Veterinary Research

http://www.veterinaryresearch.org/

List of Papers (Total 762)

In vivo therapeutic efficacy and pharmacokinetics of colistin sulfate in an experimental model of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection in weaned pigs

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC: F4) associated with post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) in pigs has developed resistance against several antimicrobial families, leading to increased use of colistin sulfate (CS) for the treatment of this disease. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of oral CS treatment in experimental PWD due to ETEC: F4 challenge and...

Piscine orthoreovirus can infect and shed through the intestine in experimentally challenged Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) is a ubiquitous virus in Norwegian salmon farms associated with the disease heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI). Experimental challenge has shown that the virus replicates in circulating red blood cells of Atlantic salmon prior to infecting heart myocytes. The infection route from water to blood is however still unknown. The related mammalian...

Local host response following an intramammary challenge with Staphylococcus fleurettii and different strains of Staphylococcus chromogenes in dairy heifers

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are a common cause of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle. The CNS inhabit various ecological habitats, ranging between the environment and the host. In order to obtain a better insight into the host response, an experimental infection was carried out in eight healthy heifers in mid-lactation with three different CNS strains: a...

Enhanced replication of avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus in eggs, cell cultures and mice by a two-amino acid insertion in neuraminidase stalk

Canine influenza virus (CIV) is a newly identified, highly contagious respiratory pathogen in dogs. Recent studies indicate that avian-origin H3N2 CIV are circulating in Chinese dogs. To investigate the effects of a two-amino acid (2-aa) insertion naturally occurring at the distal end of the neuraminidase (NA) stalk found in Chinese isolates since 2010 on virus replication and...

Induction of mycoplasmal pneumonia in experimentally infected pigs by means of different inoculation routes

The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of three different inoculation routes into mycoplasmal pneumonia (MP) in pigs challenged with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae). Thirty six-week-old M. hyopneumoniae seronegative piglets were randomly assigned to four groups: three challenged groups with experimentally inoculated pigs by either the endotracheal (ET; n...

Both tumour cells and infiltrating T-cells in equine sarcoids express FOXP3 associated with an immune-supressed cytokine microenvironment

Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) infections of equine species have a central role in the aetiology of equine sarcoids; a common benign skin tumour of horses, zebras and donkeys. Within the lesions, all of the early papillomavirus genes are expressed and promote the excessive replication of fibroblasts which characterise these tumours. Equine sarcoids differ from BPV induced fibro...

The C-terminal domain of Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin as a vaccine candidate against bovine necrohemorrhagic enteritis

Bovine necrohemorrhagic enteritis is caused by Clostridium perfringens and leads to sudden death. Alpha toxin, together with perfringolysin O, has been identified as the principal toxin involved in the pathogenesis. We assessed the potential of alpha toxin as a vaccine antigen. Using an intestinal loop model in calves, we investigated the protection afforded by antisera raised...

Sublethal effects of acaricides and Nosema ceranae infection on immune related gene expression in honeybees

Nosema ceranae is an obligate intracellular parasite and the etiologic agent of Nosemosis that affects honeybees. Beside the stress caused by this pathogen, honeybee colonies are exposed to pesticides under beekeeper intervention, such as acaricides to control Varroa mites. These compounds can accumulate at high concentrations in apicultural matrices. In this work, the effects of...

Identification and characterization of a Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus immunogenic GroEL protein involved in biofilm formation

Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (S. equi spp. zooepidemicus) is an opportunistic pathogen that causes major economic losses in the swine industry in China and is also a threat for human health. Biofilm formation by this bacterium has been previously reported. In this study, we used an immunoproteomic approach to search for immunogenic proteins expressed by biofilm-grown S...

The microbiome associated with equine periodontitis and oral health

Equine periodontal disease is a common and painful condition and its severe form, periodontitis, can lead to tooth loss. Its aetiopathogenesis remains poorly understood despite recent increased awareness of this disorder amongst the veterinary profession. Bacteria have been found to be causative agents of the disease in other species, but current understanding of their role in...

Spread of Coxiella burnetii between dairy cattle herds in an enzootic region: modelling contributions of airborne transmission and trade

Q fever, a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a looming concern for livestock and public health. Epidemiological features of inter-herd transmission of C. burnetii in cattle herds by wind and trade of cows are poorly understood. We present a novel dynamic spatial model describing the inter-herd regional spread of C. burnetii in dairy cattle herds...

BHV-1 induced oxidative stress contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction in MDBK cells

The levels of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ATP as well as the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in response to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) infection of MDBK cells were measured, respectively. BHV-1 infection increased ROS production which depended on viral entry, and de novo protein expression and/or DNA replication. Vice versa, excessive ROS was required for...

