Geoscience Letters

http://link.springer.com/journal/40562

List of Papers (Total 112)

Hydrologic modeling: progress and future directions

Briefly tracing the history of hydrologic modeling, this paper discusses the progress that has been achieved in hydrologic modeling since the advent of computer and what the future may have in store for hydrologic modeling. Hydrologic progress can be described through the developments in data collection and processing, concepts and theories, integration with allied sciences...

Genesis of Miocene litho-stratigraphic trap and hydrocarbon accumulation in the Qiongdongnan Basin, northern South China Sea

In recent years, several large gas fields have been discovered in western Qiongdongnan Basin. It is important and necessary to illustrate their sedimentary characteristics and hydrocarbon migration so that more gas fields could be discovered in the future. Previous regional tectonic-sedimentary researchers show that large-scale source rock of the Yacheng Formation developed in...

Supercycle in great earthquake recurrence along the Japan Trench over the last 4000 years

On the landward slope of the Japan Trench, the mid-slope terrace (MST) is located at a depth of 4000–6000 m. Two piston cores from the MST were analyzed to assess the applicability of the MST for turbidite paleoseismology and to find out reliable recurrence record of the great earthquakes along the Japan Trench. The cores have preserved records of ~ 12 seismo-turbidites (event...

One-step ahead forecasting of geophysical processes within a purely statistical framework

The simplest way to forecast geophysical processes, an engineering problem with a widely recognized challenging character, is the so-called “univariate time series forecasting” that can be implemented using stochastic or machine learning regression models within a purely statistical framework. Regression models are in general fast-implemented, in contrast to the computationally...

Estimation of bedrock depth for a part of Garhwal Himalayas using two different geophysical techniques

It has now been well established that the depth of bedrock is a key parameter in assessing the impact of local site conditions on seismic hazard analysis. Where conventional geotechnical testing like standard penetration test (SPT) or cone penetration test (CPT) requires a far greater cost and manpower to be used for such purposes, geophysical testing like ground-penetrating...

Hazards and disasters in the Anthropocene: some critical reflections for the future

The arrival of the Anthropocene presents many challenges—both theoretical and practical. Scholars in different disciplines, practitioners, the public and others, are all considering the meaning of the Anthropocene and how its arrival affects their ways of knowing and doing. Given that a dominant narrative of the Anthropocene is one of a coming crisis, hazard, and disaster experts...

Copula–entropy theory for multivariate stochastic modeling in water engineering

The copula–entropy theory combines the entropy theory and the copula theory. The entropy theory has been extensively applied to derive the most probable univariate distribution subject to specified constraints by applying the principle of maximum entropy. With the flexibility to model nonlinear dependence structure, parametric copulas (e.g., Archimedean, extreme value, meta...

Frozen-in condition for ions and electrons: implication on magnetic flux transport by dipolarizing flux bundles

The ability of dipolarizing flux bundles (DFBs) in transporting magnetic flux from the mid-tail reconnection site for near-Earth dipolarization is evaluated by two methods: the generalized Ohm’s law and the concept of flux preserving and line preserving. From the generalized Ohm’s law, the breakdown of the frozen-in condition (FIC) for ions is shown to be intimately related to...

The transition region above sunspots

Over decades, sunspots and their fine structures have been studied in detail at the photospheric level with different ground-based telescopes, as the surface of the Sun primarily emits light in the visible wavelengths. For a very long period, the upper atmosphere above the sunspot regions, especially the transition region (TR) above sunspots where the plasma emits light in the...

The Indonesian throughflow, its variability and centennial change

The Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) is an important component of the upper cell of the global overturning circulation that provides a low-latitude pathway for warm, fresh waters from the Pacific to enter the Indian Ocean. Variability and changes of the ITF have significant impacts on Indo-Pacific oceanography and global climate. In this paper, the observed features of the ITF and...

Tsunami source and inundation features around Sendai Coast, Japan, due to the November 22, 2016 Mw 6.9 Fukushima earthquake

The tsunami source of the 2016 Fukushima Earthquake, which was generated by a normal faulting earthquake mechanism, is estimated by inverting the tsunami waveforms that were recorded by seven tide gauge stations and two wave gauge stations along the north Pacific coast of Japan. Two fault models based on different available moment tensor solutions were employed, and their...

Structural change of the frustule of diatom by thermal treatment

The external skeleton, frustule, of a diatom is composed of hydrous amorphous silica and amino acids. In this study, the structural changes in the frustule of Chaetoceros calcitrans after thermal treatment up to 1200 °C were investigated using X-ray diffraction and attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Their structural changes after thermal...

Different depths of near-trench slips of the 1896 Sanriku and 2011 Tohoku earthquakes

The 1896 Sanriku earthquake was a typical ‘tsunami earthquake’ which caused large tsunami despite its weak ground shaking. It occurred along the Japan Trench in the northern tsunami source area of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake where a delayed tsunami generation has been proposed. Hence the relation between the 1896 and 2011 tsunami sources is an important scientific as well as...

