Veterinary Research

http://www.veterinaryresearch.org/

List of Papers (Total 762)

Host range, host specificity and hypothesized host shift events among viruses of lower vertebrates

The successful replication of a viral agent in a host is a complex process that often leads to a species specificity of the virus and can make interspecies transmission difficult. Despite this difficulty, natural host switch seems to have been frequent among viruses of lower vertebrates, especially fish viruses, since there are several viruses known to be able to infect a wide...

Infection with the gastrointestinal nematode Ostertagia ostertagi in cattle affects mucus biosynthesis in the abomasum

The mucus layer in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is considered to be the first line of defense to the external environment. Alteration in mucus components has been reported to occur during intestinal nematode infection in ruminants, but the role of mucus in response to abomasal parasites remains largely unclear. The aim of the current study was to analyze the effects of an...

Association of Trypanosoma vivax in extracellular sites with central nervous system lesions and changes in cerebrospinal fluid in experimentally infected goats

Changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and anatomical and histopathological central nervous system (CNS) lesions were evaluated, and the presence of Trypanosoma vivax in CNS tissues was investigated through PCR. Twelve adult male goats were divided into three groups (G): G1, infected with T. vivax and evaluated during the acute phase; G2, infected goats evaluated during the chronic...

The invasion process of bovine erythrocyte by Babesia divergens: knowledge from an in vitro assay

Babesia divergens is a tick-transmitted apicomplexan parasite for which asexual multiplication in its vertebrate hosts is restricted to erythrocytes. Current knowledge of invasion of these target cells is limited. An efficient in vitro invasion assay was set up to gain access to this information. Parasites prepared from infected RBC, lysed by electroporation, and mixed with...

Chronic "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" infection

"Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" infects felids. The pathogenesis of "Candidatus M. turicensis" chronic infection is poorly understood. The goals of the present study were to (1) induce reactivation of the infection in chronic carrier cats by attempted immunosuppression, (2) identify potential tissue sequestration using real-time TaqMan® PCR and (3) monitor the humoral immune...

Estimating front-wave velocity of infectious diseases: a simple, efficient method applied to bluetongue

Understanding the spatial dynamics of an infectious disease is critical when attempting to predict where and how fast the disease will spread. We illustrate an approach using a trend-surface analysis (TSA) model combined with a spatial error simultaneous autoregressive model (SARerr model) to estimate the speed of diffusion of bluetongue (BT), an infectious disease of ruminants...

Biphasic activation of PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk1/2 signaling pathways in bovine herpesvirus type 1 infection of MDBK cells

Many viruses have been known to control key cellular signaling pathways to facilitate the virus infection. The possible involvement of signaling pathways in bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) infection is unknown. This study indicated that infection of MDBK cells with BoHV-1 induced an early-stage transient and a late-stage sustained activation of both phosphatidylinositol 3...

A trypsin-like serine protease is involved in pseudorabies virus invasion through the basement membrane barrier of porcine nasal respiratory mucosa

Several alphaherpesviruses breach the basement membrane during mucosal invasion. In the present study, the role of proteases in this process was examined. The serine protease-specific inhibitor AEBSF inhibited penetration of the basement membrane by the porcine alphaherpesvirus pseudorabies virus (PRV) by 88.1% without affecting lateral spread. Inhibitors of aspartic-, cysteine...

The contribution of molecular epidemiology to the understanding and control of viral diseases of salmonid aquaculture

Molecular epidemiology is a science which utilizes molecular biology to define the distribution of disease in a population (descriptive epidemiology) and relies heavily on integration of traditional (or analytical) epidemiological approaches to identify the etiological determinants of this distribution. The study of viral pathogens of aquaculture has provided many exciting...

Disease properties, geography, and mitigation strategies in a simulation spread of rinderpest across the United States

For the past decade, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has been working toward eradicating rinderpest through vaccination and intense surveillance by 2012. Because of the potential severity of a rinderpest epidemic, it is prudent to prepare for an unexpected outbreak in animal populations. There is no immunity to the disease among the livestock or...

Quantitative analysis of transmission parameters for bluetongue virus serotype 8 in Western Europe in 2006

The recent bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) epidemic in Western Europe struck hard. Controlling the infection was difficult and a good and safe vaccine was not available until the spring of 2008. Little was known regarding BTV transmission in Western Europe or the efficacy of control measures. Quantitative details on transmission are essential to assess the potential and...

Modification of PCV-2 virulence by substitution of the genogroup motif of the capsid protein

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) is the causal agent of the post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). PCV-2 are small single-stranded circular DNA viruses clustered into two main genogroups: PCV-2a and PCV-2b. Each genogroup present a specific highly-conserved motif of six amino acids (between amino acids 86 and 91) in the PCV-2 capsid protein. The aim of this study...

Innate immune response in experimentally induced bovine intramammary infection with Staphylococcus simulans and S. epidermidis

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are in several countries the most common bacteria isolated in subclinical mastitis. To investigate the innate immune response of cows to infections with two common mastitis-causing CNS species, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus simulans, experimental intramammary infection was induced in eight cows using a crossover design. The...

