Journal of Biomedical Science

http://www.jbiomedsci.com/

List of Papers (Total 882)

Role of Nrf2 in bone metabolism

Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor expressed in many cell types, including osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts. Nrf2 has been considered a master regulator of cytoprotective genes against oxidative and chemical insults. The lack of Nrf2 can induce pathologies in multiple organs. Nrf2 deficiency promotes osteoclast differentiation and ...

The HRASLS (PLA/AT) subfamily of enzymes

The H-RAS-like suppressor (HRASLS) subfamily consists of five enzymes (1–5) in humans and three (1, 3, and 5) in mice and rats that share sequence homology with lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT). All HRASLS family members possess in vitro phospholipid metabolizing abilities including phospholipase A 1/2 (PLA 1/2 ) activities and O-acyltransferase activities for the remodeling ...

High fat diet-induced inflammation and oxidative stress are attenuated by N-acetylneuraminic acid in rats

Background Serum sialic acid levels are positively correlated with coronary artery disease and inflammation. Although sialic acid is a non-specific marker, it is considered sensitive likely due to its influence in sialylation of glycoprotein structures all over the body. Objectives We hypothesized that dietary supplementation with N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), a type of sialic ...

Reactive oxygen species contribute to dysfunction of bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells in aged C57BL/6 J mice

Background Stem cells of intensely regenerative tissues are susceptible to cellular damage. Although the response to this process in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is crucial, the mechanisms by which hematopoietic homeostasis is sustained are not completely understood. Aging increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and inflammation, which contribute to increased ...

Epidermal growth factor receptor status and Notch inhibition in non-small cell lung cancer cells

Background Notch may behave as an oncogene or a tumor suppressor gene in lung cancer cells. Notch receptor undergoes cleavage by enzymes, including γ-secretase, generating the active Notch intracellular domain (NICD). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of DAPT, a γ-secretase inhibitor, in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, as well as the impact of ...

Unconserved C terminal of human cytomegalovirus tegument protein pUL76 elicits nuclear aggresome formation and induces DNA damage in transfected cells

Background The HCMV UL76 gene is a member of UL24 family in herpes virus and encodes a highly conserved herpes virus protein. Inherited from common ancestor, members of Herpes _ UL24 family encode proteins with a conserved N terminal and varied in C terminal region. To define which region (conserved N terminal or unconserved C terminal) of UL76 was responsible for its ability to ...

Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor enhances synaptic neurotransmission and plasticity in mouse prefrontal cortex

Background The soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is an important enzyme chiefly involved in the metabolism of fatty acid signaling molecules termed epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). sEH inhibition (sEHI) has proven to be protective against experimental cerebral ischemia, and it is emerging as a therapeutic target for prevention and treatment of ischemic stroke. However, the role of ...

Monosodium glutamate-induced oxidative kidney damage and possible mechanisms: a mini-review

Animal studies suggest that chronic monosodium glutamate (MSG) intake induces kidney damage by oxidative stress. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear, despite the growing evidence and consensus that α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, glutamate receptors and cystine-glutamate antiporter play an important role in up-regulation of oxidative stress in MSG-induced renal ...

Involvement of gelsolin in TGF-beta 1 induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cells

Background Increasing evidence suggests that transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) triggers epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and facilitates breast cancer stem cell differentiation. Gelsolin (GSN) is a ubiquitous actin filament-severing protein. However, the relationship between the expression level of GSN and the TGF-β signaling for EMT progression in breast cancer ...

Preparation, characterization and immunological evaluation: canine parvovirus synthetic peptide loaded PLGA nanoparticles

Background Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) remains a significant worldwide canine pathogen and the most common cause of viral enteritis in dogs. The 1 L15 and 7 L15 peptides overlap each other with QPDGGQPAV residues (7-15 of VP2 capsid protein of CPV) is shown to produce high immune response. PLGA nanoparticles were demonstrated to have special properties such as; controlled antigen ...

An approach to the immunophenotypic features of circulating CD4 + NKG2D + T cells in invasive cervical carcinoma

Background NKG2D, an activating immunoreceptor, is primarily restricted to NK cells and CD8 + T cells. The existence of an atypical cytotoxic CD4 + NKG2D + T cell population has also been found in patients with autoimmune dysfunctions. Nonetheless, contradictory evidence has categorized this population with a regulatory rather than cytotoxic role in other situations. These ...

Natural history of chronic hepatitis B virus infection from infancy to adult life -the mechanism of inflammation triggering and long-term impacts

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in endemic areas usually starts since infancy and early childhood and persists lifelong. The clinical course varies among different chronic infected subjects. Majority of chronic HBV infected children present with immune-tolerant status initially, experience the immune clearance phase with various degree of liver injury during or beyond ...

FcγRIIB mediates antigen-independent inhibition on human B lymphocytes through Btk and p38 MAPK

Background The inhibitory Fc receptor, FcγRIIB, has emerged as a key negative regulator of B cell activation and as such is predicted to play an essential role in controlling antibody-mediated autoimmune diseases in humans. Recent studies have shown that crosslinking the FcγRIIB independently of the B-cell receptor (BCR) results in apoptosis in both mouse and chicken B cells. ...

