Animal Industry Report

http://lib.dr.iastate.edu/ans_air

List of Papers (Total 579)

Effects of extended-release eprinomectin on productivity measures in cow-calf systems and subsequent feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of calves

The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of a single injection of extended-release eprinomectin on economically relevant production variables in beef cows and calves as well as subsequent feedlot health, performance and carcass traits of calves compared to a traditional, short-duration anthelmintic. Animals from 13 cooperator herds across 7 states were stratified...

A Glimpse into the Effects of Climate Adaptation on Shaping the Goat Genome

The goat is one of the most adaptable livestock species, present worldwide in many different environments. The ADAPTMAP consortium collected DNA from goats worldwide to investigate the genetic basis of adaptation to these environments. The major findings were that animals in the Tropical areas had genetic differences likely associated with genes that influence the size (smaller...

AnS 490-H: Part II; How to Educate the Public While Providing a Portable Environmentally Enriched Wagon to a North American Porcupine

The objective of this project was to determine if a portable environmentally enriched wagon provided a North American Porcupine with the ability to express natural behaviors during a formal educational presentation at the Omaha Henry Doorly Zoo and Aquarium. The study was broken up into three phases: baseline, habituation, and public. One researcher recorded all phases on a video...

AnS 490-H: Part I; Building a Portable Environmentally Enriched Wagon for a North American Porcupine

The objective of this project was to design and construct a portable environmentally enriched wagon for a North American Porcupine with the intent for it to be used during educational presentations at the Omaha Henry Doorly Zoo and Aquarium. The wagon design was built using SolidWorks. A nine-step process was developed to build the wagon: (1) cut the boards to proper length and...

The Animal and Dairy Science Learning Community Assists Students with Acclimation to Iowa State University

Learning communities at Iowa State University (ISU) are designed to help new students become accustomed to campus, get to know their peers, and develop an immediate support group within their major. The Animal and Dairy Science Learning Community consists of small groups of students that share the same adviser, interests, and background. These students take one to three classes...

Academic Advising Strategies to Support Undergraduate Student Success

Undergraduate academic advising is an integral part of the student experience at Iowa State University (ISU). The Animal Science department at ISU relies almost solely on faculty members to advise and mentor undergraduate students as part of their teaching responsibilities. Incoming freshmen are matched with advisers based on their interests, career paths, and backgrounds before...

Phenotypic and Genetic Associations of Objectively Evaluated Replacement Female Feet and Leg Joint Conformation at Selection and Post First Parity

Objective evaluation of feet and leg joint conformation is a needed step to improve the repeatability of selection of animals based on proper structure. Objective measurements were taken at the time of selection and during second gestation. Phenotypic and genetic parameter estimates were obtained to better understand the relationship between the measures obtained from objective...

Effect of Ad libitum Feeding of Gilt Developer Diets Differing in Standard Ileal Digestive Lysine Concentrations on Growth Traits

An experiment was conducted to determine the optimum dietary lysine concentration for optimum growth rate of replacement gilts during the growing-finishing period. A total of 2,960 gilts (Large White x Landrace), 42.3±7.0 kg average BW were allotted to randomized completely block design (RCBD). Three grower and finisher diets were formulated to contain low lysine (0.68 and 0.52...

A Globin Blocker to Increase Sequencing Efficiency for QuantSeq 3

Blood is an extremely valuable source to investigate animal biology, including whole genome gene expression. The efficiency of gene expression profiling is hampered by the high proportions of hemoglobin (HB) mRNA of erythrocytes, which decreases the resolution of QuantSeq 3

Signatures of Selection in Two Independent Populations of Pigs Divergently Selected for Feed Efficiency

In two independent populations of pigs, divergent selection for increased and decreased feed efficiency, measured as residual feed intake (RFI), was performed over ten generations in purebred Yorkshire pigs at Iowa State University (ISU) and eight generations in French Large White pigs at the French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA). Over time and generations...

Novel Resilience Phenotypes from a Natural Disease Challenge Model for Wean-to-Finish Pigs

Novel phenotypes from a commercial testing system could add value to selection for resilience to disease and other stressors beyond simply collecting mortality. Day-to-day variability in feed intake (FI) and in duration at the feeder (DUR), quantified by root mean squared errors (RMSE), were investigated as novel measures of resilience using data from grow-finish pigs in a...

The Effect of PRRSV Vaccination and WUR Genotype on the Gene Expression Profile in Blood of Nursery Pigs Following Co-infection with PRRSV and PCV2b

Previous results have shown that pigs that were vaccinated (Vac) with a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) modified live virus (MLV) had lower PRRS viral load (VL) but higher porcine circovirus 2b (PCV2b) VL following co-infection with PRRSV and PVC2b than non-vaccinated (nonVac) pigs. In this study, we identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at 4 and 7...

Selection for Increased Natural Antibody Levels to Improve Disease Resilience in Pigs

Breeding animals are typically raised under high health conditions in nucleus herds, but their offspring are often exposed to multiple disease challenges in commercial production facilities. Because breeding animals are not exposed to many common swine pathogens, it is difficult to select for resilience to disease. A possible solution is selecting for levels of natural antibodies...

