Recently, we isolated an H3N8 EIV (A/equine/Kyonggi/SA1/2011) from a domestic horse in South Korea that exhibited symptoms of respiratory disease, and found that the EIV strain contained a naturally mutated NS gene segment encoding a truncated NS1 protein. In order to determine whether...