DNA methylation regulates mouse cardiac myofibril gene expression during heart development

Background It is well known that epigenetic modifications play an important role in controlling the regulation of gene expression during the development. Our previous studies have demonstrated that the expression of fetal troponin I gene (also called slow skeletal troponin I, ssTnI) is predominated in the fetal stage, reduced after birth and disappeared in the adulthood. The ...

Intravenous injection of microvesicle-delivery miR-130b alleviates high-fat diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice through translational repression of PPAR-γ

Background We have shown previously that microvesicle (MV)-delivered miR-130b (miR-130b-MV) is able to target PPAR-γ and subsequently reduce the lipid accumulation in vitro. However, the in vivo effect of miR-130b on fat deposition and glucose homeostasis remains unknown. Results Three-week-old C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet for 8 weeks and then intravenously injected with ...

T cells and reactive oxygen species

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been long considered simply as harmful by-products of metabolism, which damage cellular proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. ROS are also known as a weapon of phagocytes, employed against pathogens invading the host. However, during the last decade, an understanding has emerged that ROS also have important roles as signaling messengers in a ...

Vitamin A depletion induced by cigarette smoke is associated with an increase in lung cancer-related markers in rats

Background We have previously demonstrated that cigarette smoke is associated with a significant reduction of retinoic acid in rat lungs and the formation of tracheal precancerous lesions. However, the underlying mechanism of cancer risk induced by vitamin A deficiency is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the cigarette smoke-induced depletion of vitamin A ...

Biomarkers of severe dengue disease – a review

Dengue virus infection presents a wide spectrum of manifestations including asymptomatic condition, dengue fever (DF), or severe forms, such as dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) in affected individuals. The early prediction of severe dengue in patients without any warning signs who may later develop severe DHF is very important to choose appropriate ...

Protective effect of pioglitazone on morphine-induced neuroinflammation in the rat lumbar spinal cord

Background Morphine-induced tolerance is associated with the spinal neuroinflammation. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of oral administration of the pioglitazone, the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonist, on the morphine-induced neuroinflammation in the lumbar region of the male Wistar rat spinal cord. Results Co-administration of the ...

Caffeic acid ethanolamide prevents cardiac dysfunction through sirtuin dependent cardiac bioenergetics preservation

Background Cardiac oxidative stress, bioenergetics and catecholamine play major roles in heart failure progression. However, the relationships between these three dominant heart failure factors are not fully elucidated. Caffeic acid ethanolamide (CAEA), a synthesized derivative from caffeic acid that exerted antioxidative properties, was thus applied in this study to explore its ...

Effects of dextromethorphan and oxycodone on treatment of neuropathic pain in mice

Background Neuropathic pain is a very troublesome and difficult pain to treat. Although opioids are the best analgesics for cancer and surgical pain in clinic, only oxycodone among opioids shows better efficacy to alleviate neuropathic pain. However, many side effects associated with the use of oxycodone render the continued use of it in neuropathic pain treatment undesirable. ...

Undercarboxylated osteocalcin as a biomarker of subclinical atherosclerosis in non-dialysis patients with chronic kidney disease

Background Studies in recent years have shown that undercarboxylated osteocalcin (uOC) not only maintains bone mineralization, but is also involved in the regulation of atherosclerosis. However, a correlation between uOC and carotid atherosclerosis in non-dialysis patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) has not been investigated. A total of 240 non-dialysis patients with CKD ...

The critical role of lipopolysaccharide in the upregulation of aquaporin 4 in glial cells treated with Shiga toxin

Background In 2011, there was an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections in Japan. Approximately 62 % of patients with hemolytic-uremic syndrome also showed symptoms of encephalopathy. To determine the mechanisms of onset for encephalopathy during STEC infections, we conducted an in vitro study with glial cell lines and primary glial cells. Results ...

TAK1 inhibition-induced RIP1-dependent apoptosis in murine macrophages relies on constitutive TNF-α signaling and ROS production

Background Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is a key regulator of signal cascades of TNF-α receptor and TLR4, and can induce NF-κB activation for preventing cell apoptosis and eliciting inflammation response. Results TAK1 inhibitor (TAKI) can decrease the cell viability of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM), RAW264.7 and BV-2 cells, but not ...

RNA interferences targeting the Fanconi anemia/BRCA pathway upstream genes reverse cisplatin resistance in drug-resistant lung cancer cells

Background Cisplatin is one of the most commonly used chemotherapy agent for lung cancer. The therapeutic efficacy of cisplatin is limited by the development of resistance. In this study, we test the effect of RNA interference (RNAi) targeting Fanconi anemia (FA)/BRCA pathway upstream genes on the sensitivity of cisplatin-sensitive (A549 and SK-MES-1) and -resistant (A549/DDP) lung ...