Veterinary Research

http://www.veterinaryresearch.org/

List of Papers (Total 727)

An in vitro model to assess the immunosuppressive effect of tick saliva on the mobilization of inflammatory monocyte-derived cells

Tick-borne pathogens cause potent infections. These pathogens benefit from molecules contained in tick saliva that have evolved to modulate host innate and adaptive immune responses. This is called “saliva-activated transmission” and enables tick-borne pathogens to evade host immune responses. Ticks feed on their host for relatively long periods; thus, mechanisms counteracting the ...

Spatiotemporal trends in the discovery of new swine infectious agents

A literature review was conducted to assess the spatiotemporal trend and diversity of infectious agents that were newly found in pigs between 1985 and 2010. We identified 173 new variants from 91 species, of which 73 species had not been previously described in pigs. These new species, of which one third was zoonotic, were taxonomically diverse. They were identified throughout the ...

Determination of the infectious titer and virulence of an original US porcine epidemic diarrhea virus PC22A strain

The infectious dose of a virus pool of original US PEDV strain PC22A was determined in 4-day-old, cesarean-derived, colostrum-deprived (CDCD) piglets. The median pig diarrhea dose (PDD 50 ) of the virus pool was determined as 7.35 log 10 PDD 50 /mL, similar to the cell culture infectious titer, 7.75 log 10 plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL. 100 PDD 50 caused watery diarrhea in all ...

Maternal and fetal predictors of fetal viral load and death in third trimester, type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infected pregnant gilts

Minimal research has focused on understanding mechanisms underlying porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) induced reproductive failure. We have completed a large-scale project investigating phenotypic and genotypic predictors of reproductive PRRS severity in which numerous clinical, pathological, immunologic and viral responses were characterized in dams and ...

Modelling of paratuberculosis spread between dairy cattle farms at a regional scale

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) causes Johne’s disease, with large economic consequences for dairy cattle producers worldwide. Map spread between farms is mainly due to animal movements. Locally, herd size and management are expected to influence infection dynamics. To provide a better understanding of Map spread between dairy cattle farms at a regional scale, we ...

Keratin and S100 calcium-binding proteins are major constituents of the bovine teat canal lining

The bovine teat canal provides the first-line of defence against pathogenic bacteria infecting the mammary gland, yet the protein composition and host-defence functionality of the teat canal lining (TCL) are not well characterised. In this study, TCL collected from six healthy lactating dairy cows was subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry. The ...

Identification and characterisation of microsatellite DNA markers in order to recognise the WSSV susceptible populations of marine giant black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon

White spot disease (WSD) which is caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) creates severe epizootics in captured and cultured black tiger shrimp, resulting a huge loss in the economic output of the aquaculture industry worldwide. Performing selective breeding using DNA markers would prove to be a potential cost effective strategy for long term disease control in shrimps. In the ...

Assessment of population genetic structure in the arbovirus vector midge, Culicoides brevitarsis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), using multi-locus DNA microsatellites

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a major pathogen of ruminants that is transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides spp.). Australian BTV serotypes have origins in Asia and are distributed across the continent into two distinct episystems, one in the north and another in the east. Culicoides brevitarsis is the major vector of BTV in Australia and is distributed across the entire geographic ...

Phenotypic and functional analysis of monocyte populations in cattle peripheral blood identifies a subset with high endocytic and allogeneic T-cell stimulatory capacity

Circulating monocytes in several mammalian species can be subdivided into functionally distinct subpopulations based on differential expression of surface molecules. We confirm that bovine monocytes express CD172a and MHC class II with two distinct populations of CD14 + CD16 low/- CD163 + and CD14 − CD16 ++ CD163 low- cells, and a more diffuse population of CD14 + CD16 + CD163 + ...

Lack of cross-protection against Mycoplasma haemofelis infection and signs of enhancement in “Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis”-recovered cats

“Mycoplasma haemofelis” and “Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis” are feline hemoplasmas that induce hemolytic anemia. Protection from homologous re-challenge was recently demonstrated in cats recovered from primary infection. Here, we determined if cats recovered from “Cand. M. turicensis” infection were protected against infections with the more pathogenic M. haemofelis. Ten ...

Yersinia ruckeri, the causative agent of enteric redmouth disease in fish

Enteric redmouth disease (ERM) is a serious septicemic bacterial disease of salmonid fish species. It is caused by Yersinia ruckeri, a Gram-negative rod-shaped enterobacterium. It has a wide host range, broad geographical distribution, and causes significant economic losses in the fish aquaculture industry. The disease gets its name from the subcutaneous hemorrhages, it can cause ...

Comparative analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) and new RHDV2 virus antigenicity, using specific virus-like particles

In 2010 a new Lagovirus related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) emerged in France and has since rapidly spread throughout domestic and wild rabbit populations of several European countries. The new virus, termed RHDV2, exhibits distinctive genetic, antigenic and pathogenic features. Notably, RHDV2 kills rabbits previously vaccinated with RHDV vaccines. Here we report ...

