Journal of Biomedical Science

http://www.jbiomedsci.com/

List of Papers (Total 877)

Cancer immunotherapies targeting the PD-1 signaling pathway

Immunotherapy has recently emerged as the fourth pillar of cancer treatment, joining surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. While early immunotherapies focused on accelerating T-cell activity, current immune-checkpoint inhibitors take the brakes off the anti-tumor immune responses. Successful clinical trials with PD-1 monoclonal antibodies and other immune-checkpoint inhibitors have ...

Regulatory T cells induced by B cells: a novel subpopulation of regulatory T cells

Regulatory T cells play a crucial role in the homeostasis of the immune response. In addition to CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells, several subsets of Foxp3- regulatory T cells, such as T helper 3 (Th3) cells and type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells, have been described in mice and human. Accumulating evidence shows that naïve B cells contribute to tolerance and are able to promote ...

Cancer immunotherapies targeting the PD-1 signaling pathway

Immunotherapy has recently emerged as the fourth pillar of cancer treatment, joining surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. While early immunotherapies focused on accelerating T-cell activity, current immune-checkpoint inhibitors take the brakes off the anti-tumor immune responses. Successful clinical trials with PD-1 monoclonal antibodies and other immune-checkpoint inhibitors have ...

Atrial ERK1/2 activation in the embryo leads to incomplete Septal closure: a novel mouse model of atrial Septal defect

MEK1 mutation and activated MAPK signaling has been found in patients with RASopathies and abnormal cardiac development. Previous studies have suggested that regulation of fetal MAPK signaling is essential for normal cardiac development. We investigated the effect of active MEK1 overexpression on fetal atrial septal development. An inducible double transgenic (DTg) mouse model was ...

Lipopolysaccharide pretreatment increases protease-activated receptor-2 expression and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 secretion in vascular endothelial cells

This study investigated whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS) increase protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) expression and enhance the association between PAR-2 expression and chemokine production in human vascular endothelial cells (ECs). The morphology of ECs was observed through microphotography in cultured human umbilical vein ECs (EA. hy926 cells) treated with various LPS ...

Expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1α and 2α and its association with vitamin C level in thyroid lesions

Cells adapt to hypoxia by transcriptional induction of genes that participate in regulation of angiogenesis, glucose metabolism and cell proliferation. The primary factors mediating cell response to low oxygen tension are hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs), oxygen-dependent transcription activators. The stability and activity of the α subunits of HIFs are controlled by hydroxylation ...

Accuracy of serum luteinizing hormone and serum testosterone measurements to assess the efficacy of medical castration in prostate cancer patients

Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonists are the standard for androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Current guidelines recommend serum testosterone measurement to assess the efficacy of ADT and to define castration resistance. However, serum testosterone does not reflect the exclusive effect of castration due to its extratesticular ...

Ascorbic acid alters cell fate commitment of human neural progenitors in a WNT/β-catenin/ROS signaling dependent manner

Improving the neuronal yield from in vitro cultivated neural progenitor cells (NPCs) is an essential challenge in transplantation therapy in neurological disorders. In this regard, Ascorbic acid (AA) is widely used to expand neurogenesis from NPCs in cultures although the mechanisms of its action remain unclear. Neurogenesis from NPCs is regulated by the redox-sensitive ...

Oxidative toxicity in diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease: mechanisms behind ROS/ RNS generation

Reactive oxidative species (ROS) toxicity remains an undisputed cause and link between Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Patients with both AD and T2DM have damaged, oxidized DNA, RNA, protein and lipid products that can be used as possible disease progression markers. Although the oxidative stress has been anticipated as a main cause in promoting both ...

Rosmarinic acid induces rabbit articular chondrocyte differentiation by decreases matrix metalloproteinase-13 and inflammation by upregulating cyclooxygenase-2 expression

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are known to play an important role in the degradation of the extracellular matrix and the pathological progression of osteoarthritis (OA). The natural polyphenolic compound rosmarinic acid (Ros. A) has been shown to suppress the inhibitory activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). However, the effects of Ros. A on OA have not been investigated. ...