Rebuild of the Bulletin of the International Seismological Centre (ISC), part 1: 1964–1979

The data from the Bulletin of the International Seismological Centre (ISC) have always been and still remain in demand for a wide range of studies in Geosciences. The unique features of the Bulletin include long-term coverage (1904-present), the most comprehensive set of included seismic data from the majority of permanent seismic networks at any given time in the history of...

Bodrum–Kos (Turkey–Greece) Mw 6.6 earthquake and tsunami of 20 July 2017: a test for the Mediterranean tsunami warning system

Various Tsunami Service Providers (TSPs) within the Mediterranean Basin supply tsunami warnings including CAT-INGV (Italy), KOERI-RETMC (Turkey), and NOA/HL-NTWC (Greece). The 20 July 2017 Bodrum–Kos (Turkey–Greece) earthquake (Mw 6.6) and tsunami provided an opportunity to assess the response from these TSPs. Although the Bodrum–Kos tsunami was moderate (e.g., runup of 1.9 m...

Relationship between the Northern Pacific Gyre Oscillation and tree-ring cellulose oxygen isotopes in northeastern Japan

The North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO) significantly imprints on hydrological fluctuations of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) region, but this has not yet been observed in proxy-based hydroclimate reconstructions. This study reports a tree-ring cellulose oxygen isotope (δ18O) record from northeastern Japan spanning A.D. 1927–2010, overlapping with instrumental data, which...

Ellerman bombs observed with the new vacuum solar telescope and the atmospheric imaging assembly onboard the solar dynamics observatory

Ellerman bombs (EBs) are believed to be small-scale reconnection events occurring around the temperature minimum region in the solar atmosphere. They are often identified as significant enhancements in the extended Hα wings without obvious signatures in the Hα core. Here we explore the possibility of using the 1700 Å images taken by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard...

Changing circulation structure and precipitation characteristics in Asian monsoon regions: greenhouse warming vs. aerosol effects

Using model outputs from CMIP5 historical integrations, we have investigated the relative roles of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and aerosols in changing the characteristics of the large-scale circulation and rainfall in Asian summer monsoon (ASM) regions. Under GHG warming, a strong positive trend in low-level moist static energy (MSE) is found over ASM...

Introduction to the thematic series “Coupling of the magnetosphere–ionosphere system”

This thematic series contains 4 papers mostly presented at the 2016 AOGS meeting in Beijing. The four papers investigate four key regions in the magnetosphere–ionosphere coupling process: mid-tail magnetosphere, near-Earth magnetosphere, inner magnetosphere, and the polar ground region. Guo et al. (Geosci Lett 4:18, 2017) study the current system in reconnection region using 2.5D...

Introduction to thematic collection “Historical and geological studies of earthquakes”

This thematic collection contains eight papers mostly presented at the 2016 AOGS meeting in Beijing. Four papers describe historical earthquake studies in Europe, Japan, and China; one paper uses modern instrumental data to examine the effect of giant earthquakes on the seismicity rate; and three papers describe paleoseismological studies using tsunami deposit in Japan, marine...

Soil erosion modeled with USLE, GIS, and remote sensing: a case study of Ikkour watershed in Middle Atlas (Morocco)

The Ikkour watershed located in the Middle Atlas Mountain (Morocco) has been a subject of serious soil erosion problems. This study aimed to assess the soil erosion susceptibility in this mountainous watershed using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and spectral indices integrated with Geographic Information System (GIS) environment. The USLE model required the integration of...

Surface wind mixing in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS)

Mixing at the ocean surface is key for atmosphere–ocean interactions and the distribution of heat, energy, and gases in the upper ocean. Winds are the primary force for surface mixing. To properly simulate upper ocean dynamics and the flux of these quantities within the upper ocean, models must reproduce mixing in the upper ocean. To evaluate the performance of the Regional Ocean...

Using ultra-low frequency waves and their characteristics to diagnose key physics of substorm onset

Substorm onset is marked in the ionosphere by the sudden brightening of an existing auroral arc or the creation of a new auroral arc. Also present is the formation of auroral beads, proposed to play a key role in the detonation of the substorm, as well as the development of the large-scale substorm current wedge (SCW), invoked to carry the current diversion. Both these phenomena...

Climate variability and causes: from the perspective of the Tharaka people of eastern Kenya

The study assessed community understanding of climate variability in semi-arid Tharaka sub-county, Kenya. The study used four focus group discussions (FGD) (N = 48) and a household survey (N = 326) to obtain information from four agro-ecological zones (AEZs). The results were synthesized and descriptively presented. People in Tharaka sub-county are familiar with the term climate...