Journal of Biomedical Science

http://www.jbiomedsci.com/

List of Papers (Total 874)

The paradox role of caspase cascade in ionizing radiation therapy

Radiotherapy alone or in combination with chemotherapy/surgery is widely used for treatment of cancers. It reduces tumor growth and prevents metastasis. While ionizing radiation activates caspase cascade resulted in apoptosis in cancer cells, it also stimulates tumor cell re-population that leads to reduce the effectiveness of the radiation therapy. This review describes the ...

Genetic variations of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 and alcohol dehydrogenase 1B are associated with the etiology of atrial fibrillation in Japanese

Background Alcohol consumption and oxidative stress are well-known risk factors for developing atrial fibrillation (AF). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1B) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) genes encoding enzymes of alcohol and reactive aldehyde metabolism, respectively, are prevalent among East Asians. Here, we examined whether these SNPs ...

Perspectives for therapeutic HPV vaccine development

Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and associated diseases remain a serious burden worldwide. It is now clear that HPV serves as the etiological factor and biologic carcinogen for HPV-associated lesions and cancers. Although preventative HPV vaccines are available, these vaccines do not induce strong therapeutic effects against established HPV infections and lesions. ...

Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid represses glioma stem-like cells

Background Glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) are proposed to be responsible for high resistance in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) treatment. In order to find new strategies aimed at reducing GSC stemness and improving GBM patient survival, we investigated the effects and mechanism of a histone deacetylases (HDACs) inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), since HDAC activity ...

Update on recent preclinical and clinical studies of T790M mutant-specific irreversible epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors

The first- and second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (1/2G EGFR-TKIs) gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib have all been approved as standard first-line treatments for advanced EGFR mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer. The third-generation (3G) EGFR-TKIs have been developed to overcome the EGFR T790M mutation, which is the most common ...

Mechanisms of inflammatory responses and development of insulin resistance: how are they interlinked?

Background Insulin resistance (IR) is one of the major hallmark for pathogenesis and etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). IR is directly interlinked with various inflammatory responses which play crucial role in the development of IR. Inflammatory responses play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and development of IR which is one of the main causative factor for the ...

Differential humoral and cellular immunity induced by vaccination using plasmid DNA and protein recombinant expressing the NS3 protein of dengue virus type 3

Background The dengue non-structural 3 (NS3) is a multifunctional protein, containing a serine-protease domain, located at the N-terminal portion, and helicase, NTPase and RTPase domains present in the C-terminal region. This protein is considered the main target for CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses during dengue infection, which may be involved in protection. However, few studies ...

Loss of porin function in dopaminergic neurons of Drosophila is suppressed by Buffy

Background Mitochondrial porin, also known as the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), is a multi-functional channel protein that shuttles metabolites between the mitochondria and the cytosol and implicated in cellular life and death decisions. The inhibition of porin under the control of neuronal Ddc-Gal4 result in short lifespan and in an age-dependent loss in locomotor ...

Using the social amoeba Dictyostelium to study the functions of proteins linked to neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis

Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), also known as Batten disease, is a debilitating neurological disorder that affects both children and adults. Thirteen genetically distinct genes have been identified that when mutated, result in abnormal lysosomal function and an excessive accumulation of ceroid lipofuscin in neurons, as well as other cell types outside of the central nervous ...

Defective autophagy leads to the suppression of stem-like features of CD271 + osteosarcoma cells

Background As an important stress-response mechanism, autophagy plays crucial role in the tumor formation and drug resistance of cancer cells including osteosarcoma (OS). OS cancer stem cells (CSCs) also are considered a key factor of tumorigenesis, drug resistance and tumor recurrence. However, the relationship between autophagy and OS CSCs still remains unclear. Methods CD271+ OS ...

Developing precision medicine for people of East Asian descent

The goal of precision medicine is to separate patient populations into groups to ultimately provide customized care tailored to patients. In terms of precision medicine, ~540 million people in the world have a genetic variant of the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) enzyme causing a flushing response and tachycardia after alcohol consumption. The genetic variant is identified as ...

Calcitriol stimulates gene expression of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide in breast cancer cells with different phenotype

Background In normal and neoplastic cells, growth-promoting, proangiogenic, cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects have all been attributed to cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP). Nevertheless, little is known about the factors regulating this peptide expression in breast cancer. Herein we asked if the well-known antineoplastic hormone calcitriol could differentially modulate ...

miR-199a-3p inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis by targeting YAP1, suppressing Jagged1-Notch signaling in human hepatocellular carcinoma

Background miR-199a-3p was significantly downregulated in the majority of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and HCC cell lines. Yes associated protein 1 (YAP1) was overexpressed in human HCC, which promoted HCC development and progression by upregulating Jagged1 and activating the Notch pathway. We searched potential targets of miR-199a-3p with DIANA, TargetScan and ...

