Veterinary Research

http://www.veterinaryresearch.org/

List of Papers (Total 726)

Avian Tembusu virus infection effectively triggers host innate immune response through MDA5 and TLR3-dependent signaling pathways

Avian Tembusu virus (ATMUV) is a newly emerged flavivirus that belongs to the Ntaya virus group. ATMUV is a highly pathogenic virus causing significant economic loss to the Chinese poultry industry. However, little is known about the role of host innate immune mechanism in defending against ATMUV infection. In this study, we found that ATMUV infection significantly up-regulated the ...

Distinct immune responses of juvenile and adult oysters (Crassostrea gigas) to viral and bacterial infections

Since 2008, massive mortality events of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) have been reported worldwide and these disease events are often associated with Ostreid herpesvirus type 1 (OsHV-1). Epidemiological field studies have also reported oyster age and other pathogens of the Vibrio genus are contributing factors to this syndrome. We undertook a controlled laboratory experiment ...

Influence of orally fed a select mixture of Bacillus probiotics on intestinal T-cell migration in weaned MUC4 resistant pigs following Escherichia coli challenge

Efficient strategies for treating enteritis caused by F4 + enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)/verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC)/enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) in mucin 4 resistant (MUC4 RR; supposed to be F4ab/ac receptor–negative [F4ab/acR − ]) pigs remain elusive. A low (3.9 × 10 8 CFU/day) or high (7.8 × 10 8 CFU/day) dose of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus ...

Productive replication of nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis virus in peripheral blood monocytic cells, a strategy for viral dissemination and kidney infection in chickens

In the present study, the replication kinetics of nephropathogenic (B1648) and respiratory (Massachusetts-M41) IBV strains were compared in vitro in respiratory mucosa explants and blood monocytes (KUL01 + cells), and in vivo in chickens to understand why some IBV strains have a kidney tropism. B1648 was replicating somewhat better than M41 in the epithelium of the respiratory ...

The outcome of experimentally induced inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) by fowl aviadenoviruses (FAdVs) is crucially influenced by the genetic background of the host

In the present study, inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) was experimentally induced by oral inoculation of two groups of specific pathogen-free (SPF) broilers and two groups of SPF layers at day-old with either a fowl aviadenovirus (FAdV)-D or a FAdV-E strain. A substantial variation in the degree of susceptibility was observed with mortalities of 100 and 96% in the FAdV-E and D ...

“Self-cleaving” 2A peptide from porcine teschovirus-1 mediates cleavage of dual fluorescent proteins in transgenic Eimeria tenella

The “self-cleaving” 2A sequence of picornavirus, which mediates ribosome-skipping events, enables the generation of two or more separate peptide products from one mRNA containing one or more “self-cleaving” 2A sequences. In this study, we introduced a single 2A sequence of porcine teschovirus-1 (P2A) linked to two fluorescent protein genes, the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein ...

Pathogenicity of reassortant H9 influenza viruses with different NA genes in mice and chickens

To better understand the influence of different NA genes on pathogenicity of H9 viruses, three reassortant H9 viruses (rH9N1, H9N2 and rH9N3) were generated and characterized. All three viruses replicated efficiently in eggs and MDCK cells, whereas the rH9N1 and rH9N3 replicated more efficiently than H9N2 in A549 cells. The rH9N3 replicated more efficiently than rH9N1 and H9N2 ...

The novel chicken interleukin 26 protein is overexpressed in T cells and induces proinflammatory cytokines

In the present study, we describe the cloning and functional characterization of chicken interleukin 26 (ChIL-26). ChIL-26, a member of the IL-10 cytokine family, induces the production of proinflammatory cytokines by T cells. The ChIL-26 cDNA encodes an 82-amino-acid protein whose amino acid sequence has 22.63, 46.31 and 43.15% homology with human IL-26, pig IL-26 and canary ...

Enhanced protective immunity of the chimeric vector-based vaccine rAdV-SFV-E2 against classical swine fever in pigs by a Salmonella bacterial ghost adjuvant

Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious swine disease caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Previously, we demonstrated that rAdV-SFV-E2, an adenovirus-delivered, Semliki Forest virus replicon-vectored marker vaccine against CSF, is able to protect pigs against lethal CSFV challenge. From an economical point of view, it will be beneficial to reduce the minimum ...

Epidemiological characteristics of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV): a review

Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV, Rhabdoviridae), is the causative agent of infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN), a disease notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health, and various countries and trading areas (including the European Union). IHNV is an economically important pathogen causing clinical disease and mortalities in a wide variety of salmonid ...

Experimental infection of cows with newly isolated Akabane virus strain (AKAV-7) causing encephalomyelitis

Akabane virus (AKAV), an arthropod-transmitted bunyavirus, is a major cause of congenital abnormalities and encephalomyelitis in ruminants. In 2010, there was a major outbreak of encephalomyelitis in Korea and fifteen AKAV strains, including AKAV-7, were isolated from cows. To identify the neuropathogenicity of AKAV-7, we performed experimental infection of cows. Six-month-old ...

Kinetics of the West Nile virus induced transcripts of selected cytokines and Toll-like receptors in equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells

West Nile virus (WNV) is one of the most common causes of epidemic viral encephalitis in horses worldwide. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are amongst the first to encounter the virus following a mosquito bite. This study aimed to elucidate the transcription kinetics of cytokine, Toll-like receptor (TLRs) and TLRs-associated genes following WNV challenge of equine PBMCs. ...