Genome sequence of Helicobacter suis supports its role in gastric pathology

Helicobacter (H.) suis has been associated with chronic gastritis and ulcers of the pars oesophagea in pigs, and with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in humans. In order to obtain better insight into the genes involved in pathogenicity and in the specific adaptation to the gastric environment of H. suis, a genome analysis was...

The vitamin D receptor and inducible nitric oxide synthase associated pathways in acquired resistance to Cooperia oncophora infection in cattle

Cooperia oncophora is an economically important gastrointestinal nematode in ruminants. Acquired resistance to Cooperia oncophora infection in cattle develops rapidly as a result of prior infections. Naïve cattle, when given a primary infection of high-dose infective L3 larvae, develop a strong immunity to subsequent reinfection. Compared to primary infection, reinfection...

Genogroup I picobirnavirus in diarrhoeic foals: Can the horse serve as a natural reservoir for human infection?

Picobirnaviruses (PBV) are small, non-enveloped viruses with a bisegmented double-stranded RNA genome. In this study a PBV strain, PBV/Horse/India/BG-Eq-3/2010, was identified in the faeces of a 10 month old weaned female foal with diarrhoea in January 2010 from Kolkata, India. Surprisingly, sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis of a short stretch of the RNA dependent RNA...

Optimal combinations of acute phase proteins for detecting infectious disease in pigs

The acute phase protein (APP) response is an early systemic sign of disease, detected as substantial changes in APP serum concentrations and most disease states involving inflammatory reactions give rise to APP responses. To obtain a detailed picture of the general utility of porcine APPs to detect any disease with an inflammatory component seven porcine APPs were analysed in...

Francisella infections in farmed and wild aquatic organisms

Over the last 10 years or so, infections caused by bacteria belonging to a particular branch of the genus Francisella have become increasingly recognised in farmed fish and molluscs worldwide. While the increasing incidence of diagnoses may in part be due to the development and widespread availability of molecular detection techniques, the domestication of new organisms has...

A differential interplay between the expression of Th1/Th2/Treg related cytokine genes in Teladorsagia circumcincta infected DRB1*1101 carrier lambs

Substantial debate exists on whether the immune response between sheep resistant and susceptible to gastrointestinal nematodes can be differentiated into a Th1 and Th2 phenotype. The present study addresses the hypothesis that variation in resistance to Teladorsagia circumcincta between DRB1*1101 (associated with reduced faecal egg count and worm burden) carriers and non-carriers...

The dynamic influence of the DRB1*1101 allele on the resistance of sheep to experimental Teladorsagia circumcincta infection

Suffolk sheep carrying the DRB1*1101 (previously referred to as-DRB1*0203 or G2) allele have been reported to show increased resistance to natural Teladorsagia circumcincta infection compared to non-carriers. The objective of this study was to compare the biochemical and physiological responses of DRB1*1101 carrier and non-carrier twin lambs to an experimental infection with 3...

Estimation of transmission parameters of a fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli strain between pigs in experimental conditions

Antimicrobial resistance is of primary importance regarding public and animal health issues. Persistence and spread of resistant strains within a population contribute to the maintenance of a reservoir and lead to treatment failure. An experimental trial was carried out to study the horizontal transmission of a fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli strain from inoculated to...

Localization of Helicobacter spp. in the fundic mucosa of laboratory Beagle dogs: an ultrastructural study

In dogs Helicobacter spp. are found in all gastric regions usually localized in the surface mucus, gastric glands and parietal cells. The aim of this study was to detail the distribution of Helicobacter spp. in the fundic mucosa of asymptomatic Beagle dogs and their intracellular localization within parietal cells, in order to evaluate species-specific pathogenetic effects on...

Genetic complexity and multiple infections with more Parvovirus species in naturally infected cats

Parvoviruses of carnivores include three closely related autonomous parvoviruses: canine parvovirus (CPV), feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) and mink enteritis virus (MEV). These viruses cause a variety of serious diseases, especially in young patients, since they have a remarkable predilection for replication in rapidly dividing cells. FPV is not the only parvovirus species which...

Experimental infection of hamsters with avian paramyxovirus serotypes 1 to 9

Avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs) are frequently isolated from domestic and wild birds throughout the world and are separated into nine serotypes (APMV-1 to -9). Only in the case of APMV-1, the infection of non-avian species has been investigated. The APMVs presently are being considered as human vaccine vectors. In this study, we evaluated the replication and pathogenicity of all...

Mechanisms of resistance and susceptibility to experimental visceral leishmaniosis: BALB/c mouse versus syrian hamster model

Several animal models have been established to study visceral leishmaniosis (VL), a worldwide vector-borne disease affecting humans and domestic animals that constitutes a serious public health problem. BALB/c mice and Syrian hamsters are the most widely used experimental models. In this paper, we summarize the advantages and disadvantages of these two experimental models and...