How Does On-farm Nursery Pig Approachability Pre- and Post-vaccination?

The objective of this study was to compare live and digital methodologies to measure nursery pig approachability pre- and post-vaccination. A total of 149 pens housing approximately 19 barrows and gilts/pen (a mix of approximately 50% barrows and 50% gilts; 0.3 m2/pig) were used. Pigs were approximately 6 weeks of age. The pen applied injection treatments were (1) Ingelvac...

How Does the Type of Vaccine Affect Pig Approachability Pre- and Post-vaccination?

The objective of this study was to determine if nursery pigs display different behaviors and postures pre- and post-injection using a live- and digital image methodology. A total of 149 pens housing approximately 19 barrows and gilts/pen (a mix of approximately 50% barrows and 50% gilts; 0.3 m2/pig) were used. Barrows and gilts were approximately 6-wk of age from a commercial...

Composition of Eleven Pig By-Products

The objective of this study was to evaluate 11 pork-based by-products for chemical and mineral composition to potentially serve as ingredients in carviore diets. By-products ranged widely in composition: DM: 26.0-71.2%; OM: 53.0-96.8%; CP: 22.9-79.3%; fat: 22.0-63.2%; CF: 0.3-19.5%; TDF: 0.0-3.4%; GE: 3.7-7.5 kcal/g; ME: 3.23-6.86 kcal/g. This nutrient range provides flexibility...

Evaluation of How Anesthesia Affect Body Temperature in Sows Using Infrared Thermography

The objective of this experiment was to determine the relationship between rectal temperature and infrared temperature measured on the inner eye, center- and ear base of sows undergoing anesthesia. A total of six sows were used. Sows were anaesthetized using a combination of xylazine, tiletamine HCl and ketamine. Thermal images at the inner ear, ear center and ear base were taken...

Behavioral Associations during a Novel Object Test and Performance of Barrows Divergently Selected for ResidualFeed Intake

Selection for decreased RFI is controversial from a welfare standpoint, given that the genetic variation in RFI reflects the genetic variation in activity and response to stress. The objective of this experiment was to examine the behavioral metric correlations and growth performance of barrows divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI) during a novel object test. Forty...

Behavioral Associations during a Human Approach Test and Performance of Barrows Divergently Selected for ResidualFeed Intake

The objective of this experiment was to examine the behavioral metric correlations and growth performance of barrows divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI) during a Human Approach Test. Forty low- (LRFI, more feed efficient) and 40 high-RFI (HRFI, less feed efficient) barrows from the 8th generation Yorkshire selection lines were randomly selected. Barrows were...

Genetic Parameters and Genomic Regions Associated with Growth Rate and Response to Newcastle Disease in Local Chicken Ecotypes in Ghana and Tanzania

Local chicken enterprises in Africa are of great importance to household livelihoods but face major constraints with devastating disease outbreaks such as Newcastle disease (ND), which cause major economic losses. A study was conducted in two countries, Ghana and Tanzania, where three ecotypes in each country were challenged with a lentogenic (vaccine) strain of ND virus and...

Determining Presence of Yolk Sac and Intestinal Bacterial Colonization in Pre-hatch Chicken Embryos

Chicks hatch with a sterile gastrointestinal tract and receive the first colonization of intestinal bacteria from the shell and hatching environment. Bacteria may translocate from the shell to remaining yolk and/or the developing embryo pre-hatch due to penetration of the protective bloom on the unwashed shell’s surface. The objective of this study was to determine the presence...

Energy Digestibility of a High Protein DDGS Product in Broilers

Changes to the production method of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a common feedstuff in poultry diets, can alter the nutrient profile and energy content. Estimates of DDGS digestibility vary as a result of the altered production method, removal of value-added products like distiller’s corn oil, as well as the strain of chicken used (broiler vs. layer). The...

Amino Acid Digestibility of a High Protein DDGS Product in Broilers

Distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are a common feedstuff in poultry diets, however, digestibility estimates vary with production method and strain (broiler vs layer). The objective of this study was to determine the amino acid digestibility of 34.1% (as fed) high-protein DDGS in straight-run Cobb 500 broiler chickens. Calculated standardized ileal amino acid...

Integration of Host and Virus Gene Expression for Chickens Response to Avian Leukosis Virus Challenge

The tumorigenesis caused by avian leukosis virus (ALV) occurs through a complex regulatory architecture. , We applied a novel methodology to jointly analyze four different types of datasets: mRNA expression, the associated regulatory factors of miRNA and lncRNA, and ALV gene expression. The pathway analysis shows that combined analysis produced more informative results than...

Regions of Genomic Control Identified for Feed Efficiency in Laying Hens under Heat Stress

The future of agriculture presents unique challenges, including producing more food using fewer resources, as global climate changes. Genetic selection and genomic data continue to be valuable tools in animal agriculture that will help address these challenges. We used genomic data and statistical analysis to investigate response of laying hens to heat stress. Hens of the Hy-Line...