Plant and Soil

http://link.springer.com/journal/11104

List of Papers (Total 401)

Residual effect of BNI by Brachiaria humidicola pasture on nitrogen recovery and grain yield of subsequent maize

Background and Aims The forage grass Brachiaria humidicola (Bh) has been shown to reduce soil microbial nitrification. However, it is not known if biological nitrification inhibition (BNI) also has an effect on nitrogen (N) cycling during cultivation of subsequent crops. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the residual BNI effect of a converted long-term Bh ...

Understanding cassava yield response to soil and fertilizer nutrient supply in West Africa

Background and aims Enhanced understanding of plant and nutrient interactions is key to improving yields. We adapted the model for QUantitative Evaluation of the Fertility of Tropical Soils (QUEFTS) to assess cassava yield response to soil and fertilizer nutrients in West Africa. Methods Data from on-station and farmer’s field experiments across Togo and Ghana were used. Results ...

Intensive ground vegetation growth mitigates the carbon loss after forest disturbance

Aims Slow or failed tree regeneration after forest disturbance is increasingly observed in the central European Alps, potentially amplifying the carbon (C) loss from disturbance. We aimed at quantifying C dynamics of a poorly regenerating disturbance site with a special focus on the role of non-woody ground vegetation. Methods Soil CO2 efflux, fine root biomass, ground vegetation ...

Thaw pond development and initial vegetation succession in experimental plots at a Siberian lowland tundra site

Background and aims Permafrost degradation has the potential to change the Arctic tundra landscape. We observed rapid local thawing of ice-rich permafrost resulting in thaw pond formation, which was triggered by removal of the shrub cover in a field experiment. This study aimed to examine the rate of permafrost thaw and the initial vegetation succession after the permafrost ...

Determining the fate of selenium in wheat biofortification: an isotopically labelled field trial study

Aims The principal aim of this research was to quantify retention of a single, realistic Se biofortification application (10 g ha−1) in contrasting soils over two growing seasons utilizing an enriched stable Se isotope (77Se) to discriminate between applied Se and native soil Se. Methods Isotopically enriched 77Se (Na2SeO4) was applied (10 g ha−1) to four replicate plots (2 m × 2 ...

Inter- and intra-species intercropping of barley cultivars and legume species, as affected by soil phosphorus availability

Aims Intercropping can improve plant yields and soil phosphorus (P) use efficiency. This study compares inter- and intra-species intercropping, and determines whether P uptake and shoot biomass accumulation in intercrops are affected by soil P availability. Methods Four barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) and three legume species (Trifolium subterreneum, Ornithopus sativus and ...

Opportunities for mobilizing recalcitrant phosphorus from agricultural soils: a review

Background Phosphorus (P) fertilizer is usually applied in excess of plant requirement and accumulates in soils due to its strong adsorption, rapid precipitation and immobilisation into unavailable forms including organic moieties. As soils are complex and diverse chemical, biochemical and biological systems, strategies to access recalcitrant soil P are often inefficient, case ...

An energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence method for analysing Fe and Zn in common bean, maize and cowpea biofortification programs

Background and aims Biofortification breeding programs have the need for rapid and accurate screening methods to identify nutrient dense genotypes. This study explores the use of energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) for the rapid screening of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) concentration in three coarse-grain crops; common bean, maize and cowpea. Methods Bean, maize and cowpea seed ...

The effect of crop rotation between wetland rice and upland maize on the microbial communities associated with roots

Background and aims Microorganisms colonize plant roots for mutual benefits. Colonization is initiated by the soil microbial community but is also affected by soil conditions and plant type. Rice typically grows under wetland conditions that are anoxic, thus being supportive for an anaerobic methanogenic microbial community. Maize, however, grows under upland conditions that are ...

Chemical changes in organic matter after fungal colonization in a nitrogen fertilized and unfertilized Norway spruce forest

Background and aims Decomposition and transformation of organic matter (OM) in forest soils are conducted by the concomitant action of saprotrophic and mycorrhizal fungi. Here, we examine chemical changes in OM after fungal colonization in nitrogen fertilized and unfertilized soils from a Norway spruce forest. Methods Sand-filled bags amended with composted maize leaves were placed ...

