Lipids in Health and Disease

http://www.lipidworld.com/

List of Papers (Total 1,673)

APOAV (T-1131>C) variant has no effect on mother's height in a large population study

The important role of APOAV gene T-1131>C variant in determination of plasma triglyceride levels has been proved on many population studies. Recently, associations between C-1131 allele and higher mother's height as well as with longer fetal birth length were suggested. In 1,305 females, aged between 28 and 67 years and having at least one child, we have analyzed a putative...

Assessing compliance of cardiologists with the national cholesterol education program (NCEP) III guidelines in an ambulatory care setting

Introduction The NCEP III -ATP guidelines provide clear clinical directives for lipid management especially statins therapy in appropriate patient groups. Compliance of primary care physicians with these guidelines especially in ambulatory care settings has been shown to be poor. The compliance of cardiologist to these guidelines is less documented. Methods A retrospective chart...

Human apoB contributes to increased serum total apo(a) level in LPA transgenic mice

Background The Lp(a) lipoprotein (Lp(a)) consists of the polymorphic glycoprotein apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)), which is attached by a disulfide bond to apolipoprotein B (apoB). Apo(a), which has high homology with plasminogen, is present only in primates and hedgehogs. However, transgenic mice and rabbits with high serum apo(a) levels exist. Liver is the main site for apo(a...

Positive pleiotropic effects of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor on vitiligo

Background HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are commonly used in medicine to control blood lipid disorder. Large clinical trials have demonstrated that statins greatly reduces cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality in patients with and without coronary artery disease. Also, the use of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors has been reported to have immunosuppressive effects...

Effect of Lovastatin on Lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant concentrations in hemodialysis patients

Background Atherosclerosis is the main cause of mortality and morbidity in end stage renal diseases (ESRD), especially in hemodialysis (HD) patients. In addition the classic risk factors for atherosclerosis, non classical risk factors, such as high lipid peroxidation and low antioxidants, also, are culprit in the pathogenesis. Method We tested lipid peroxidation and total...

Plant sterols: factors affecting their efficacy and safety as functional food ingredients

Plant sterols are naturally occurring molecules that humanity has evolved with. Herein, we have critically evaluated recent literature pertaining to the myriad of factors affecting efficacy and safety of plant sterols in free and esterified forms. We conclude that properly solubilized 4-desmetyl plant sterols, in ester or free form, in reasonable doses (0.8–1.0 g of equivalents...

NFY interacts with the promoter region of two genes involved in the rat peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation: the multifunctional protein type 1 and the 3-ketoacyl-CoA B thiolase

Background β-oxidation of long and very long chain fatty acyl-CoA derivatives occurs in peroxisomes, which are ubiquitous subcellular organelles of eukaryotic cells. This pathway releases acetyl-CoA as precursor for several key molecules such as cholesterol. Numerous enzymes participating to cholesterol and fatty acids biosynthesis pathways are co-localized in peroxisomes and...

Distribution of serum lipids and lipoproteins in patients with beta thalassaemia major; an epidemiological study in young adults from Greece

Background Beta-thalassaemia major (b-TM) has been defined as a combination of chronic hemolytic anemia, iron storage disease and myocarditis, and it has been associated with premature death especially due to heart failure. To the best of our knowledge the status of blood lipids in these patients has rarely been investigated. Thus, we assessed the levels of lipids and...

Cholesterol-lowering properties of Ganoderma lucidum in vitro, ex vivo, and in hamsters and minipigs

Introduction There has been renewed interest in mushroom medicinal properties. We studied cholesterol lowering properties of Ganoderma lucidum (Gl), a renowned medicinal species. Results Organic fractions containing oxygenated lanosterol derivatives inhibited cholesterol synthesis in T9A4 hepatocytes. In hamsters, 5% Gl did not effect LDL; but decreased total cholesterol (TC) 9.8...

Arachidonoyl-Phospholipid Remodeling in Proliferating Murine T Cells

Backgound Previous studies have shown that the functional capacity of T cells may be modulated by the composition of fatty acids within, and the release of fatty acids from membrane phospholipids, particulary containing arachidonic acid (AA). The remodeling of AA within membrane phospholipids of resting and proliferating CD4+ and CD8+ T cells is examined in this study. Results...

Short term effects of dietary medium-chain fatty acids and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on the fat metabolism of healthy volunteers

Background The amount and quality of dietary fatty acids can modulate the fat metabolism. Objective This dietary intervention is based on the different metabolic pathways of long-chain saturated fatty acids (LCFA), which are mostly stored in adipocytic triacylglycerols, medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) which are preferentially available for hepatic mitochondrial β-oxidation and n...