Roles of sigma-1 receptors on mitochondrial functions relevant to neurodegenerative diseases

The sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) is a chaperone that resides mainly at the mitochondrion-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane (called the MAMs) and acts as a dynamic pluripotent modulator in living systems. At the MAM, the Sig-1R is known to play a role in regulating the Ca2+ signaling between ER and mitochondria and in maintaining the structural integrity of the MAM. The ...

Psoriasis-associated vascular disease: the role of HDL

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory systemic disease with a prevalence of 2–3%. Overwhelming evidence show an epidemiological association between psoriasis, cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular disease is the most frequent cause of death in patients with severe psoriasis. Several cardiovascular disease classical risk factors are also increased in psoriasis but ...

Age-dependent redox status in the brain stem of NO-deficient hypertensive rats

The brain stem contains important nuclei that control cardiovascular function via the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), which is strongly influenced by nitric oxide. Its biological activity is also largely determined by oxygen free radicals. Despite many experimental studies, the role of AT1R-NAD(P)H oxidase-superoxide pathway in NO-deficiency is not yet sufficiently clarified. We ...

Repositioning drugs for traumatic brain injury - N-acetyl cysteine and Phenserine

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality of both young adults of less than 45 years of age and the elderly, and contributes to about 30% of all injury deaths in the United States of America. Whereas there has been a significant improvement in our understanding of the mechanism that underpin the primary and secondary stages of damage ...

Conditioned place preference training prevents hippocampal depotentiation in an orexin-dependent manner

Long-term potentiation (LTP) is well recognized as a cellular-correlated synaptic plasticity of learning and memory. However, its reversal forms of synaptic plasticity, depotentiation, is less studied and its association with behaviors is also far from clear. Previously, we have shown that nanomolar orexin A can prevent the depotentiation induced by low frequency stimulation (LFS) ...

Kv7 voltage-activated potassium channel inhibitors reduce fluid resuscitation requirements after hemorrhagic shock in rats

Background Recent evidence suggests that drugs targeting Kv7 channels could be used to modulate vascular function and blood pressure. Here, we studied whether Kv7 channel inhibitors can be utilized to stabilize hemodynamics and reduce resuscitation fluid requirements after hemorrhagic shock. Methods Anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats were instrumented with arterial and venous ...

Harnessing the early post-injury inflammatory responses for cardiac regeneration

Cardiac inflammation is considered by many as the main driving force in prolonging the pathological condition in the heart after myocardial infarction. Immediately after cardiac ischemic injury, neutrophils are the first innate immune cells recruited to the ischemic myocardium within the first 24 h. Once they have infiltrated the injured myocardium, neutrophils would then secret ...

Aberrant methylation of DACT1 and DACT2 are associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

Background The DACT (Dishevelled-associated antagonist of β-catenin) family of scaffold proteins may play important roles in tumorigenesis. However, the epigenetic changes of DACT1, 2, 3 and their effect on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) have not been investigated so far. The aim of this study was to investigate the promoter methylation and expression of DACT family, in ...

PPARs modulate cardiac metabolism and mitochondrial function in diabetes

Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a major complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). Currently, effective treatments for diabetic cardiomyopathy are limited. The pathophysiology of diabetic cardiomyopathy is complex, whereas mitochondrial dysfunction plays a vital role in the genesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Metabolic regulation targeting mitochondrial dysfunction is expected to be a ...

Inhibition of histone acetylation by curcumin reduces alcohol-induced fetal cardiac apoptosis

Background Prenatal alcohol exposure may cause cardiac development defects, however, the underlying mechanisms are not yet clear. In the present study we have investigated the roles of histone modification by curcumin on alcohol induced fetal cardiac abnormalities during the development. Methods and results Q-PCR and Western blot results showed that alcohol exposure increased gene ...

MAP4K4 and IL-6 + Th17 cells play important roles in non-obese type 2 diabetes

Obesity is a causal factor of type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, people without obesity (including lean, normal weight, or overweight) may still develop T2D. Non-obese T2D is prevalent in Asia and also frequently occurs in Europe. Recently, multiple evidences oppose the notion that either obesity or central obesity (visceral fat accumulation) promotes non-obese T2D. Several factors ...