Carcinogenesis

https://academic.oup.com/carcin

List of Papers (Total 1,888)

Mlh1 deficiency in normal mouse colon mucosa associates with chromosomally unstable colon cancer

Colorectal cancer (CRC) genome is unstable and different types of instabilities, such as chromosomal instability (CIN) and microsatellite instability (MSI) are thought to reflect distinct cancer initiating mechanisms. Although 85% of sporadic CRC reveal CIN, 15% reveal mismatch repair (MMR) malfunction and MSI, the hallmarks of Lynch syndrome with inherited heterozygous germline...

The interplay between oral microbiome, lifestyle factors and genetic polymorphisms in the risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma

Poor oral hygiene may lead to overgrowth of pathogenic oral bacteria, which may induce chronic inflammation to promote the oncogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). This study investigated the association between oral bacterial profile and OSCC risk in a case–control study of 138 OSCC cases and 151 controls (88 cases and 90 controls for the discovery group and 50 cases...

Retraction

Application of the key characteristics of carcinogens in cancer hazard identification

Smith et al. (Env. Health Perspect. 124: 713, 2016) identified 10 key characteristics (KCs), one or more of which are commonly exhibited by established human carcinogens. The KCs reflect the properties of a cancer-causing agent, such as ‘is genotoxic,’ ‘is immunosuppressive’ or ‘modulates receptor-mediated effects,’ and are distinct from the hallmarks of cancer, which are the...

A study of circulating microRNAs identifies a new potential biomarker panel to distinguish aggressive prostate cancer

Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men worldwide. Currently available diagnostic and prognostic tools for this disease, such as prostate specific antigen, suffer from lack of specificity and sensitivity, resulting in over- and misdiagnosis. Hence, there is an urgent need for clinically relevant biomarkers capable of distinguishing between aggressive and...

Identification of cancer biomarkers of prognostic value using specific gene regulatory networks (GRN): a novel role of RAD51AP1 for ovarian and lung cancers

To date, microarray analyses have led to the discovery of numerous individual ‘molecular signatures’ associated with specific cancers. However, there are serious limitations for the adoption of these multi-gene signatures in the clinical environment for diagnostic or prognostic testing as studies with more power need to be carried out. This may involve larger richer cohorts and...

A novel experimental model for human mixed acinar–ductal pancreatic cancer

Pancreatic cancer has remained refractory to treatment. In large part, this results from the lack of an animal model that mimics pancreatic cancer in man. We describe a novel experimental model of pancreatic cancer that shares the genetic background, histologic features and natural history of human mixed acinar–ductal carcinoma. Adult wild-type mice received an injection into the...

Identification of PMN-released mutagenic factors in a co-culture model for colitis-associated cancer

Microsatellite instability (MSI) is present in ulcerative colitis (UC) and colitis-associated colorectal cancers (CAC). Certain factors released by polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) may drive mucosal frameshift mutations resulting in MSI and cancer. Here, we applied a co-culture system with PMNs and colon epithelial cells to identify such culprit factors. Subjecting HCT116 + chr3...

Fibroblast growth factor-2–mediated FGFR/Erk signaling supports maintenance of cancer stem-like cells in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

In esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), a subset of cells defined by high expression of CD44 and low expression of CD24 has been reported to possess characteristics of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). Novel therapies directly targeting CSCs have the potential to improve prognosis of ESCC patients. Although fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) expression correlates with...

PPARδ promotes tumor progression via activation of Glut1 and SLC1-A5 transcription

Malignant cancer cell uncontrolled growth depends on the persistent nutrient availability such as glucose and amino acids, which is required for cancer cell energetic and biosynthetic pathways. As a nuclear hormone receptor, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) plays a critical role in inflammation and cancer, however, it is still unclear the regulatory mechanism...

Microvesicles derived from normal and multiple myeloma bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells differentially modulate myeloma cells’ phenotype and translation initiation

Multiple myeloma (MM) cells’ interaction with the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment critically hinders disease therapy. Previously, we showed that MM co-culture with BM-mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) caused co-modulation of translation initiation (TI) and cell phenotype and implicated secreted components, specifically microvesicles (MVs). Here, we studied the role of the BM-MSCs...

Role of DHX33 in c-Myc-induced cancers

Oncogene c-Myc is frequently amplified and activated in human cancers. Deregulation of c-Myc protein has been shown to occur in 30% of all human cancers, especially in hematopoietic malignancies. As a transcription factor, c-Myc has been shown to regulate up to 15% of all human genome genes, controlling diverse cellular activities including cell cycle, ribosome biogenesis...

Inhibition of PRDM14 expression in pancreatic cancer suppresses cancer stem-like properties and liver metastasis in mice

Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer, with aggressive properties characterized by metastasis, recurrence and drug resistance. Cancer stem cells are considered to be responsible for these properties. PRDM14, a transcriptional regulator that maintains pluripotency in embryonic stem cells, is overexpressed in some cancers. Here, we assessed PRDM14 expression...

Human mitochondrial pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1 promotes invasiveness and impacts survival in breast cancers

Human mitochondrial pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (PYCR) is a house-keeping enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate to proline. This enzymatic cycle plays pivotal roles in amino acid metabolism, intracellular redox potential and mitochondrial integrity. Here, we hypothesize that PYCR1 might be a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for...

DNA-damage response in hematopoietic stem cells: an evolutionary trade-off between blood regeneration and leukemia suppression

Self-renewing and multipotent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) maintain lifelong hematopoiesis. Their enormous regenerative potential coupled with lifetime persistence in the body, in contrast with the Progenitors, demand tight control of HSCs genome stability. Indeed, failure to accurately repair DNA damage in HSCs is associated with bone marrow failure and accelerated...

p53 and its mutants on the slippery road from stemness to carcinogenesis

Normal development, tissue homeostasis and regeneration following injury rely on the proper functions of wide repertoire of stem cells (SCs) persisting during embryonic period and throughout the adult life. Therefore, SCs employ robust mechanisms to preserve their genomic integrity and avoid heritage of mutations to their daughter cells. Importantly, propagation of SCs with...

Acute exposure to DEHP metabolite, MEHP cause genotoxicity, mutagenesis and carcinogenicity in mammalian Chinese hamster ovary cells

Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), the common plasticizer used in the production of polyvinyl chloride, can be converted to the more potent metabolite mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP). Epidemiological studies have shown an association with elevated induction of rat hepatic cancer and reproductive toxicity in response to MEHP exposure. However, the mechanism of genotoxicity and...

Molecular profiles of benign and (pre)malignant endometrial lesions

Endometrial carcinomas are histologically classified as endometrioid, assumed to originate from hyperplastic endometrium, or non-endometrioid carcinomas, assumed to originate from atrophic endometrium. However, both on a histological and a molecular level there are indications that there are more carcinoma types and carcinogenetic pathways. This study aims to analyze endometrial...

Six1 promotes colorectal cancer growth and metastasis by stimulating angiogenesis and recruiting tumor-associated macrophages

The homeoprotein Six1 is overexpressed in many human cancers and is associated with increased tumor progression and metastasis. Recent studies have shown that Six1 is associated with poorer overall survival in advanced-stage colorectal cancer (CRC). In the current study, we explored the functional changes and molecular events associated with Six1 overexpression in a mouse model...