Cross-protection against European swine influenza viruses in the context of infection immunity against the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus: studies in the pig model of influenza

Pigs are natural hosts for the same influenza virus subtypes as humans and are a valuable model for cross-protection studies with influenza. In this study, we have used the pig model to examine the extent of virological protection between a) the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus and three different European H1 swine influenza virus (SIV) lineages, and b) these H1 viruses and a ...

Previous infection with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus reduces highly pathogenic avian influenza virus replication, disease, and mortality in chickens

Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide and produce co-infections especially in areas of the world where both viruses are endemic; but little is known about the interactions between these two viruses. The objective of this study was to determine if co-infection with NDV ...

Fumonisins affect the intestinal microbial homeostasis in broiler chickens, predisposing to necrotic enteritis

Fumonisins (FBs) are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium fungi. This study aimed to investigate the effect of these feed contaminants on the intestinal morphology and microbiota composition, and to evaluate whether FBs predispose broilers to necrotic enteritis. One-day-old broiler chicks were divided into a group fed a control diet, and a group fed a FBs contaminated diet (18.6 mg ...

A broad spectrum screening of Schmallenberg virus antibodies in wildlife animals in Germany

To identify native wildlife species possibly susceptible to infection with Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a midge-transmitted orthobunyavirus that predominantly infects domestic ruminants, samples from various free-living ruminants, but also carnivores, small mammals and wild boar were analyzed serologically. Before 2011, no SBV-specific antibodies were detectable in any of the tested ...

Eimeria bovis infection modulates endothelial host cell cholesterol metabolism for successful replication

During first merogony Eimeria bovis forms large macromeronts in endothelial host cells containing >120 000 merozoites I. During multiplication, large amounts of cholesterol are indispensable for the enormous offspring membrane production. Cholesterol auxotrophy was proven for other apicomplexan parasites. Consequently they scavenge cholesterol from their host cell apparently in a ...

Development of a helper cell-dependent form of peste des petits ruminants virus: a system for making biosafe antigen

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a viral disease of sheep and goats that is spreading through many countries in the developing world. Work on the virus is often restricted to studies of attenuated vaccine strains or to work in laboratories that have high containment facilities. We have created a helper cell dependent form of PPR virus by removing the entire RNA polymerase gene ...

Metatranscriptomics reveals metabolic adaptation and induction of virulence factors by Haemophilus parasuis during lung infection

Haemophilus parasuis is a common inhabitant of the upper respiratory tract of pigs, and the causative agent of Glässer’s disease. This disease is characterized by polyserositis and arthritis, produced by the severe inflammation caused by the systemic spread of the bacterium. After an initial colonization of the upper respiratory tract, H. parasuis enters the lung during the early ...

Oral administration of a select mixture of Bacillus probiotics generates Tr1 cells in weaned F4ab/acR − pigs challenged with an F4 + ETEC/VTEC/EPEC strain

Although breeding of F4 receptor − negative (F4R − ) pigs may prevent post-weaning diarrhea, the underlying immunity is poorly understood. Here, various doses of a Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis mixture (BLS-mix) were orally administered to F4ab/acR − pigs for 1 week before F4 (K88) − positive ETEC/VTEC/EPEC challenge. Administration of BLS-mix increased the ...

phoP, SPI1, SPI2 and aroA mutants of Salmonella Enteritidis induce a different immune response in chickens

Poultry is the most frequent reservoir of non-typhoid Salmonella enterica for humans. Understanding the interactions between chickens and S. enterica is therefore important for vaccine design and subsequent decrease in the incidence of human salmonellosis. In this study we therefore characterized the interactions between chickens and phoP, aroA, SPI1 and SPI2 mutants of S. ...

Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) in red and melanised foci in white muscle of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

Melanised focal changes (black spots) are common findings in the white skeletal muscle of seawater-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Fillets with melanised focal changes are considered as lower quality and cause large economic losses. It has been suggested that red focal changes (red spots) precede the melanised focal changes. In the present work, we examined different ...

Comparison of the pathogenesis of the highly passaged MCMV Smith strain with that of the low passaged MCMV HaNa1 isolate in BALB/c mice upon oronasal inoculation

Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) Smith strain is widely used in mouse models to study HCMV infections. Due to high serial passages, MCMV Smith has acquired genetic and biological changes. Therefore, a low passaged strain would be more relevant to develop mouse models. Here, the pathogenesis of an infection with MCMV Smith was compared with that of an infection with a low passaged ...

Bagaza virus is pathogenic and transmitted by direct contact in experimentally infected partridges, but is not infectious in house sparrows and adult mice

Bagaza virus (BAGV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus belonging to the Ntaya serocomplex. In 2010, a disease outbreak was reported in Cádiz (Southern Spain) affecting game birds (red-legged partridges and common pheasants). In this work, red-legged partridges were inoculated experimentally with infectious BAGV isolated from this outbreak in order to make a complete clinical and ...

Should they stay, or should they go? Relative future risk of bovine tuberculosis for interferon-gamma test-positive cattle left on farms

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a serious infectious disease that remains an ongoing concern for cattle farming worldwide. Tuberculin skin-tests are often used to identify infected animals (reactors) during test-and-cull programs, however, due to relatively poor sensitivity, additional tests can be implemented in parallel. For example, in Northern ...