Veterinary Research

http://www.veterinaryresearch.org/

List of Papers (Total 726)

Helicobacter suis affects the health and function of porcine gastric parietal cells

The stomach of pigs at slaughter age is often colonized by Helicobacter (H.) suis, which is also the most prevalent gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter (NHPH) species in humans. It is associated with chronic gastritis, gastric ulceration and other gastric pathological changes in both hosts. Parietal cells are highly specialized, terminally differentiated epithelial cells responsible ...

Relationship between viral dose and outcome of infection in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., post-smolts bath-challenged with salmonid alphavirus subtype 3

Salmonid alphavirus subtype 3 (SAV3) causes pancreas disease (PD) and adversely affects salmonid aquaculture in Europe. A better understanding of disease transmission is currently needed in order to manage PD outbreaks. Here, we demonstrate the relationship between viral dose and the outcome of SAV3 infection in Atlantic salmon post-smolts using a bath challenge model. Fish were ...

Immune protection of chickens conferred by a vaccine consisting of attenuated strains of Salmonella Enteritidis, Typhimurium and Infantis

The colonization of poultry with different Salmonella enterica serovars poses an issue throughout the world. In this study we therefore tested the efficacy of a vaccine consisting of attenuated strains of Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis, Typhimurium and Infantis against challenge with the same serovars and with S. Agona, Dublin and Hadar. We tested oral and aerosol ...

Shotgun proteomic analysis of Yersinia ruckeri strains under normal and iron-limited conditions

Yersinia ruckeri is the causative agent of enteric redmouth disease of fish that causes significant economic losses, particularly in salmonids. Bacterial pathogens differentially express proteins in the host during the infection process, and under certain environmental conditions. Iron is an essential nutrient for many cellular processes and is involved in host sensing and ...

Genetic, histochemical and biochemical studies on goat TSE cases from Cyprus

Scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) are transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE’s) affecting sheep and goats. Susceptibility of goats to scrapie is influenced by polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP) of the host. Five polymorphisms are associated with reduced susceptibility to TSE’s. In the study presented here caprine samples from a scrapie ...

The impact of co-infections on fish: a review

Co-infections are very common in nature and occur when hosts are infected by two or more different pathogens either by simultaneous or secondary infections so that two or more infectious agents are active together in the same host. Co-infections have a fundamental effect and can alter the course and the severity of different fish diseases. However, co-infection effect has still ...

Goat K 222 -PrP C polymorphic variant does not provide resistance to atypical scrapie in transgenic mice

Host prion (PrP C ) genotype is a major determinant for the susceptibility to prion diseases. The Q/K 222 -PrP C polymorphic variant provides goats and mice with high resistance against classical scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE); yet its effect against atypical scrapie is unknown. Here, transgenic mice expressing the goat wild-type (wt) or the K 222 -PrP C variant ...

Acute and chronic infections with nonprimate hepacivirus in young horses

The recently discovered nonprimate hepacivirus (NPHV) naturally infects horses and is the closest known homolog of hepatitis C virus to date. Within a follow-up study acute field infections were monitored in four young Thoroughbred horses until the ages of 12–13 months. Serum samples were analyzed for the presence of NPHV RNA and anti-NPHV NS3 antibodies and liver specific ...

First case of chronic wasting disease in Europe in a Norwegian free-ranging reindeer

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal contagious prion disease in cervids that is enzootic in some areas in North America. The disease has been found in deer, elk and moose in the USA and Canada, and in South Korea following the importation of infected animals. Here we report the first case of CWD in Europe, in a Norwegian free-ranging reindeer in Southern Norway. The origin of ...

Two outer membrane proteins are bovine lactoferrin-binding proteins in Mannheimia haemolytica A1

Mannheimia haemolytica is a Gram negative bacterium that is part of the bovine respiratory disease, which causes important economic losses in the livestock industry. In the present work, the interaction between M. haemolytica A1 and bovine lactoferrin (BLf) was studied. This iron-chelating glycoprotein is part of the mammalian innate-immune system and is present in milk and mucosal ...

Membrane-associated GRP78 helps subgroup J avian leucosis virus enter cells

We previously identified chicken Annexin A2 (chANXA2) as a novel receptor for retrovirus avian leucosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), using a DF1 cell line expressing the viral envelope (env) protein. To further probe whether other proteins participate in virus infection, we investigated several host proteins from co-immunoprecipitation with the DF1 cell line expressing viral env. Mass ...

The activation of p38MAPK and JNK pathways in bovine herpesvirus 1 infected MDBK cells

We have shown previously that BHV-1 infection activates Erk1/2 signaling. Here, we show that BHV-1 provoked an early-stage transient and late-stage sustained activation of JNK, p38MAPK and c-Jun signaling in MDBK cells. C-Jun phosphorylation was dependent on JNK. These early events were partially due to the viral entry process. Unexpectedly, reactive oxygen species were not ...

A formalin-inactivated immunogen against viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) disease in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): immunological and protection effects

The European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is an important farmed fish species in the Mediterranean area, very sensitive to the infection by encephalopathy and retinopathy virus (VERv), or Betanodavirus, which causes massive mortalities. Effective vaccines to fight the pathology are not yet available and in this work we describe a promising intraperitoneal immunization route ...

