Veterinary Research

http://www.veterinaryresearch.org/

List of Papers (Total 762)

Maternally-derived antibodies do not prevent transmission of swine influenza A virus between pigs

A transmission experiment involving 5-week-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) piglets, with (MDA + ) or without maternally-derived antibodies (MDA − ), was carried out to evaluate the impact of passive immunity on the transmission of a swine influenza A virus (swIAV). In each group (MDA + /MDA − ), 2 seeders were placed with 4 piglets in direct contact and 5 in indirect contact (3...

Variations in T cell transcription factor gene structure and expression associated with the two disease forms of sheep paratuberculosis

Two different forms of clinical paratuberculosis in sheep are recognised, related to the level of bacterial colonization. Paucibacillary lesions are largely composed of lymphocytes with few bacteria, and multibacillary pathology is characterized by heavily-infected macrophages. Analysis of cytokine transcripts has shown that inflammatory Th1/Th17 T cells are associated with...

Prevention of egg contamination by Salmonella Enteritidis after oral vaccination of laying hens with Salmonella Enteritidis ΔtolC and ΔacrABacrEFmdtABC mutants

Vaccination of laying hens has been successfully used to reduce egg contamination by Salmonella Enteritidis, decreasing human salmonellosis cases worldwide. Currently used vaccines for layers are either inactivated vaccines or live attenuated strains produced by mutagenesis. Targeted gene deletion mutants hold promise for future vaccines, because specific bacterial functions can...

Data-driven network modelling of disease transmission using complete population movement data: spread of VTEC O157 in Swedish cattle

European Union legislation requires member states to keep national databases of all bovine animals. This allows for disease spread models that includes the time-varying contact network and population demographic. However, performing data-driven simulations with a high degree of detail are computationally challenging. We have developed an efficient and flexible discrete-event...

Baicalin suppresses NLRP3 inflammasome and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling during Haemophilus parasuis infection

Haemophilus parasuis (H. parasuis) is the causative agent of Glässer’s disease, a severe membrane inflammation disorder. Previously we showed that Baicalin (BA) possesses anti-inflammatory effects via the NLRP3 inflammatory pathway in an LPS-challenged piglet model. However, whether BA has anti-inflammatory effects upon H. parasuis infection is still unclear. This study...

Relationships of CD163 and CD169 positive cell numbers in the endometrium and fetal placenta with type 2 PRRSV RNA concentration in fetal thymus

Several routes of porcine reproductive and respiratory virus PRRSV transmission across the porcine diffuse epitheliochorial placentation have been proposed, but none have been proven. The objectives of this study were to investigate associations between numbers of CD163 and CD169 positive macrophages, cathepsin positive areolae, and type 2 PRRSV load at the maternal–fetal...

Vaccination against pancreas disease in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., reduces shedding of salmonid alphavirus

Salmon pancreas disease virus, often referred to as salmonid alphavirus (SAV), causes pancreas disease (PD) in European salmonids. SAV transmits horizontally from fish shedding virus into the water and ocean currents are believed to be a main contributor of viral spread between marine farms. Vaccination against PD is previously shown to reduce mortality and severity of clinical...

Passive immunization does not provide protection against experimental infection with Mycoplasma haemofelis

Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf) is the most pathogenic feline hemotropic mycoplasma. Cats infected with Mhf that clear bacteremia are protected from Mhf reinfection, but the mechanisms of protective immunity are unresolved. In the present study we investigated whether the passive transfer of antibodies from Mhf-recovered cats to naïve recipient cats provided protection against...

Chicken interferome: avian interferon-stimulated genes identified by microarray and RNA-seq of primary chick embryo fibroblasts treated with a chicken type I interferon (IFN-α)

Viruses that infect birds pose major threats—to the global supply of chicken, the major, universally-acceptable meat, and as zoonotic agents (e.g. avian influenza viruses H5N1 and H7N9). Controlling these viruses in birds as well as understanding their emergence into, and transmission amongst, humans will require considerable ingenuity and understanding of how different species...

Vaccination sequence effects on immunological response and tissue bacterial burden in paratuberculosis infection in a rabbit model

Paratuberculosis (PTB), a chronic granulomatous enteritis produced by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), is considered as one of the diseases with the highest economic impact in the ruminant industry. Vaccination against MAP is recommended during the first months after birth on the basis that protection would be conferred before the first contact with...

Experimental bluetongue virus superinfection in calves previously immunized with bluetongue virus serotype 8

The effect of a superinfection with bluetongue virus serotype 1 (BTV1) was evaluated on two groups of four calves. One group received a commercial inactivated BTV serotype 8 (BTV8) vaccine. This group and the non-vaccinated group of calves were challenged twice (4 months apart) with the European BTV8 strain isolated during the 2006–2007 epidemics. Calves were then infected with a...

Avian Tembusu virus infection effectively triggers host innate immune response through MDA5 and TLR3-dependent signaling pathways

Avian Tembusu virus (ATMUV) is a newly emerged flavivirus that belongs to the Ntaya virus group. ATMUV is a highly pathogenic virus causing significant economic loss to the Chinese poultry industry. However, little is known about the role of host innate immune mechanism in defending against ATMUV infection. In this study, we found that ATMUV infection significantly up-regulated...

Distinct immune responses of juvenile and adult oysters (Crassostrea gigas) to viral and bacterial infections

Since 2008, massive mortality events of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) have been reported worldwide and these disease events are often associated with Ostreid herpesvirus type 1 (OsHV-1). Epidemiological field studies have also reported oyster age and other pathogens of the Vibrio genus are contributing factors to this syndrome. We undertook a controlled laboratory...