Biomimetic approaches with smart interfaces for bone regeneration

A ‘smart tissue interface’ is a host tissue-biomaterial interface capable of triggering favourable biochemical events inspired by stimuli responsive mechanisms. In other words, biomaterial surface is instrumental in dictating the interface functionality. This review aims to investigate the fundamental and favourable requirements of a ‘smart tissue interface’ that can positively ...

Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for treatment towards immune- and inflammation-mediated diseases: review of current clinical trials

Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multilineage somatic progenitor/stem cells that have been shown to possess immunomodulatory properties in recent years. Initially met with much skepticism, MSC immunomodulation has now been well reproduced across tissue sources and species to be clinically relevant. This has opened up the use of these versatile cells for application as 3rd ...

Mammalian microRNA: an important modulator of host-pathogen interactions in human viral infections

MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which are small non-coding RNAs expressed by almost all metazoans, have key roles in the regulation of cell differentiation, organism development and gene expression. Thousands of miRNAs regulating approximately 60 % of the total human genome have been identified. They regulate genetic expression either by direct cleavage or by translational repression of the ...

A disease spectrum for ITPA variation: advances in biochemical and clinical research

Human ITPase (encoded by the ITPA gene) is a protective enzyme which acts to exclude noncanonical (deoxy)nucleoside triphosphates ((d)NTPs) such as (deoxy)inosine 5′-triphosphate ((d)ITP), from (d)NTP pools. Until the last few years, the importance of ITPase in human health and disease has been enigmatic. In 2009, an article was published demonstrating that ITPase deficiency in ...

Therapeutic effect of berberine on TDP-43-related pathogenesis in FTLD and ALS

Background In the central nervous system regions of the sporadic and familial FTLD and ALS patients, TDP-43 has been identified as the major component of UBIs inclusions which is abnormally hyperphosphorylated, ubiquitinated, and cleaved into C-terminal fragments to form detergent-insoluble aggregates. So far, the effective drugs for FTLD and ALS neurodegenerative diseases are yet ...

RNA binding protein Nova1 promotes tumor growth in vivo and its potential mechanism as an oncogene may due to its interaction with GABA A Receptor-γ2

Background The mechanism of Nova1’s role in hepatocellular carcinoma has not been delineated. Also its interaction with GABA A receptor γ2 in HCC is unveiled. This study is aimed to make it clear the distribution, prognostic value of GABA A Rγ2 in human hepatocellular carcinoma. And its role in HCC tumorigenesis under the regulation of its alternative splicing factor Nova1. Methods ...

Rab-mediated vesicle trafficking in cancer

A large group of small Rab GTPases which mediate secretory and endosomal membrane transport, as well as autophagosome biogenesis, are essential components of vesicle trafficking machinery. Specific Rab protein together with the cognate effectors coordinates the dynamics of trafficking pathway and determines the cargo proteins destination. Functional impairments of Rab proteins by ...

Glycine N-methyltransferase deficiency in female mice impairs insulin signaling and promotes gluconeogenesis by modulating the PI3K/Akt pathway in the liver

Background Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) is abundantly expressed in the normal liver but is down-regulated in liver cancer tissues. GNMT knockout (Gnmt−/−) mice can spontaneously develop chronic hepatitis, fatty liver, and liver cancer. We previously demonstrated that hepatic GNMT is decreased in high-fat-diet-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus, but its contribution to metabolic ...

Administration of AMD3100 in endotoxemia is associated with pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidative, and pro-apoptotic effects in vivo

Background Chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is a multifunctional G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by its natural ligand, C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12). As a likely member of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-sensing complex, CXCR4 is involved in pro-inflammatory cytokine production and exhibits substantial chemo-attractive activity for various inflammatory cells. Here, we ...

Cellular effects induced by 17-β-estradiol to reduce the survival of renal cell carcinoma cells

Background Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is an adult malignancy with 2:1 men-to-women ratio, which implies the possible role of sex hormones in RCC carcinogenesis. One of the predominant sex hormones in women before menopause, 17-β-estradiol (or E2), may regulate RCC growth by cellular mechanisms that are still not fully understood. Methods The expression levels of E2 receptors (ER1 ...

Sumoylation of IkB attenuates NF-kB-induced nitrosative stress at rostral ventrolateral medulla and cardiovascular depression in experimental brain death

Background Small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) is a group of proteins that participates in post-translational modifications. One known SUMO target is the transcription factor nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) that plays a pivotal role in many disease processes; sumoylation inactivates NF-kB by conjugation with inhibitors of NF-kB (IkB). Our laboratory demonstrated previously that ...

A phase I clinical study of immunotherapy for advanced colorectal cancers using carcinoembryonic antigen-pulsed dendritic cells mixed with tetanus toxoid and subsequent IL-2 treatment

Background To better evaluate and improve the efficacy of dendritic cell (DC)-based cancer immunotherapy, we conducted a clinical study of patients with advanced colorectal cancer using carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-pulsed DCs mixed with tetanus toxoid and subsequent interleukin-2 treatment. The tetanus toxoid in the vaccine preparation serves as an adjuvant and provides a ...