Journal of Biomedical Science

http://www.jbiomedsci.com/

List of Papers (Total 864)

Oxidative toxicity in diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease: mechanisms behind ROS/ RNS generation

Reactive oxidative species (ROS) toxicity remains an undisputed cause and link between Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Patients with both AD and T2DM have damaged, oxidized DNA, RNA, protein and lipid products that can be used as possible disease progression markers. Although the oxidative stress has been anticipated as a main cause in promoting both ...

Rosmarinic acid induces rabbit articular chondrocyte differentiation by decreases matrix metalloproteinase-13 and inflammation by upregulating cyclooxygenase-2 expression

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are known to play an important role in the degradation of the extracellular matrix and the pathological progression of osteoarthritis (OA). The natural polyphenolic compound rosmarinic acid (Ros. A) has been shown to suppress the inhibitory activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). However, the effects of Ros. A on OA have not been investigated. ...

Psoriasis-associated vascular disease: the role of HDL

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory systemic disease with a prevalence of 2–3%. Overwhelming evidence show an epidemiological association between psoriasis, cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular disease is the most frequent cause of death in patients with severe psoriasis. Several cardiovascular disease classical risk factors are also increased in psoriasis but ...

Age-dependent redox status in the brain stem of NO-deficient hypertensive rats

The brain stem contains important nuclei that control cardiovascular function via the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), which is strongly influenced by nitric oxide. Its biological activity is also largely determined by oxygen free radicals. Despite many experimental studies, the role of AT1R-NAD(P)H oxidase-superoxide pathway in NO-deficiency is not yet sufficiently clarified. We ...

Repositioning drugs for traumatic brain injury - N-acetyl cysteine and Phenserine

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality of both young adults of less than 45 years of age and the elderly, and contributes to about 30% of all injury deaths in the United States of America. Whereas there has been a significant improvement in our understanding of the mechanism that underpin the primary and secondary stages of damage ...

Conditioned place preference training prevents hippocampal depotentiation in an orexin-dependent manner

Long-term potentiation (LTP) is well recognized as a cellular-correlated synaptic plasticity of learning and memory. However, its reversal forms of synaptic plasticity, depotentiation, is less studied and its association with behaviors is also far from clear. Previously, we have shown that nanomolar orexin A can prevent the depotentiation induced by low frequency stimulation (LFS) ...

Kv7 voltage-activated potassium channel inhibitors reduce fluid resuscitation requirements after hemorrhagic shock in rats

Background Recent evidence suggests that drugs targeting Kv7 channels could be used to modulate vascular function and blood pressure. Here, we studied whether Kv7 channel inhibitors can be utilized to stabilize hemodynamics and reduce resuscitation fluid requirements after hemorrhagic shock. Methods Anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats were instrumented with arterial and venous ...

Harnessing the early post-injury inflammatory responses for cardiac regeneration

Cardiac inflammation is considered by many as the main driving force in prolonging the pathological condition in the heart after myocardial infarction. Immediately after cardiac ischemic injury, neutrophils are the first innate immune cells recruited to the ischemic myocardium within the first 24 h. Once they have infiltrated the injured myocardium, neutrophils would then secret ...

Aberrant methylation of DACT1 and DACT2 are associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

Background The DACT (Dishevelled-associated antagonist of β-catenin) family of scaffold proteins may play important roles in tumorigenesis. However, the epigenetic changes of DACT1, 2, 3 and their effect on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) have not been investigated so far. The aim of this study was to investigate the promoter methylation and expression of DACT family, in ...

PPARs modulate cardiac metabolism and mitochondrial function in diabetes

Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a major complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). Currently, effective treatments for diabetic cardiomyopathy are limited. The pathophysiology of diabetic cardiomyopathy is complex, whereas mitochondrial dysfunction plays a vital role in the genesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Metabolic regulation targeting mitochondrial dysfunction is expected to be a ...

MAP4K4 and IL-6 + Th17 cells play important roles in non-obese type 2 diabetes

Obesity is a causal factor of type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, people without obesity (including lean, normal weight, or overweight) may still develop T2D. Non-obese T2D is prevalent in Asia and also frequently occurs in Europe. Recently, multiple evidences oppose the notion that either obesity or central obesity (visceral fat accumulation) promotes non-obese T2D. Several factors ...

Inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus reactivation by the flavonoid apigenin

Background Lytic reactivation of EBV has been reported to play an important role in human diseases, including NPC carcinogenesis. Inhibition of EBV reactivation is considered to be of great benefit in the treatment of virus-associated diseases. For this purpose, we screened for inhibitory compounds and found that apigenin, a flavonoid, seemed to have the ability to inhibit EBV ...

Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 activation and coevolution of its εPKC-mediated phosphorylation sites

Background Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is a key enzyme for the metabolism of many toxic aldehydes such as acetaldehyde, derived from alcohol drinking, and 4HNE, an oxidative stress-derived lipid peroxidation aldehyde. Post-translational enhancement of ALDH2 activity can be achieved by serine/threonine phosphorylation by epsilon protein kinase C (εPKC). Elevated ...

Inhibition of histone acetylation by curcumin reduces alcohol-induced fetal cardiac apoptosis

Background Prenatal alcohol exposure may cause cardiac development defects, however, the underlying mechanisms are not yet clear. In the present study we have investigated the roles of histone modification by curcumin on alcohol induced fetal cardiac abnormalities during the development. Methods and results Q-PCR and Western blot results showed that alcohol exposure increased gene ...

Epigenetics of amphetamine-induced sensitization: HDAC5 expression and microRNA in neural remodeling

Background Histone deacetylase (HDAC) activities modify chromatin structure and play a role in learning and memory during developmental processes. Studies of adult mice suggest HDACs are involved in neural network remodeling in brain repair, but its function in drug addiction is less understood. We aimed to examine in vivo HDAC5 expression in a preclinical model of ...

The paradox role of caspase cascade in ionizing radiation therapy

Radiotherapy alone or in combination with chemotherapy/surgery is widely used for treatment of cancers. It reduces tumor growth and prevents metastasis. While ionizing radiation activates caspase cascade resulted in apoptosis in cancer cells, it also stimulates tumor cell re-population that leads to reduce the effectiveness of the radiation therapy. This review describes the ...

Genetic variations of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 and alcohol dehydrogenase 1B are associated with the etiology of atrial fibrillation in Japanese

Background Alcohol consumption and oxidative stress are well-known risk factors for developing atrial fibrillation (AF). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1B) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) genes encoding enzymes of alcohol and reactive aldehyde metabolism, respectively, are prevalent among East Asians. Here, we examined whether these SNPs ...

Update on recent preclinical and clinical studies of T790M mutant-specific irreversible epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors

The first- and second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (1/2G EGFR-TKIs) gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib have all been approved as standard first-line treatments for advanced EGFR mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer. The third-generation (3G) EGFR-TKIs have been developed to overcome the EGFR T790M mutation, which is the most common ...

Mechanisms of inflammatory responses and development of insulin resistance: how are they interlinked?

Background Insulin resistance (IR) is one of the major hallmark for pathogenesis and etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). IR is directly interlinked with various inflammatory responses which play crucial role in the development of IR. Inflammatory responses play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and development of IR which is one of the main causative factor for the ...

Differential humoral and cellular immunity induced by vaccination using plasmid DNA and protein recombinant expressing the NS3 protein of dengue virus type 3

Background The dengue non-structural 3 (NS3) is a multifunctional protein, containing a serine-protease domain, located at the N-terminal portion, and helicase, NTPase and RTPase domains present in the C-terminal region. This protein is considered the main target for CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses during dengue infection, which may be involved in protection. However, few studies ...

Loss of porin function in dopaminergic neurons of Drosophila is suppressed by Buffy

Background Mitochondrial porin, also known as the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), is a multi-functional channel protein that shuttles metabolites between the mitochondria and the cytosol and implicated in cellular life and death decisions. The inhibition of porin under the control of neuronal Ddc-Gal4 result in short lifespan and in an age-dependent loss in locomotor ...

Using the social amoeba Dictyostelium to study the functions of proteins linked to neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis

Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), also known as Batten disease, is a debilitating neurological disorder that affects both children and adults. Thirteen genetically distinct genes have been identified that when mutated, result in abnormal lysosomal function and an excessive accumulation of ceroid lipofuscin in neurons, as well as other cell types outside of the central nervous ...

Defective autophagy leads to the suppression of stem-like features of CD271 + osteosarcoma cells

Background As an important stress-response mechanism, autophagy plays crucial role in the tumor formation and drug resistance of cancer cells including osteosarcoma (OS). OS cancer stem cells (CSCs) also are considered a key factor of tumorigenesis, drug resistance and tumor recurrence. However, the relationship between autophagy and OS CSCs still remains unclear. Methods CD271+ OS ...

Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid represses glioma stem-like cells

Background Glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) are proposed to be responsible for high resistance in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) treatment. In order to find new strategies aimed at reducing GSC stemness and improving GBM patient survival, we investigated the effects and mechanism of a histone deacetylases (HDACs) inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), since HDAC activity ...

Developing precision medicine for people of East Asian descent

The goal of precision medicine is to separate patient populations into groups to ultimately provide customized care tailored to patients. In terms of precision medicine, ~540 million people in the world have a genetic variant of the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) enzyme causing a flushing response and tachycardia after alcohol consumption. The genetic variant is identified as ...