Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

http://link.springer.com/journal/10803

List of Papers (Total 395)

Over-Selectivity is Related to Autism Quotient and Empathizing, But not to Systematizing

The relationships of autism quotient (AQ), systematizing (SQ), and empathizing (EQ), with over-selectivity were explored to assess whether over-selectivity is implicated in complex social skills, which has been assumed, but not experimentally examined. Eighty participants (aged 18–60) were trained on a simultaneous discrimination task (AB+CD−), and tested in extinction on the ...

A Meta-Analysis and Critical Review of Prospective Memory in Autism Spectrum Disorder

Prospective memory (PM) is the ability to remember to carry out a planned intention at an appropriate moment in the future. Research on PM in ASD has produced mixed results. We aimed to establish the extent to which two types of PM (event-based/time-based) are impaired in ASD. In part 1, a meta-analysis of all existing studies indicates a large impairment of time-based, but only a ...

Anxiety and Attentional Bias to Threat in Children at Increased Familial Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

Anxiety and threat bias were examined in 6-8-year-old children at familial-risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and low-risk (LR, n = 37) controls. The high-risk (HR) group was divided into those who met diagnostic criteria for ASD (HR-ASD, n = 15) and those who did not (HR-non ASD, n = 24). The HR-ASD group had highest levels of parent-reported anxiety. The HR-non ASD group ...

Developmental Markers of Genetic Liability to Autism in Parents: A Longitudinal, Multigenerational Study

Genetic liability to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be expressed in unaffected relatives through subclinical, genetically meaningful traits, or endophenotypes. This study aimed to identify developmental endophenotypes in parents of individuals with ASD by examining parents’ childhood academic development over the school-age period. A cohort of 139 parents of individuals with ...

Emotion Regulation and Parent Co-Regulation in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often exhibit emotional problems, which can be associated with emotion regulation (ER) difficulties. Parent co-regulation is often associated with child ER and emotional problems, though little work has been done with reference to youth with ASD. This study investigated the association among parent co-regulation, child ER, and ...

Predictors of Treatment Effectiveness for Youth with ASD and Comorbid Anxiety Disorders: It all Depends on the Family?

The study aimed to explore predictors of treatment effectiveness in a sample of 79 children with ASD who received cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for their anxiety disorders. Severity of anxiety disorders and anxiety symptoms were used to measure treatment effectiveness and was assessed pre-treatment, post-treatment, 3 months-, 1 and 2 years after CBT. Child characteristics and ...

The Occupational Transition Process to Upper Secondary School, Further Education and/or Work in Sweden: As Described by Young Adults with Asperger Syndrome and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

The aim was to describe the occupational transition process to upper secondary school, further education and/or work, and to discover what support influences the process from the perspectives of young adults with Asperger syndrome or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. This qualitative study was performed in Sweden and comprised interviews with 15 young adults recruited from ...

Autistic Traits and Symptoms of Social Anxiety are Differentially Related to Attention to Others’ Eyes in Social Anxiety Disorder

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) have partly overlapping symptoms. Gaze avoidance has been linked to both SAD and ASD, but little is known about differences in social attention between the two conditions. We studied eye movements in a group of treatment-seeking adolescents with SAD (N = 25), assessing SAD and ASD dimensionally. The results indicated ...

Gaze Following in Children with Autism: Do High Interest Objects Boost Performance?

This study tested whether including objects perceived as highly interesting by children with autism during a gaze following task would result in increased first fixation durations on the target objects. It has previously been found that autistic children differentiate less between an object another person attends to and unattended objects in terms of this measure. Less ...

Size Constancy is Preserved but Afterimages are Prolonged in Typical Individuals with Higher Degrees of Self-Reported Autistic Traits

Deficits in perceptual constancies from early infancy have been proposed to contribute to autism and exacerbate its symptoms (Hellendoorn et al., Frontiers in Psychology 6:1–16, 2015). Here, we examined size constancy in adults from the general population (N = 106) with different levels of self-reported autistic traits using an approach based on negative afterimages. The afterimage ...

Brief Report: A Comparison of the Preference for Viewing Social and Non-social Movies in Typical and Autistic Adolescents

The recently proposed Social Motivation theory (Chevallier et al., Trends in cognitive sciences 16(4):231–239, 2012) suggests that social difficulties in Autism Spectrum Condition (ASC) might be caused by a difference in the motivation to engage with other people. Here we compared adolescents with (N = 31) and without (N = 37) ASC on the Choose-a-Movie paradigm that measures the ...

