Veterinary Research

http://www.veterinaryresearch.org/

List of Papers (Total 751)

Current situation of H9N2 subtype avian influenza in China

In China, H9N2 subtype avian influenza outbreak is firstly reported in Guangdong province in 1992. Subsequently, the disease spreads into vast majority regions nationwide and has currently become endemic there. Over vicennial genetic evolution, the viral pathogenicity and transmissibility have showed an increasing trend as year goes by, posing serious threat to poultry industry. In ...

RNA-seq comparative analysis of Peking ducks spleen gene expression 24 h post-infected with duck plague virulent or attenuated virus

Duck plague virus (DPV), a member of alphaherpesvirus sub-family, can cause significant economic losses on duck farms in China. DPV Chinese virulent strain (CHv) is highly pathogenic and could induce massive ducks death. Attenuated DPV vaccines (CHa) have been put into service against duck plague with billions of doses in China each year. Researches on DPV have been development for ...

Use of the mice passive protection test to evaluate the humoral response in goats vaccinated with Sterne 34F2 live spore vaccine

The Sterne live spore vaccine (34F2) is the most widely used veterinary vaccine against anthrax in animals. Antibody responses to several antigens of Bacillus anthracis have been described with a large focus on those against protective antigen (PA). The focus of this study was to evaluate the protective humoral immune response induced by the live spore anthrax vaccine in goats. ...

The role of phospholipase C signaling in bovine herpesvirus 1 infection

Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) infection enhanced the generation of inflammatory mediator reactive oxidative species (ROS) and stimulated MAPK signaling that are highly possibly related to virus induced inflammation. In this study, for the first time we show that BoHV-1 infection manipulated phospholipase C (PLC) signaling, as demonstrated by the activation of PLCγ-1 at both early ...

Identification of two mutation sites in spike and envelope proteins mediating optimal cellular infection of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus from different pathways

Entry of the α-coronavirus porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) requires specific proteases to activate spike (S) protein for the membrane fusion of the virion to the host cell following receptor binding. Herein, PEDV isolate 85-7 could proliferate and induce cell–cell fusion in a trypsin independent manner on Vero cells, and eight homologous mutation strains were screened by ...

Bovine cryptosporidiosis: impact, host-parasite interaction and control strategies

Gastrointestinal disease caused by the apicomplexan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum is one of the most important diseases of young ruminant livestock, particularly neonatal calves. Infected animals may suffer from profuse watery diarrhoea, dehydration and in severe cases death can occur. At present, effective therapeutic and preventative measures are not available and a better ...

Congenital infection with atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) is associated with disease and viral persistence

In 2013, several Austrian piglet-producing farms recorded outbreaks of action-related repetitive myoclonia in newborn piglets (“shaking piglets”). Malnutrition was seen in numerous piglets as a complication of this tremor syndrome. Overall piglet mortality was increased and the number of weaned piglets per sow decreased by more than 10% due to this outbreak. Histological ...

Evaluation of natural porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) subclinical infection and seroconversion dynamics in piglets vaccinated at different ages

This study aimed to determine the porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) serological and virological dynamics in piglets vaccinated at different ages in a PCV2 subclinical infection (PCV2-SI) scenario. Six hundred and forty-four 2 week-old healthy piglets were selected and distributed into four treatment groups: vaccination at 3, 6 or 10 weeks of age (3W-VAC, 6W-VAC and 10W-VAC groups, ...

p53 signaling modulation of cell cycle arrest and viral replication in porcine circovirus type 2 infection cells

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a ubiquitous pathogen in the swine industry worldwide. Previous studies have shown that PCV2 infection induces host cell apoptosis through up-regulation of p53. To further identify the regulatory roles of p53 signaling in the process of PCV2 infection, we established p53 gene knockout PK15 cell lines using the genomic editor tool CRISPR/Cas9, and ...

Marek’s disease in chickens: a review with focus on immunology

Marek’s disease (MD), caused by Marek’s disease virus (MDV), is a commercially important neoplastic disease of poultry which is only controlled by mass vaccination. Importantly, vaccines that can provide sterile immunity and inhibit virus transmission are lacking; such that vaccines are only capable of preventing neuropathy, oncogenic disease and immunosuppression, but are unable ...

Heterogeneous antigenic properties of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nucleocapsid

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an arterivirus responsible for a widespread contagious disease of domestic pigs with high economic impact. Switzerland is one of the rare PRRSV-free countries in Europe, although sporadic outbreaks have occurred in the past. The PRRSV isolate IVI-1173 from the short outbreak in Switzerland in 2012 was entirely ...

Increased frequency of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus shedding and lesions in suckling pigs compared to nursery pigs and protective immunity in nursery pigs after homologous re-challenge

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes enteric disease in pigs and spreads rapidly after entering naïve pig populations. The objectives were to (1) compare the disease course following inoculation with PEDV isolate US/Colorado/2013 in naïve 10 day and 8 week-old pigs, and (2) contrast the naïve response to homologous challenge in 8 week-old pigs. Pigs were randomly assigned ...