Influence of orally fed a select mixture of Bacillus probiotics on intestinal T-cell migration in weaned MUC4 resistant pigs following Escherichia coli challenge

Efficient strategies for treating enteritis caused by F4 + enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)/verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC)/enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) in mucin 4 resistant (MUC4 RR; supposed to be F4ab/ac receptor–negative [F4ab/acR − ]) pigs remain elusive. A low (3.9 × 10 8 CFU/day) or high (7.8 × 10 8 CFU/day) dose of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus...

Productive replication of nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis virus in peripheral blood monocytic cells, a strategy for viral dissemination and kidney infection in chickens

In the present study, the replication kinetics of nephropathogenic (B1648) and respiratory (Massachusetts-M41) IBV strains were compared in vitro in respiratory mucosa explants and blood monocytes (KUL01 + cells), and in vivo in chickens to understand why some IBV strains have a kidney tropism. B1648 was replicating somewhat better than M41 in the epithelium of the respiratory...

The outcome of experimentally induced inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) by fowl aviadenoviruses (FAdVs) is crucially influenced by the genetic background of the host

In the present study, inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) was experimentally induced by oral inoculation of two groups of specific pathogen-free (SPF) broilers and two groups of SPF layers at day-old with either a fowl aviadenovirus (FAdV)-D or a FAdV-E strain. A substantial variation in the degree of susceptibility was observed with mortalities of 100 and 96% in the FAdV-E and D...

“Self-cleaving” 2A peptide from porcine teschovirus-1 mediates cleavage of dual fluorescent proteins in transgenic Eimeria tenella

The “self-cleaving” 2A sequence of picornavirus, which mediates ribosome-skipping events, enables the generation of two or more separate peptide products from one mRNA containing one or more “self-cleaving” 2A sequences. In this study, we introduced a single 2A sequence of porcine teschovirus-1 (P2A) linked to two fluorescent protein genes, the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein...

Pathogenicity of reassortant H9 influenza viruses with different NA genes in mice and chickens

To better understand the influence of different NA genes on pathogenicity of H9 viruses, three reassortant H9 viruses (rH9N1, H9N2 and rH9N3) were generated and characterized. All three viruses replicated efficiently in eggs and MDCK cells, whereas the rH9N1 and rH9N3 replicated more efficiently than H9N2 in A549 cells. The rH9N3 replicated more efficiently than rH9N1 and H9N2...

The novel chicken interleukin 26 protein is overexpressed in T cells and induces proinflammatory cytokines

In the present study, we describe the cloning and functional characterization of chicken interleukin 26 (ChIL-26). ChIL-26, a member of the IL-10 cytokine family, induces the production of proinflammatory cytokines by T cells. The ChIL-26 cDNA encodes an 82-amino-acid protein whose amino acid sequence has 22.63, 46.31 and 43.15% homology with human IL-26, pig IL-26 and canary IL...

Enhanced protective immunity of the chimeric vector-based vaccine rAdV-SFV-E2 against classical swine fever in pigs by a Salmonella bacterial ghost adjuvant

Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious swine disease caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Previously, we demonstrated that rAdV-SFV-E2, an adenovirus-delivered, Semliki Forest virus replicon-vectored marker vaccine against CSF, is able to protect pigs against lethal CSFV challenge. From an economical point of view, it will be beneficial to reduce the minimum...

Epidemiological characteristics of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV): a review

Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV, Rhabdoviridae), is the causative agent of infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN), a disease notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health, and various countries and trading areas (including the European Union). IHNV is an economically important pathogen causing clinical disease and mortalities in a wide variety of salmonid...

Experimental infection of cows with newly isolated Akabane virus strain (AKAV-7) causing encephalomyelitis

Akabane virus (AKAV), an arthropod-transmitted bunyavirus, is a major cause of congenital abnormalities and encephalomyelitis in ruminants. In 2010, there was a major outbreak of encephalomyelitis in Korea and fifteen AKAV strains, including AKAV-7, were isolated from cows. To identify the neuropathogenicity of AKAV-7, we performed experimental infection of cows. Six-month-old...

Kinetics of the West Nile virus induced transcripts of selected cytokines and Toll-like receptors in equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells

West Nile virus (WNV) is one of the most common causes of epidemic viral encephalitis in horses worldwide. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are amongst the first to encounter the virus following a mosquito bite. This study aimed to elucidate the transcription kinetics of cytokine, Toll-like receptor (TLRs) and TLRs-associated genes following WNV challenge of equine...

A live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis secreting detoxified heat labile toxin enhances mucosal immunity and confers protection against wild-type challenge in chickens

A live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) capable of constitutively secreting detoxified double mutant Escherichia coli heat labile toxin (dmLT) was developed. The biologically adjuvanted strain was generated via transformation of a highly immunogenic SE JOL1087 with a plasmid encoding dmLT gene cassette; the resultant strain was designated JOL1641. A balanced-lethal host...

Serum-derived exosomes from non-viremic animals previously exposed to the porcine respiratory and reproductive virus contain antigenic viral proteins

PRRSV is the etiological agent of one of the most important swine diseases with a significant economic burden worldwide and limitations in vaccinology. Exosomes are 30–100 nm vesicles of endocytic origin. Remarkably, immunizations with exosomes containing antigens from tumors or pathogens are capable of eliciting protective immune responses, albeit variably, in cancer and...