Interactions between natural killer cells and dendritic cells favour T helper1-type responses to BCG in calves

Vaccination of neonatal calves with BCG induces a significant level of protection from infection with Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis. Since neonatal vaccination of humans with BCG induces activation of NK cells, and young calves have high circulating numbers of these cells, we hypothesised that NK cells are important in the protective response to ...

Maternally-derived antibodies do not prevent transmission of swine influenza A virus between pigs

A transmission experiment involving 5-week-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) piglets, with (MDA + ) or without maternally-derived antibodies (MDA − ), was carried out to evaluate the impact of passive immunity on the transmission of a swine influenza A virus (swIAV). In each group (MDA + /MDA − ), 2 seeders were placed with 4 piglets in direct contact and 5 in indirect contact (3 ...

Variations in T cell transcription factor gene structure and expression associated with the two disease forms of sheep paratuberculosis

Two different forms of clinical paratuberculosis in sheep are recognised, related to the level of bacterial colonization. Paucibacillary lesions are largely composed of lymphocytes with few bacteria, and multibacillary pathology is characterized by heavily-infected macrophages. Analysis of cytokine transcripts has shown that inflammatory Th1/Th17 T cells are associated with ...

Prevention of egg contamination by Salmonella Enteritidis after oral vaccination of laying hens with Salmonella Enteritidis ΔtolC and ΔacrABacrEFmdtABC mutants

Vaccination of laying hens has been successfully used to reduce egg contamination by Salmonella Enteritidis, decreasing human salmonellosis cases worldwide. Currently used vaccines for layers are either inactivated vaccines or live attenuated strains produced by mutagenesis. Targeted gene deletion mutants hold promise for future vaccines, because specific bacterial functions can be ...

Data-driven network modelling of disease transmission using complete population movement data: spread of VTEC O157 in Swedish cattle

European Union legislation requires member states to keep national databases of all bovine animals. This allows for disease spread models that includes the time-varying contact network and population demographic. However, performing data-driven simulations with a high degree of detail are computationally challenging. We have developed an efficient and flexible discrete-event ...

Baicalin suppresses NLRP3 inflammasome and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling during Haemophilus parasuis infection

Haemophilus parasuis (H. parasuis) is the causative agent of Glässer’s disease, a severe membrane inflammation disorder. Previously we showed that Baicalin (BA) possesses anti-inflammatory effects via the NLRP3 inflammatory pathway in an LPS-challenged piglet model. However, whether BA has anti-inflammatory effects upon H. parasuis infection is still unclear. This study ...

Relationships of CD163 and CD169 positive cell numbers in the endometrium and fetal placenta with type 2 PRRSV RNA concentration in fetal thymus

Several routes of porcine reproductive and respiratory virus PRRSV transmission across the porcine diffuse epitheliochorial placentation have been proposed, but none have been proven. The objectives of this study were to investigate associations between numbers of CD163 and CD169 positive macrophages, cathepsin positive areolae, and type 2 PRRSV load at the maternal–fetal interface ...

Vaccination against pancreas disease in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., reduces shedding of salmonid alphavirus

Salmon pancreas disease virus, often referred to as salmonid alphavirus (SAV), causes pancreas disease (PD) in European salmonids. SAV transmits horizontally from fish shedding virus into the water and ocean currents are believed to be a main contributor of viral spread between marine farms. Vaccination against PD is previously shown to reduce mortality and severity of clinical PD. ...

Passive immunization does not provide protection against experimental infection with Mycoplasma haemofelis

Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf) is the most pathogenic feline hemotropic mycoplasma. Cats infected with Mhf that clear bacteremia are protected from Mhf reinfection, but the mechanisms of protective immunity are unresolved. In the present study we investigated whether the passive transfer of antibodies from Mhf-recovered cats to naïve recipient cats provided protection against ...

Chicken interferome: avian interferon-stimulated genes identified by microarray and RNA-seq of primary chick embryo fibroblasts treated with a chicken type I interferon (IFN-α)

Viruses that infect birds pose major threats—to the global supply of chicken, the major, universally-acceptable meat, and as zoonotic agents (e.g. avian influenza viruses H5N1 and H7N9). Controlling these viruses in birds as well as understanding their emergence into, and transmission amongst, humans will require considerable ingenuity and understanding of how different species ...

Vaccination sequence effects on immunological response and tissue bacterial burden in paratuberculosis infection in a rabbit model

Paratuberculosis (PTB), a chronic granulomatous enteritis produced by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), is considered as one of the diseases with the highest economic impact in the ruminant industry. Vaccination against MAP is recommended during the first months after birth on the basis that protection would be conferred before the first contact with ...

Experimental bluetongue virus superinfection in calves previously immunized with bluetongue virus serotype 8

The effect of a superinfection with bluetongue virus serotype 1 (BTV1) was evaluated on two groups of four calves. One group received a commercial inactivated BTV serotype 8 (BTV8) vaccine. This group and the non-vaccinated group of calves were challenged twice (4 months apart) with the European BTV8 strain isolated during the 2006–2007 epidemics. Calves were then infected with a ...