Age is not a determinant factor in susceptibility of broilers to H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus

In 2014–2015, the US experienced an unprecedented outbreak of H5 clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus. The H5N2 HPAI virus outbreak in the Midwest in 2015 affected commercial turkey and layer farms, but not broiler farms. To assess any potential genetic resistance of broilers and/or age-related effects, we investigated the pathogenesis and transmission of ...

Attenuation of the virulence of a recombinant influenza virus expressing the naturally truncated NS gene from an H3N8 equine influenza virus in mice

Equine influenza virus (EIV) causes a highly contagious disease in horses and other equids. Recently, we isolated an H3N8 EIV (A/equine/Kyonggi/SA1/2011) from a domestic horse in South Korea that exhibited symptoms of respiratory disease, and found that the EIV strain contained a naturally mutated NS gene segment encoding a truncated NS1 protein. In order to determine whether there ...

Immunomodulation in the canine endometrium by uteropathogenic Escherichia coli

This study was designed to evaluate the role of E. coli α-hemolysin (HlyA) in the pathogenesis of canine pyometra, and on the immune response of canine endometrial epithelial and stromal cells. In Experiment 1, the clinical, hematological, biochemical and uterine histological characteristics of β-hemolytic and non-hemolytic E. coli pyometra bitches were compared. More (p < 0.05) ...

L-BSE experimentally transmitted to sheep presents as a unique disease phenotype

Apart from prion protein genotype, the factors determining the host range and susceptiblity for specific transmissible spongiform encephalopathy agents remain unclear. It is known that bovine atypical L-BSE can transmit to a range of species including primates and humanised transgenic mice. It is important, therefore, that there is as broad an understanding as possible of how such ...

Combination of probiotics and coccidiosis vaccine enhances protection against an Eimeria challenge

Coccidiosis is endemic in the commercial broiler industry capable of inflicting devastating economic losses to poultry operations. Vaccines are relatively effective in controlling the disease; their efficacy could potentially be improved with concurrent use of probiotics as evaluated in this study using an Eimeria challenge. Day of hatch 400 Cobb-500 male broilers were assigned to ...

Oestrous cycle-dependent equine uterine immune response to induced infectious endometritis

Infectious endometritis is a major cause of reduced pregnancy rates in horses. The objectives of this study were to establish a timeline of the innate immune response in the uterus of healthy horses and to investigate the oestrous cycle effect on this. Endometrial biopsies were collected from five horses before and at 3, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after inoculation of Escherichia coli, ...

Involvement of the different lung compartments in the pathogenesis of pH1N1 influenza virus infection in ferrets

Severe cases after pH1N1 infection are consequence of interstitial pneumonia triggered by alveolar viral replication and an exacerbated host immune response, characterized by the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the influx of inflammatory leukocytes to the lungs. Different lung cell populations have been suggested as culprits in the unregulated innate immune ...

Transmission tree of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) epidemic in Israel, 2015

The transmission tree of the Israeli 2015 epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) was modelled by combining the spatio-temporal distribution of the outbreaks and the genetic distance between virus isolates. The most likely successions of transmission events were determined and transmission parameters were estimated. It was found that the median infectious pressure ...

Review on the transmission porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus between pigs and farms and impact on vaccination

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is considered to be one of the most costly diseases affecting intensive pig production worldwide. Control of PRRS is a complex issue and involves a combination of measures including monitoring, diagnosis, biosecurity, herd management, and immunization. In spite of the numerous studies dealing with PRRS virus epidemiology, ...

The 60S ribosomal protein L13 is the most preferable reference gene to investigate gene expression in selected organs from turkeys and chickens, in context of different infection models

Evaluation of reference genes for expression studies in chickens and turkeys is very much limited and unavailable for various infectious models. In this study, eight candidate reference genes HMBS, HPRT1, TBP, VIM, TFRC, RPLP0, RPL13 and RPS7 were evaluated by five different algorithms (GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper©, delta CT, RefFinder) to assess their stability. In order to ...

Genetic loci of Mycoplasma agalactiae involved in systemic spreading during experimental intramammary infection of sheep

Mycoplasmas are amongst the most successful pathogens of both humans and animals yet the molecular basis of mycoplasma pathogenesis is poorly understood. This is partly due to the lack of classical virulence factors and little similarity to common bacterial pathogenic determinants. Using Mycoplasma agalactiae as a model we initiated research in this direction by screening a ...

Distinct functional enrichment of transcriptional signatures in pigs with high and low IFN-gamma responses after vaccination with a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)

Little is known about the host factor in the response to PRRSV vaccination. For this purpose, piglets were immunized with a commercial PRRSV-live vaccine and classified as high responders (HR) or low responders (LR) as regards to the frequencies of virus-specific IFN-γ-secreting cells. Six weeks post vaccination, PBMCs isolated from three individuals with the most extreme responses ...

Distinct immune responses and virus shedding in pigs following aerosol, intra-nasal and contact infection with pandemic swine influenza A virus, A(H1N1)09

Influenza virus infection in pigs is a major farming problem, causing considerable economic loss and posing a zoonotic threat. In addition the pig is an excellent model for understanding immunity to influenza viruses as this is a natural host pathogen system. Experimentally, influenza virus is delivered to pigs intra-nasally, by intra-tracheal instillation or by aerosol, but there ...