Carcinogenesis

https://academic.oup.com/carcin

List of Papers (Total 2,172)

Cell line-based xenograft mouse model of paediatric glioma stem cells mirrors the clinical course of the patient

The leading cause of cancer-related mortality among children is brain tumour, and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) has the worst prognosis. New treatments are urgently needed, but with few cases and clinical trials in children, pre-clinical models such as patient-derived tumour xenografts (PDTX) are important. To generate these, tumour tissue is transplanted into mice, but this...

Mlh1 deficiency in normal mouse colon mucosa associates with chromosomally unstable colon cancer

Colorectal cancer (CRC) genome is unstable and different types of instabilities, such as chromosomal instability (CIN) and microsatellite instability (MSI) are thought to reflect distinct cancer initiating mechanisms. Although 85% of sporadic CRC reveal CIN, 15% reveal mismatch repair (MMR) malfunction and MSI, the hallmarks of Lynch syndrome with inherited heterozygous germline...

The interplay between oral microbiome, lifestyle factors and genetic polymorphisms in the risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma

Poor oral hygiene may lead to overgrowth of pathogenic oral bacteria, which may induce chronic inflammation to promote the oncogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). This study investigated the association between oral bacterial profile and OSCC risk in a case–control study of 138 OSCC cases and 151 controls (88 cases and 90 controls for the discovery group and 50 cases...

Retraction

Application of the key characteristics of carcinogens in cancer hazard identification

Smith et al. (Env. Health Perspect. 124: 713, 2016) identified 10 key characteristics (KCs), one or more of which are commonly exhibited by established human carcinogens. The KCs reflect the properties of a cancer-causing agent, such as ‘is genotoxic,’ ‘is immunosuppressive’ or ‘modulates receptor-mediated effects,’ and are distinct from the hallmarks of cancer, which are the...

A study of circulating microRNAs identifies a new potential biomarker panel to distinguish aggressive prostate cancer

Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men worldwide. Currently available diagnostic and prognostic tools for this disease, such as prostate specific antigen, suffer from lack of specificity and sensitivity, resulting in over- and misdiagnosis. Hence, there is an urgent need for clinically relevant biomarkers capable of distinguishing between aggressive and...

Identification of cancer biomarkers of prognostic value using specific gene regulatory networks (GRN): a novel role of RAD51AP1 for ovarian and lung cancers

To date, microarray analyses have led to the discovery of numerous individual ‘molecular signatures’ associated with specific cancers. However, there are serious limitations for the adoption of these multi-gene signatures in the clinical environment for diagnostic or prognostic testing as studies with more power need to be carried out. This may involve larger richer cohorts and...

A novel experimental model for human mixed acinar–ductal pancreatic cancer

Pancreatic cancer has remained refractory to treatment. In large part, this results from the lack of an animal model that mimics pancreatic cancer in man. We describe a novel experimental model of pancreatic cancer that shares the genetic background, histologic features and natural history of human mixed acinar–ductal carcinoma. Adult wild-type mice received an injection into the...

Identification of PMN-released mutagenic factors in a co-culture model for colitis-associated cancer

Microsatellite instability (MSI) is present in ulcerative colitis (UC) and colitis-associated colorectal cancers (CAC). Certain factors released by polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) may drive mucosal frameshift mutations resulting in MSI and cancer. Here, we applied a co-culture system with PMNs and colon epithelial cells to identify such culprit factors. Subjecting HCT116 + chr3...

Eicosapentaenoic acid attenuates obesity-related hepatocellular carcinogenesis

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the hepatic manifestation of obesity, is an emerging risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Accumulating evidence has shown that chronic inflammation represents a plausible link between obesity and HCC and that the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 contributes to the development of obesity-related HCC. In the present...

Fibroblast growth factor-2–mediated FGFR/Erk signaling supports maintenance of cancer stem-like cells in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

In esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), a subset of cells defined by high expression of CD44 and low expression of CD24 has been reported to possess characteristics of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). Novel therapies directly targeting CSCs have the potential to improve prognosis of ESCC patients. Although fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) expression correlates with...

Emerging evidence for the role of differential tumor microenvironment in breast cancer racial disparity: a closer look at the surroundings

Although increased awareness leading to early detection and prevention, as well as advancements in treatment strategies, have resulted in superior clinical outcomes, African American women with breast cancer continue to have greater mortality rates, compared to Caucasian American counterparts. Moreover, African American women are more likely to have breast cancer at a younger age...

PPARδ promotes tumor progression via activation of Glut1 and SLC1-A5 transcription

Malignant cancer cell uncontrolled growth depends on the persistent nutrient availability such as glucose and amino acids, which is required for cancer cell energetic and biosynthetic pathways. As a nuclear hormone receptor, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) plays a critical role in inflammation and cancer, however, it is still unclear the regulatory mechanism...

Microvesicles derived from normal and multiple myeloma bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells differentially modulate myeloma cells’ phenotype and translation initiation

Multiple myeloma (MM) cells’ interaction with the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment critically hinders disease therapy. Previously, we showed that MM co-culture with BM-mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) caused co-modulation of translation initiation (TI) and cell phenotype and implicated secreted components, specifically microvesicles (MVs). Here, we studied the role of the BM-MSCs...

Role of DHX33 in c-Myc-induced cancers

Oncogene c-Myc is frequently amplified and activated in human cancers. Deregulation of c-Myc protein has been shown to occur in 30% of all human cancers, especially in hematopoietic malignancies. As a transcription factor, c-Myc has been shown to regulate up to 15% of all human genome genes, controlling diverse cellular activities including cell cycle, ribosome biogenesis...

Inhibition of PRDM14 expression in pancreatic cancer suppresses cancer stem-like properties and liver metastasis in mice

Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer, with aggressive properties characterized by metastasis, recurrence and drug resistance. Cancer stem cells are considered to be responsible for these properties. PRDM14, a transcriptional regulator that maintains pluripotency in embryonic stem cells, is overexpressed in some cancers. Here, we assessed PRDM14 expression...

Inactivation of JNK2 as carcinogenic factor in colitis-associated and sporadic colorectal carcinogenesis

We recently reported that dysregulated c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) activity causes defective cell cycle checkpoint control, inducing neoplastic transformation in a cellular ulcerative colitis (UC) model. In the quiescent chronic phase of UC, p-p54 JNK was down-regulated and p-p46 JNK was up-regulated. Both were up-regulated in the acute phase. Consequently, increased p21WAF1...

Human mitochondrial pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1 promotes invasiveness and impacts survival in breast cancers

Human mitochondrial pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (PYCR) is a house-keeping enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate to proline. This enzymatic cycle plays pivotal roles in amino acid metabolism, intracellular redox potential and mitochondrial integrity. Here, we hypothesize that PYCR1 might be a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for...