Veterinary Research

http://www.veterinaryresearch.org/

List of Papers (Total 727)

Avian influenza infection dynamics under variable climatic conditions, viral prevalence is rainfall driven in waterfowl from temperate, south-east Australia

Understanding Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) infection dynamics in wildlife is crucial because of possible virus spill over to livestock and humans. Studies from the northern hemisphere have suggested several ecological and environmental drivers of AIV prevalence in wild birds. To determine if the same drivers apply in the southern hemisphere, where more irregular environmental ...

Comparison of the pathogen species-specific immune response in udder derived cell types and their models

The outcome of an udder infection (mastitis) largely depends on the species of the invading pathogen. Gram-negative pathogens, such as Escherichia coli often elicit acute clinical mastitis while Gram-positive pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus tend to cause milder subclinical inflammations. It is unclear which type of the immune competent cells residing in the udder governs ...

How to survey classical swine fever in wild boar (Sus scrofa) after the completion of oral vaccination? Chasing away the ghost of infection at different spatial scales

Oral mass vaccination (OMV) is considered as an efficient strategy for controlling classical swine fever (CSF) in wild boar. After the completion of vaccination, the presence of antibodies in 6–12 month-old hunted wild boars was expected to reflect a recent CSF circulation. Nevertheless, antibodies could also correspond to the long-lasting of maternal antibodies. This paper relates ...

Determination of the minimum fully protective dose of adenovirus-based DIVA vaccine against peste des petits ruminants virus challenge in East African goats

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes an economically important disease of sheep and goats, primarily in developing countries. It is becoming the object of intensive international control efforts. Current vaccines do not allow vaccinated and infected animals to be distinguished (no DIVA capability). We have previously shown that recombinant, replication-defective, ...

Replication characteristics of equine herpesvirus 1 and equine herpesvirus 3: comparative analysis using ex vivo tissue cultures

Replication kinetics and invasion characteristics of equine herpesvirus-1 and -3 (EHV-1/-3) in nasal and vaginal mucosae were compared using explants. The explants were cultured during 96 h with little change in viability. The tissues were inoculated with EHV-1 03P37 (neuropathogenic), 97P70 (abortigenic) and EHV-3 04P57, collected at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h post inoculation (pi) and ...

Quantification of the increase in the frequency of early calving associated with late exposure to bluetongue virus serotype 8 in dairy cows: implications for syndromic surveillance

A recent study evaluating whether reproductive data could be used for syndromic surveillance found an increased frequency of early calving (calving occurring a few days earlier than expected) in areas exposed to the Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) in northern Europe. A high proportion of herds infected during the 2006–2009 European outbreak were not reported through the ...

Characterization of two Austrian porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) field isolates reveals relationship to East Asian strains

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes major problems for the swine industry worldwide. Due to Austria’s central location in Europe, a large number of animals are transported through the country. However, little is known about current PRRSV strains and epidemiology. We determined full-length genome sequences of two Austrian field isolates (AUT13-883 and ...

Structural analysis and insertion study reveal the ideal sites for surface displaying foreign peptides on a betanodavirus-like particle

Betanodavirus infection causes fatal disease of viral nervous necrosis in many cultured marine and freshwater fish worldwide and the virus-like particles (VLP) are effective vaccines against betanodavirus. But vaccine and viral vector designs of betanodavirus VLP based on their structures remain lacking. Here, the three-dimensional structure of orange-spotted grouper nervous ...

SJNNV down-regulates RGNNV replication in European sea bass by the induction of the type I interferon system

European sea bass is highly susceptible to the betanodavirus RGNNV genotype, although the SJNNV genotype has also been detected in this fish species. The coexistence of both genotypes may affect the replication of both viruses by viral interaction or by stimulation of the host antiviral defense system in which the IFN I system plays a key role. IFN I triggers the transcription of ...

Immunity raised by recent European subtype 1 PRRSV strains allows better replication of East European subtype 3 PRRSV strain Lena than that raised by an older strain

Stable spatial distribution of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRSV)-1 subtypes in Europe is accompanied by a strong population immunity induced by local PRRSV strains. In the present study, it was examined if the immunity induced by three West European subtype 1 PRRSV strains (2007 isolate 07V063 and 2013 isolates 13V091 and 13V117) offers protection against the ...

The non-structural protein μNS of piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) forms viral factory-like structures

Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) is associated with heart- and skeletal muscle inflammation in farmed Atlantic salmon. The virus is ubiquitous and found in both farmed and wild salmonid fish. It belongs to the family Reoviridae, closely related to the genus Orthoreovirus. The PRV genome comprises ten double-stranded RNA segments encoding at least eight structural and two non-structural ...

Pathogenesis of experimental salmonid alphavirus infection in vivo: an ultrastructural insight

Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) is an enveloped, single-stranded, positive sense RNA virus belonging to the family Togaviridae. It causes economically devastating disease in cultured salmonids. The characteristic features of SAV infection include severe histopathological changes in the heart, pancreas and skeletal muscles of diseased fish. Although the presence of virus has been reported ...