Genetic variants in Apolipoprotein AV alter triglyceride concentrations in pregnancy

Background Triglyceride concentrations are raised in pregnancy and are considered a key fetal fuel. Several gene variants are known to alter triglyceride concentrations, including those in the Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL), and most recently, the Apolipoprotein AV (ApoAV) gene. However, less is known about how variants in these genes alter triglyceride...

Insulin sensitivity and Lp(α) concentrations in normoglycemic offspring of type 2 diabetic parents

Background Offspring of at least 1 parent with type 2 diabetes are more resistant to the insulin action, exhibit higher incidence of dyslipidemia and are more prone to cardiovascular diseases. The association between Lp(α) and coronary heart disease is well established. An association between Lp(α) concentration and insulin sensitivity was examined in this study. We investigated...

Variations in the lipid profile of patients with chronic renal failure treated with pyridoxine

Background Hyperhomocysteinemia and lipid abnormalities are commonly found in patients with chronic renal failure; both are recognized as risk factors for atherosclerosis. The homocysteine-lowering effect of pyridoxine is controversial. This study was performed to determine the effect of a high dose of pyridoxine (300 mg i.v. three times a week) on plasma and red blood cell lipid...

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) versus saturated fats/cholesterol: their proportion in fatty and lean meats may affect the risk of developing colon cancer

In spite of the considerable amount of experimental, clinical and epidemiological research about the consumption of red meat, total fats, saturated/unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol with regard to the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC), the issue remains controversial. The general belief is a reduction of red meat intake, and subsequent nutritional advice usually...

Endocannabinoid signalling in the blood of patients with schizophrenia

Aim To test the hypothesis that schizophrenia might be associated with alterations of the endogenous cannabinoid system in human blood. Results Blood from 20 healthy volunteers and 12 patients with schizophrenia, 5 of which both before and after a successful antipsychotic treatment, was analysed for: 1) the amounts of the endocannabinoid anandamide; 2) the levels of cannabinoid...

Potential role of the interaction between equine estrogens, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in the prevention of coronary heart and neurodegenerative diseases in postmenopausal women

Background An inverse relationship between the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and coronary heart disease (CHD) has been reported. In contrast, oxidized HDL (oHDL) has been shown to induce neuronal death and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of CHD. In the present study we have investigated a: the effect of various equine estrogens on HDL oxidation, b: the...

Physical activity, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and other lipids levels, in men and women from the ATTICA study

Background Physical activity has long been associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). In this work we evaluated the effect of physical activity on lipid levels, in a sample of cardiovascular disease free people. Methods The ATTICA study is a population – based cohort that has randomly enrolled 2772 individuals, stratified by age – gender (according to the...

Phase angle correlates with n-3 fatty acids and cholesterol in red cells of Nigerian children with sickle cell disease

Objective To determine the cholesterol content and fatty acid composition of red cell membrane phospholipids (PL) of children with sickle cell disease (SCD) and to correlate these levels with whole body phase angle that is related to the integrity and function of cell membranes. Study design Blood samples were obtained from 69 children with SCD and 72 healthy age- and gender...

Epidermal anti-Inflammatory properties of 5,11,14 20:3: Effects on mouse ear edema, PGE2 levels in cultured keratinocytes, and PPAR activation

Background 5,11,14 20:3 is similar to 20:4n-6 but lacks the internal Δ8 double bond essential for prostaglandin and eicosanoid synthesis. When previously fed to laboratory animals as a gymnosperm seed oil component it has shown anti-inflammatory properties. Results Herein, topically applied Podocarpus nagi methyl esters (containing 26% 5,11,14 20:3) were incorporated into mouse...

Quantification of anandamide content in animal cells and tissues: the normalization makes the difference

Anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine, AEA) is an endogenous lipid that binds to cannabinoid receptors in the central nervous system and in peripheral cells. Quantitative analysis of AEA is generally based on the normalization to the fresh weight of the samples. Here, we show that the normalization procedure of AEA content is such a critical factor, that it might introduce per...

Effects of dietary lipids on cell proliferation of murine oral mucosa

Background The lack of certain essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) induces perturbation in cell proliferation, apoptosis and dedifferentiation that could be linked to an increased protumorigenic trend. Contrarily, n-3 essential fatty acids (EFAs) arrest cell proliferation in several tumor models. According to the concept of field cancerization, multiple patches of...

Dietary effects of arachidonate-rich fungal oil and fish oil on murine hepatic and hippocampal gene expression

Background The functions, actions, and regulation of tissue metabolism affected by the consumption of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) from fish oil and other sources remain poorly understood; particularly how LC-PUFAs affect transcription of genes involved in regulating metabolism. In the present work, mice were fed diets containing fish oil rich in...