A live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis secreting detoxified heat labile toxin enhances mucosal immunity and confers protection against wild-type challenge in chickens

A live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) capable of constitutively secreting detoxified double mutant Escherichia coli heat labile toxin (dmLT) was developed. The biologically adjuvanted strain was generated via transformation of a highly immunogenic SE JOL1087 with a plasmid encoding dmLT gene cassette; the resultant strain was designated JOL1641. A balanced-lethal ...

Serum-derived exosomes from non-viremic animals previously exposed to the porcine respiratory and reproductive virus contain antigenic viral proteins

PRRSV is the etiological agent of one of the most important swine diseases with a significant economic burden worldwide and limitations in vaccinology. Exosomes are 30–100 nm vesicles of endocytic origin. Remarkably, immunizations with exosomes containing antigens from tumors or pathogens are capable of eliciting protective immune responses, albeit variably, in cancer and ...

In vivo therapeutic efficacy and pharmacokinetics of colistin sulfate in an experimental model of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection in weaned pigs

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC: F4) associated with post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) in pigs has developed resistance against several antimicrobial families, leading to increased use of colistin sulfate (CS) for the treatment of this disease. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of oral CS treatment in experimental PWD due to ETEC: F4 challenge and determine ...

Piscine orthoreovirus can infect and shed through the intestine in experimentally challenged Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) is a ubiquitous virus in Norwegian salmon farms associated with the disease heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI). Experimental challenge has shown that the virus replicates in circulating red blood cells of Atlantic salmon prior to infecting heart myocytes. The infection route from water to blood is however still unknown. The related mammalian ...

Local host response following an intramammary challenge with Staphylococcus fleurettii and different strains of Staphylococcus chromogenes in dairy heifers

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are a common cause of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle. The CNS inhabit various ecological habitats, ranging between the environment and the host. In order to obtain a better insight into the host response, an experimental infection was carried out in eight healthy heifers in mid-lactation with three different CNS strains: a Staphylococcus ...

Enhanced replication of avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus in eggs, cell cultures and mice by a two-amino acid insertion in neuraminidase stalk

Canine influenza virus (CIV) is a newly identified, highly contagious respiratory pathogen in dogs. Recent studies indicate that avian-origin H3N2 CIV are circulating in Chinese dogs. To investigate the effects of a two-amino acid (2-aa) insertion naturally occurring at the distal end of the neuraminidase (NA) stalk found in Chinese isolates since 2010 on virus replication and ...

Induction of mycoplasmal pneumonia in experimentally infected pigs by means of different inoculation routes

The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of three different inoculation routes into mycoplasmal pneumonia (MP) in pigs challenged with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae). Thirty six-week-old M. hyopneumoniae seronegative piglets were randomly assigned to four groups: three challenged groups with experimentally inoculated pigs by either the endotracheal (ET; ...

Both tumour cells and infiltrating T-cells in equine sarcoids express FOXP3 associated with an immune-supressed cytokine microenvironment

Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) infections of equine species have a central role in the aetiology of equine sarcoids; a common benign skin tumour of horses, zebras and donkeys. Within the lesions, all of the early papillomavirus genes are expressed and promote the excessive replication of fibroblasts which characterise these tumours. Equine sarcoids differ from BPV induced ...

The C-terminal domain of Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin as a vaccine candidate against bovine necrohemorrhagic enteritis

Bovine necrohemorrhagic enteritis is caused by Clostridium perfringens and leads to sudden death. Alpha toxin, together with perfringolysin O, has been identified as the principal toxin involved in the pathogenesis. We assessed the potential of alpha toxin as a vaccine antigen. Using an intestinal loop model in calves, we investigated the protection afforded by antisera raised ...

Sublethal effects of acaricides and Nosema ceranae infection on immune related gene expression in honeybees

Nosema ceranae is an obligate intracellular parasite and the etiologic agent of Nosemosis that affects honeybees. Beside the stress caused by this pathogen, honeybee colonies are exposed to pesticides under beekeeper intervention, such as acaricides to control Varroa mites. These compounds can accumulate at high concentrations in apicultural matrices. In this work, the effects of ...

Identification and characterization of a Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus immunogenic GroEL protein involved in biofilm formation

Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (S. equi spp. zooepidemicus) is an opportunistic pathogen that causes major economic losses in the swine industry in China and is also a threat for human health. Biofilm formation by this bacterium has been previously reported. In this study, we used an immunoproteomic approach to search for immunogenic proteins expressed by biofilm-grown S. ...

The microbiome associated with equine periodontitis and oral health

Equine periodontal disease is a common and painful condition and its severe form, periodontitis, can lead to tooth loss. Its aetiopathogenesis remains poorly understood despite recent increased awareness of this disorder amongst the veterinary profession. Bacteria have been found to be causative agents of the disease in other species, but current understanding of their role in ...

Spread of Coxiella burnetii between dairy cattle herds in an enzootic region: modelling contributions of airborne transmission and trade

Q fever, a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a looming concern for livestock and public health. Epidemiological features of inter-herd transmission of C. burnetii in cattle herds by wind and trade of cows are poorly understood. We present a novel dynamic spatial model describing the inter-herd regional spread of C. burnetii in dairy cattle herds, ...