Veterinary Research

http://www.veterinaryresearch.org/

List of Papers (Total 762)

Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) muscle satellite cells are targets of salmonid alphavirus infection

Sleeping disease in rainbow trout is characterized by an abnormal swimming behaviour of the fish which stay on their side at the bottom of the tanks. This sign is due to extensive necrosis and atrophy of red skeletal muscle induced by the sleeping disease virus (SDV), also called salmonid alphavirus 2. Infections of humans with arthritogenic alphaviruses, such as Chikungunya...

Expression of immunogenic structural proteins of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 in vitro assessed using immunofluorescence

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), also called koi herpesvirus (KHV), is the aetiological agent of a fatal disease in carp and koi (Cyprinus carpio L.), referred to as koi herpesvirus disease. The virus contains at least 40 structural proteins, of which few have been characterised with respect to their immunogenicity. Indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFAs) using two epitope...

Transmission of sheep-bovine spongiform encephalopathy to pigs

Experimental transmission of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent has been successfully reported in pigs inoculated via three simultaneous distinct routes (intracerebral, intraperitoneal and intravenous). Sheep derived BSE (Sh-BSE) is transmitted more efficiently than the original cattle-BSE isolate in a transgenic mouse model expressing porcine prion protein. However...

Apramycin treatment affects selection and spread of a multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli strain able to colonize the human gut in the intestinal microbiota of pigs

The effect of apramycin treatment on transfer and selection of an Escherichia coli strain (E. coli 912) in the intestine of pigs was analyzed through an in vivo experiment. The strain was sequenced and assigned to the sequence type ST101 and serotype O11. It carried resistance genes to apramycin/gentamicin, sulphonamide, tetracycline, hygromycin B, β-lactams and streptomycin [aac...

Transcriptional analysis of porcine intestinal mucosa infected with Salmonella Typhimurium revealed a massive inflammatory response and disruption of bile acid absorption in ileum

Infected pork meat is an important source of non-typhoidal human salmonellosis. Understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in disease pathogenesis is important for the development of therapeutic and preventive strategies. Thus, hereby we study the transcriptional profiles along the porcine intestine during infection with Salmonella Typhimurium, as well as post-transcriptional...

Streptococcus uberis strains isolated from the bovine mammary gland evade immune recognition by mammary epithelial cells, but not of macrophages

Streptococcus uberis is frequently isolated from the mammary gland of dairy cattle. Infection with some strains can induce mild subclinical inflammation whilst others induce severe inflammation and clinical mastitis. We compared here the inflammatory response of primary cultures of bovine mammary epithelial cells (pbMEC) towards S. uberis strains collected from clinical or...

Systemic and local immune responses in sheep after Neospora caninum experimental infection at early, mid and late gestation

Besides its importance in cattle, Neospora caninum may also pose a high risk as abortifacient for small ruminants. We have recently demonstrated that the outcome of experimental infection of pregnant sheep with 10 6 Nc-Spain7 tachyzoites is strongly dependent on the time of gestation. In the current study, we assessed peripheral and local immune response in those animals...

Post-entry blockade of small ruminant lentiviruses by wild ruminants

Small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infection causes losses in the small ruminant industry due to reduced animal production and increased replacement rates. Infection of wild ruminants in close contact with infected domestic animals has been proposed to play a role in SRLV epidemiology, but studies are limited and mostly involve hybrids between wild and domestic animals. In this...

Intranasal inoculation of sows with highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus at mid-gestation causes transplacental infection of fetuses

Transplacental infection plays a critical role in the reproductive failure induced by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), yet exposure of sows and gilts to classical PRRSV generally leads to reproductive failure after 85 days of gestation. We report, for the first time, that the susceptibility of fetuses to highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) is similar at...

Roles of nucleic acid substrates and cofactors in the vhs protein activity of pseudorabies virus

Pseudorabies virus (PrV) belongs to the α-herpesvirinae of which human simplex virus (HSV) is the prototype virus. One of the hallmarks of HSV infection is shutoff of protein synthesis that is mediated by various viral proteins including vhs (virion host shutoff), which is encoded by the UL41 gene. However, the function of PrV vhs is poorly understood. Due to the low sequence...

Evaluation of humoral immune status in porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infected sows under field conditions

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an economically devastating enteric disease in the swine industry. The virus infects pigs of all ages, but it cause severe clinical disease in neonatal suckling pigs with up to 100% mortality. Currently, available vaccines are not completely effective and feedback methods utilizing PEDV infected material has variable success in preventing...

Can selection for resistance to OsHV-1 infection modify susceptibility to Vibrio aestuarianus infection in Crassostrea gigas? First insights from experimental challenges using primary and successive exposures

Since 2008, the emergent virus OsHV-1µvar has provoked massive mortality events in Crassostrea gigas spat and juveniles in France. Since 2012, mortality driven by the pathogenic bacteria Vibrio aestuarianus has stricken market-sized adults. A hypothesis to explain the sudden increase in mortality observed in France since 2012 is that selective pressure due to recurrent viral...