Role of the IFN I system against the VHSV infection in juvenile Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis)

Senegalese sole is susceptible to marine VHSV isolates but is not affected by freshwater isolates, which may indicate differences regarding virus-host immune system interaction. IFN I induces an antiviral state in fish, stimulating the expression of genes encoding antiviral proteins (ISG). In this study, the stimulation of the Senegalese sole IFN I by VHSV infections has been ...

Virulence of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype III in rainbow trout

In general, viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) isolates from marine fish species in European waters (genotypes GIb, GII and GIII) are non- to low virulent in rainbow trout. However, a VHSV isolation was made in 2007 from a disease outbreak in sea farmed rainbow trout in Norway. The isolate, named NO-2007-50-385, was demonstrated to belong to GIII. This isolate has ...

Ultra-deep sequencing of VHSV isolates contributes to understanding the role of viral quasispecies

The high mutation rate of RNA viruses enables the generation of a genetically diverse viral population, termed a quasispecies, within a single infected host. This high in-host genetic diversity enables an RNA virus to adapt to a diverse array of selective pressures such as host immune response and switching between host species. The negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus, viral ...

Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) muscle satellite cells are targets of salmonid alphavirus infection

Sleeping disease in rainbow trout is characterized by an abnormal swimming behaviour of the fish which stay on their side at the bottom of the tanks. This sign is due to extensive necrosis and atrophy of red skeletal muscle induced by the sleeping disease virus (SDV), also called salmonid alphavirus 2. Infections of humans with arthritogenic alphaviruses, such as Chikungunya virus ...

Expression of immunogenic structural proteins of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 in vitro assessed using immunofluorescence

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), also called koi herpesvirus (KHV), is the aetiological agent of a fatal disease in carp and koi (Cyprinus carpio L.), referred to as koi herpesvirus disease. The virus contains at least 40 structural proteins, of which few have been characterised with respect to their immunogenicity. Indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFAs) using two ...

Transmission of sheep-bovine spongiform encephalopathy to pigs

Experimental transmission of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent has been successfully reported in pigs inoculated via three simultaneous distinct routes (intracerebral, intraperitoneal and intravenous). Sheep derived BSE (Sh-BSE) is transmitted more efficiently than the original cattle-BSE isolate in a transgenic mouse model expressing porcine prion protein. However, ...

Apramycin treatment affects selection and spread of a multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli strain able to colonize the human gut in the intestinal microbiota of pigs

The effect of apramycin treatment on transfer and selection of an Escherichia coli strain (E. coli 912) in the intestine of pigs was analyzed through an in vivo experiment. The strain was sequenced and assigned to the sequence type ST101 and serotype O11. It carried resistance genes to apramycin/gentamicin, sulphonamide, tetracycline, hygromycin B, β-lactams and streptomycin ...

Transcriptional analysis of porcine intestinal mucosa infected with Salmonella Typhimurium revealed a massive inflammatory response and disruption of bile acid absorption in ileum

Infected pork meat is an important source of non-typhoidal human salmonellosis. Understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in disease pathogenesis is important for the development of therapeutic and preventive strategies. Thus, hereby we study the transcriptional profiles along the porcine intestine during infection with Salmonella Typhimurium, as well as post-transcriptional ...

Streptococcus uberis strains isolated from the bovine mammary gland evade immune recognition by mammary epithelial cells, but not of macrophages

Streptococcus uberis is frequently isolated from the mammary gland of dairy cattle. Infection with some strains can induce mild subclinical inflammation whilst others induce severe inflammation and clinical mastitis. We compared here the inflammatory response of primary cultures of bovine mammary epithelial cells (pbMEC) towards S. uberis strains collected from clinical or ...

Systemic and local immune responses in sheep after Neospora caninum experimental infection at early, mid and late gestation

Besides its importance in cattle, Neospora caninum may also pose a high risk as abortifacient for small ruminants. We have recently demonstrated that the outcome of experimental infection of pregnant sheep with 10 6 Nc-Spain7 tachyzoites is strongly dependent on the time of gestation. In the current study, we assessed peripheral and local immune response in those animals. ...

Post-entry blockade of small ruminant lentiviruses by wild ruminants

Small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infection causes losses in the small ruminant industry due to reduced animal production and increased replacement rates. Infection of wild ruminants in close contact with infected domestic animals has been proposed to play a role in SRLV epidemiology, but studies are limited and mostly involve hybrids between wild and domestic animals. In this ...

Intranasal inoculation of sows with highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus at mid-gestation causes transplacental infection of fetuses

Transplacental infection plays a critical role in the reproductive failure induced by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), yet exposure of sows and gilts to classical PRRSV generally leads to reproductive failure after 85 days of gestation. We report, for the first time, that the susceptibility of fetuses to highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) is similar at ...

Roles of nucleic acid substrates and cofactors in the vhs protein activity of pseudorabies virus

Pseudorabies virus (PrV) belongs to the α-herpesvirinae of which human simplex virus (HSV) is the prototype virus. One of the hallmarks of HSV infection is shutoff of protein synthesis that is mediated by various viral proteins including vhs (virion host shutoff), which is encoded by the UL41 gene. However, the function of PrV vhs is poorly understood. Due to the low sequence ...