Increasing Opportunities for Question-Asking in School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Effectiveness of Staff Training in Pivotal Response Treatment

Deficits in question-asking are common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Furthermore, their opportunities to self-initiate questions are often hindered by directive behavior of their conversation partners. This study assessed the effectiveness of staff training in pivotal response treatment (PRT) on staff member-created opportunities and self-initiated questions of ...

Sensory Clusters of Adults With and Without Autism Spectrum Conditions

We identified clusters of atypical sensory functioning adults with ASC by hierarchical cluster analysis. A new scale for commonly self-reported sensory reactivity was used as a measure. In a low frequency group (n = 37), all subscale scores were relatively low, in particular atypical sensory/motor reactivity. In the intermediate group (n = 17) hyperreactivity, sensory interests and ...

Attentional Differences in a Driving Hazard Perception Task in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

The current study explored attentional processing of social and non-social stimuli in ASD within the context of a driving hazard perception task. Participants watched videos of road scenes and detected hazards while their eye movements were recorded. Although individuals with ASD demonstrated relatively good detection of driving hazards, they were slower to orient to hazards. ...

“It was like walking without knowing where I was going”: A Qualitative Study of Autism in a UK Somali Migrant Community

Increasing recognition of autism in Somali migrant communities means that appropriate support services are needed. Attitudes to autism and barriers related to help-seeking in these communities are poorly understood. We aimed to assess what families affected by autism need, and how health, education and social care services can support them. In partnership with the local Somali ...

The Effect of Pivotal Response Treatment in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Non-randomized Study with a Blinded Outcome Measure

Purpose of this quasi-experimental trial was to investigate the effect of Pivotal response treatment (PRT) versus treatment as usual (TAU) on autism symptoms. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), aged 3–8 years, received either PRT (n = 11) or TAU (n = 13). Primary outcome measure was the total score on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule at pre- and posttreatment. ...

Towards a Treatment for Intolerance of Uncertainty in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Development of the Coping with Uncertainty in Everyday Situations (CUES©) Programme

Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is indicated as an important transdiagnostic process variable in a range of anxiety disorders. Anxiety is very common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study aimed to develop a parent group based manualised treatment programme for young people with ASD, which focused on IU. An eight session programme was developed and then ...

Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Sotos Syndrome

Sotos syndrome is a congenital overgrowth disorder with an incidence of approximately 1 in 14,000. This study investigated behavioural characteristics of ASD within a large cohort of individuals with Sotos syndrome (n = 78). As measured by the Social Responsiveness Scale, second edition (SRS-2), 65 participants (83.33 %) met clinical cut-off (T-score ≥60). There was no significant ...

Parent-Endorsed Sex Differences in Toddlers with and Without ASD: Utilizing the M-CHAT

Sex differences in typical development can provide context for understanding ASD. Baron-Cohen (Trends Cogn Sci 6(6):248–254, 2002) suggested ASD could be considered an extreme expression of normal male, compared to female, phenotypic profiles. In this paper, sex-specific M-CHAT scores from N = 53,728 18-month-old toddlers, including n = 185 (32 females) with ASD, were examined. ...

Increased Risk for Substance Use-Related Problems in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Population-Based Cohort Study

Despite limited and ambiguous empirical data, substance use-related problems have been assumed to be rare among patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Using Swedish population-based registers we identified 26,986 individuals diagnosed with ASD during 1973–2009, and their 96,557 non-ASD relatives. ASD, without diagnosed comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ...

Brief Report: Which Came First? Exploring Crossmodal Temporal Order Judgements and Their Relationship with Sensory Reactivity in Autism and Neurotypicals

Previous studies have indicated that visual-auditory temporal acuity is reduced in children with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) in comparison to neurotypicals. In the present study we investigated temporal acuity for all possible bimodal pairings of visual, tactile and auditory information in adults with ASC (n = 18) and a matched control group (n = 18). No group differences in ...

Design and Cohort Characteristics of the Social Spectrum Study: A Multicenter Study of the Autism Spectrum Among Clinically Referred Children

This paper provides an overview of the design and cohort characteristics of the Social Spectrum Study: a clinical cohort study that used a two-phase sampling design to identify children at risk for ASD. After screening 1281 children aged 2.5–10 years who had been consecutively referred to one of six mental health services in the Netherlands, children who screened positive for ASD ...