Impacts of peat bulk density, ash deposition and rainwater chemistry on establishment of peatland mosses

Background and aims Peatland moss communities play an important role in ecosystem function. Drivers such as fire and atmospheric pollution have the capacity to influence mosses via multiple pathways. Here, we investigate physical and chemical processes which may influence establishment and growth of three key moss species in peatlands. Methods A controlled factorial experiment ...

Simple synthesis of 32P-labelled inositol hexakisphosphates for study of phosphate transformations

Background and aims In many soils inositol hexakisphosphate in its various forms is as abundant as inorganic phosphate. The organismal and geochemical processes that exchange phosphate between inositol hexakisphosphate and other pools of soil phosphate are poorly defined, as are the organisms and enzymes involved. We rationalized that simple enzymic synthesis of inositol ...

Different sets of belowground traits predict the ability of plant species to suppress and tolerate their competitors

Background and aims Functional traits may underlie differences in niches, which promote plant species co-existence, but also differences in competitive ability, which drive competitive exclusion. Empirical evidence concerning the contribution of different traits to niche differentiation and the ability to supress and tolerate competitors is very limited, particularly when ...

Phylogenetic distribution, biogeography and the effects of land management upon bacterial non-specific Acid phosphatase Gene diversity and abundance

Background and aims Bacterial Non-Specific Acid Phosphatase (NSAP) enzymes are capable of dephosphorylating diverse organic phosphoesters but are rarely studied: their distribution in natural and managed environments is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to generate new insight into the environmental distribution of NSAPs and establish their potential global relevance to ...

Depth of soil compaction predominantly affects rice yield reduction by reproductive-stage drought at varietal screening sites in Bangladesh, India, and Nepal

Aims Drought is the major constraint to rainfed rice productivity in South Asia, but few reports provide detailed characterization of the soil properties related to drought stress severity in the region. The aim of the study was to provide a compilation of drought breeding network sites and their respective levels of drought stress, and to relate soil parameters with yield ...

A mutation in pssE affects exopolysaccharide synthesis by Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii, its surface properties, and symbiosis with clover

Background and aims A considerable majority of the proteins involved in exopolysaccharide synthesis in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii are encoded by pss genes located in a large chromosomal region named Pss-I. The aim of this work was to characterize the phenotypic and symbiotic properties of strain Rt1933, which has a mutation in pssE. This gene encodes an enzyme responsible ...

The effect of pH, electrolytes and temperature on the rhizosphere geochemistry of phytosiderophores

Background and aims Graminaceous plants are grown worldwide as staple crops under a variety of climatic and soil conditions. They release phytosiderophores for Fe acquisition (Strategy II). Aim of the present study was to uncover how the rhizosphere pH, background electrolyte and temperature affect the mobilization of Fe and other metals from soil by phytosiderophores. Methods For ...

Phylogenetic or environmental control on the elemental and organo-chemical composition of Sphagnum mosses?

Background and aims Plant litter chemistry is a key driver of decomposition in peatlands. This study explored the relative contributions of phylogeny and environment to litter chemistry of peat mosses (Sphagnum), the key peat-forming plants on earth. Methods Fifteen Sphagnum species, representing three taxonomic sections ACUTIFOLIA, CUSPIDATA and SPHAGNUM, were sampled across a ...

Methyl jasmonate treatment increases podophyllotoxin production in Podophyllum hexandrum roots under glasshouse conditions

Background and aim The endangered Podophyllum hexandrum is an important industrial source of podophyllotoxin, which is a precursor for the anticancer drugs etoposide and teniposide. Attempts to obtain podophyllotoxin through cell cultures or chemical synthesis have still a long way to go before being economical feasible. The objective of this study was to increase the root ...

Correlating hydrologic reinforcement of vegetated soil with plant traits during establishment of woody perennials

Background and aims Vegetation stabilizes slopes via root mechanical reinforcement and hydrologic reinforcement induced by transpiration. Most studies have focused on mechanical reinforcement and its correlation with plant biomechanical traits. The correlations however generally ignore the effects of hydrologic reinforcement. This study aims to quantify the hydrologic reinforcement ...

Molecular dynamics in germinating, endophyte-colonized quinoa seeds

Aims The pseudo-cereal quinoa has an outstanding nutritional value. Seed germination is unusually fast, and plant tolerance to salt stress exceptionally high. Seemingly all seeds harbor bacterial endophytes. This work examines mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activities during early development. It evaluates possible contribution of endophytes to rapid germination and plant ...