Natural transmission of Leishmania infantum through experimentally infected Phlebotomus perniciosus highlights the virulence of Leishmania parasites circulating in the human visceral leishmaniasis outbreak in Madrid, Spain

A human leishmaniasis outbreak is occurring in the Madrid region, Spain, with the parasite and vector involved being Leishmania infantum and Phlebotomus perniciosus respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate the virulence of L. infantum isolates from the focus using a natural transmission model. Hamsters were infected by intraperitoneal inoculation (IP) or by bites of...

Amphibian chytridiomycosis: a review with focus on fungus-host interactions

Amphibian declines and extinctions are emblematic for the current sixth mass extinction event. Infectious drivers of these declines include the recently emerged fungal pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Chytridiomycota). The skin disease caused by these fungi is named chytridiomycosis and affects the vital function of amphibian skin...

Experimental infection of a US spike-insertion deletion porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in conventional nursing piglets and cross-protection to the original US PEDV infection

Although the original US porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was confirmed as highly virulent by multiple studies, the virulence of spike-insertion deletion (S-INDEL) PEDV strains is undefined. In this study, 3–4 day-old conventional suckling piglets were inoculated with S-INDEL PEDV Iowa106 (4 pig litters) to study its virulence. Two litters of age-matched piglets were...

Transcriptomic analysis of the host response to an iridovirus infection in Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus

The emergence of an infectious viral disease caused by the Chinese giant salamander iridovirus (GSIV) has led to substantial economic losses. However, no more molecular information is available for the understanding of the mechanisms associated with virus–host interaction. In this study, de novo sequencing was used to obtain abundant high-quality ESTs and investigate...

Live attenuated African swine fever viruses as ideal tools to dissect the mechanisms involved in viral pathogenesis and immune protection

African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the causal agent of African swine fever, a hemorrhagic and often lethal porcine disease causing enormous economical losses in affected countries. Endemic for decades in most of the sub-Saharan countries and Sardinia, the risk of ASFV-endemicity in Europe has increased since its last introduction into Europe in 2007. Live attenuated viruses have...

Interleukin-10 production at the early stage of infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus related to the likelihood of persistent infection in cattle

The factors leading to persistent infection of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus in ruminants are not well defined. This paper provides evidence of the presence of interleukin-10 (IL-10) early in the course of infection (1–4 days) as a factor in the development of persistence of FMD virus in cattle. Results showed that serum IL-10 in carrier cattle infected with FMD virus type O...

Comparative immune responses against Psoroptes ovis in two cattle breeds with different susceptibility to mange

The sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis, is a major problem in the beef cattle industry, especially in Belgian Blue (BB) cattle. This breed is naturally more predisposed to psoroptic mange but reasons for this high susceptibility remain unknown. Different immune responses could be a potential cause; thus in this study, the cutaneous immune response and in vitro cellular immune...

Protective effect of anti-SUAM antibodies on Streptococcus uberis mastitis

In the present study, the effect of anti-recombinant Streptococcus uberis adhesion molecule (SUAM) antibodies against S. uberis intramammary infections (IMI) was evaluated using a passive protection model. Mammary quarters of healthy cows were infused with S. uberis UT888 opsonized with affinity purified anti-rSUAM antibodies or hyperimmune sera. Non-opsonized S. uberis UT888...

Evaluation of the pathogenicity of West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 strains in a SPF chicken model of infection: NS3-249Pro mutation is neither sufficient nor necessary for conferring virulence

Lineage 2 West Nile virus (WNV) strains were reported for the first time in Europe in 2004. Despite an almost silent circulation around their entry point in Hungary, an upsurge of pathogenicity occurred in 2010 as 262 people suffered from neuroinvasive disease in Greece. This increase in virulence was imputed to the emergence of a His249Pro mutation in the viral NS3 helicase, as...

Patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-complex excretion and characterization of super-shedders in naturally-infected wild boar and red deer

Wild boar (Sus scrofa) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) are the main maintenance hosts for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in continental Europe. Understanding Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) excretion routes is crucial to define strategies to control bTB in free-ranging populations, nevertheless available information is scarce. Aiming at filling this gap, four different MTC...

Epidemiology and control of bovine ephemeral fever

Bovine ephemeral fever (or 3-day sickness) is an acute febrile illness of cattle and water buffaloes. Caused by an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus, bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV), the disease occurs seasonally over a vast expanse of the globe encompassing much of Africa, the Middle East, Asia and Australia. Although mortality rates are typically low, infection prevalence and...

The vaginal microbiome is stable in prepubertal and sexually mature Ellegaard Göttingen Minipigs throughout an estrous cycle

Although the pig has been introduced as an advanced animal model of genital tract infections in women, almost no knowledge exists on the porcine vaginal microbiota, especially in barrier-raised Göttingen Minipigs. In women, the vaginal microbiota plays a crucial role for a healthy vaginal environment and the fate of sexually transmitted infections such as Chlamydia trachomatis...

Haemophilus parasuis: infection, immunity and enrofloxacin

Haemophilus parasuis is an early colonizer of the porcine upper respiratory tract and is the etiological agent of Glasser’s disease. The factors responsible for H. parasuis colonization and systemic infection are not yet well understood, while prevention and control of Glasser’s disease continues to be challenging. Recent studies on innate immunity to H. parasuis have...