Live and inactivated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium stimulate similar but distinct transcriptome profiles in bovine macrophages and dendritic cells

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a major cause of gastroenteritis in cattle and humans. Dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages (Mø) are major players in early immunity to Salmonella, and their response could influence the course of infection. Therefore, the global transcriptional response of bovine monocyte-derived DC and Mø to stimulation with live and...

Regulation of tracheal antimicrobial peptide gene expression in airway epithelial cells of cattle

β-defensins are an important element of the mucosal innate immune response against bacterial pathogens. Tracheal antimicrobial peptide (TAP) has microbicidal activity against the bacteria that cause bovine respiratory disease, and its expression in tracheal epithelial cells is upregulated by bacterial products including lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a TLR4 agonist), Pam3CSK4 (an...

Comparative analysis of routes of immunization of a live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine in a heterologous virus challenge study

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV), which infects primarily the respiratory tract of pigs. Thus intranasal (IN) delivery of a potent vaccine-adjuvant formulation is promising. In this study, PRRS-MLV (VR2332) was coadministered ± an adjuvant Mycobacterium vaccae whole cell lysate or CpG ODN through intramuscular (IM) or IN route...

Experimental ovine toxoplasmosis: influence of the gestational stage on the clinical course, lesion development and parasite distribution

The relation between gestational age and foetal death risk in ovine toxoplasmosis is already known, but the mechanisms involved are not yet clear. In order to study how the stage of gestation influences these mechanisms, pregnant sheep of the same age and genetic background were orally dosed with 50 oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii (M4 isolate) at days 40 (G1), 90 (G2) and 120 (G3...

Scientific literature on infectious diseases affecting livestock animals, longitudinal worldwide bibliometric analysis

The objectives of this bibliometric analysis of the scientific literature were to describe the research subjects and the international collaborations in the field of research on infectious diseases in livestock animals including fishes and honeybees. It was based on articles published worldwide from 2006 through 2013. The source of data was the Web of Science, Core collection...

Identification of risk factors influencing Clostridium difficile prevalence in middle-size dairy farms

Farm animals have been suggested to play an important role in the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in the community. The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk factors associated with C. difficile dissemination in family dairy farms, which are the most common farming model in the European Union. Environmental samples and fecal samples from cows and calves...

Interaction of non-human primate complement and antibodies with hypermucoviscous Klebsiella pneumoniae

Emergent hypermucoviscosity (HMV) phenotypes of Klebsiella pneumoniae have been associated with increased invasiveness and pathogenicity in primates. In this study, we investigated the interaction of African green monkeys (AGM) (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) complement and antibody with HMV and non-HMV isolates as in vitro models of primate infection. Significantly greater...

Impact of the shedding level on transmission of persistent infections in Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP)

Super-shedders are infectious individuals that contribute a disproportionate amount of infectious pathogen load to the environment. A super-shedder host may produce up to 10 000 times more pathogens than other infectious hosts. Super-shedders have been reported for multiple human and animal diseases. If their contribution to infection dynamics was linear to the pathogen load...

Per os infectivity of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in white-legged shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) and role of peritrophic membrane

As earlier observations on peroral infectivity of WSSV in white-legged shrimp are conflicting, here, a standardized peroral intubation technique was used to examine (i) the role of the physical composition of the viral inoculum and (ii) the barrier function of the PM. In a first experiment, the infectivity of a WSSV stock was compared by determining the SID 50 by intramuscular...

Recombinant proteins from Gallibacterium anatis induces partial protection against heterologous challenge in egg-laying hens

Gallibacterium anatis is a Gram-negative bacterium and major cause of salpingitis and peritonitis in egg-laying hens, thereby contributing to decreased egg production and increased mortality among the hens. Due to widespread drug resistance and antigenic diversity, novel prophylactic measures are urgently required. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cross-protective...

Deterioration of eggshell quality in laying hens experimentally infected with H9N2 avian influenza virus

This study aimed to determine the mechanism by which H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) affects eggshell quality. Thirty-week-old specific pathogen free egg-laying hens were inoculated with the chicken-origin H9N2 AIV strain (A/Chicken/shaanxi/01/2011) or with inoculating media without virus by combined intraocular and intranasal routes. The time course for the appearance of viral...

Japanese encephalitis virus tropism in experimentally infected pigs

Pigs are considered to be the main amplifying host for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and their infection can correlate with human cases of disease. Despite their importance in the ecology of the virus as it relates to human cases of encephalitis, the pathogenesis of JEV in pigs remains obscure. In the present study, the localization and kinetics of virus replication were...