Carcinogenesis

https://academic.oup.com/carcin

List of Papers (Total 1,603)

Frequently mutated genes/pathways and genomic instability as prevention targets in liver cancer

The incidence of liver cancer has increased in recent years. Worldwide, liver cancer is common: more than 600000 related deaths are estimated each year. In the USA, about 27170 deaths due to liver cancer are estimated for 2016. Liver cancer is highly resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. For all stages combined, the 5-year survival rate is 15–17%, leaving much...

LPIN1 promotes epithelial cell transformation and mammary tumourigenesis via enhancing insulin receptor substrate 1 stability

LPIN1 is a protein that exhibits dual functions as a phosphatidic acid phosphatase enzyme in regulation of triglyceride and glycerophospholipid metabolism and a transcriptional coregulator. Through unknown tumour-promoting mechanism, LPIN1 frequently observed in various human cancer cell lines controls main cellular processes involved in cancer progression. Here, we demonstrate...

Aurora kinase-A overexpression in mouse mammary epithelium induces mammary adenocarcinomas harboring genetic alterations shared with human breast cancer

Recent data from The Cancer Genome Atlas analysis have revealed that Aurora kinase A (AURKA) amplification and overexpression characterize a distinct subset of human tumors across multiple cancer types. Although elevated expression of AURKA has been shown to induce oncogenic phenotypes in cells in vitro, findings from transgenic mouse models of Aurora-A overexpression in mammary...

Prevention of DNA damage in Barrett’s esophageal cells exposed to acidic bile salts

Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) is one of the fastest rising tumors in the USA. The major risk factor for EA is gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). During GERD, esophageal cells are exposed to refluxate which contains gastric acid frequently mixed with duodenal bile. This may lead to mucosal injury and Barrett’s metaplasia (BE) that are important factors contributing to...

Honokiol suppresses pancreatic tumor growth, metastasis and desmoplasia by interfering with tumor–stromal cross-talk

The poor clinical outcome of pancreatic cancer (PC) is largely attributed to its aggressive nature and refractoriness to currently available therapeutic modalities. We previously reported antitumor efficacy of honokiol (HNK), a phytochemical isolated from various parts of Magnolia plant, against PC cells in short-term in vitro growth assays. Here, we report that HNK reduces...

TGF-β-induced stromal CYR61 promotes resistance to gemcitabine in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma through downregulation of the nucleoside transporters hENT1 and hCNT3

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal cancer in part due to inherent resistance to chemotherapy, including the first-line drug gemcitabine. Although low expression of the nucleoside transporters hENT1 and hCNT3 that mediate cellular uptake of gemcitabine has been linked to gemcitabine resistance, the mechanisms regulating their expression in the PDAC tumor...

Dual targeting of MDM2 with a novel small-molecule inhibitor overcomes TRAIL resistance in cancer

Mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) protein functionally inactivates the tumor suppressor p53 in human cancer. Conventional MDM2 inhibitors provide limited clinical application as they interfere only with the MDM2–p53 interaction to release p53 from MDM2 sequestration but do not prevent activated p53 from transcriptionally inducing MDM2 expression. Here, we report a rationally...

Gender differences in cancer susceptibility: role of oxidative stress

Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and environmental factors, including chemicals, have been suggested as major etiological incitements. Cancer statistics indicates that men get more cancer than women. However, differences in the known risk factors including life style or occupational exposure only offer partial explanation. Using a text mining tool, we have...

p53 functional deficiency in human colon cancer cells promotes fibroblast-mediated angiogenesis and tumor growth

Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) create a microenvironment that contributes to tumor growth; however, the mechanism by which fibroblasts are phenotypically altered to CAFs remains unclear. Loss or mutation of the tumor suppressor p53 plays a crucial role in cancer progression. Herein, we analyzed how the p53 status of cancer cells affects fibroblasts by investigating the in...

Serum 5-LOX: a progressive protein marker for breast cancer and new approach for therapeutic target

Lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway has emerged to have a role in carcinogenesis. There is an evidence that both 12-LOX and 5-LOX have procarcinogenic role. We have previously reported the elevated level of serum 12-LOX in breast cancer patients. This study evaluated the serum level of 5-LOX in breast cancer patients and its in vitro inhibition assessment with peptide inhibitor YWCS. The...

miR-200b induces cell cycle arrest and represses cell growth in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

miR-200b is a pleiotropically acting microRNA in cancer progression, representing an attractive therapeutic target. We previously identified miR-200b as an invasiveness repressor in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), whereas further understanding is warranted to establish it as a therapeutic target. Here, we show that miR-200b mitigates ESCC cell growth by inducing G2...

Carcinogen-specific mutations in preferred Ras-Raf pathway oncogenes directed by strand bias

Carcinogen exposures inscribe mutation patterns on cancer genomes and sometimes bias the acquisition of driver mutations toward preferred oncogenes, potentially dictating sensitivity to targeted agents. Whether and how carcinogen-specific mutation patterns direct activation of preferred oncogenes remains poorly understood. Here, mouse models of breast cancer were exploited to...

Breast cancer cells compete with hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells for intercellular adhesion molecule 1-mediated binding to the bone marrow microenvironment

Adhesion-based cellular interactions involved in breast cancer metastasis to the bone marrow remain elusive. We identified that breast cancer cells directly compete with hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) for retention in the bone marrow microenvironment. To this end, we established two models of competitive cell adhesion—simultaneous and sequential—to study a...

Comparison of hematological alterations and markers of B-cell activation in workers exposed to benzene, formaldehyde and trichloroethylene

Benzene, formaldehyde (FA) and trichloroethylene (TCE) are ubiquitous chemicals in workplaces and the general environment. Benzene is an established myeloid leukemogen and probable lymphomagen. FA is classified as a myeloid leukemogen but has not been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), whereas TCE has been associated with NHL but not myeloid leukemia. Epidemiologic...

A case–control analysis of smoking and breast cancer in African American women: findings from the AMBER Consortium

Recent population studies suggest a role of smoking in the etiology of breast cancer, but few have been conducted among African American women. In a collaborative project of four large studies, we examined associations between smoking measures and breast cancer risk by menopause and hormone receptor status [estrogen receptor-positive (ER+), ER-negative (ER−) and triple-negative...

Genome-wide association study of colorectal cancer in Hispanics

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 58 susceptibility alleles across 37 regions associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) with P < 5×10−8. Most studies have been conducted in non-Hispanic whites and East Asians; however, the generalizability of these findings and the potential for ethnic-specific risk variation in Hispanic and Latino (HL) individuals...

Understanding mutagenesis through delineation of mutational signatures in human cancer

Each individual cell within a human body acquires a certain number of somatic mutations during a course of its lifetime. These mutations originate from a wide spectra of both endogenous and exogenous mutational processes that leave distinct patterns of mutations, termed mutational signatures, embedded within the genomes of all cells. In recent years, the vast amount of data...

Pancreatic cancer: associations of inflammatory potential of diet, cigarette smoking and long-standing diabetes

Epidemiologic studies show strong associations between pancreatic cancer (PC) and inflammatory stimuli or conditions such as cigarette smoking and diabetes, suggesting that inflammation may play a key role in PC. Studies of dietary patterns and cancer outcomes also suggest that diet might influence an individual’s risk of PC by modulating inflammation. We therefore examined...

Integrin-linked kinase as a novel molecular switch of the IL-6-NF-κB signaling loop in breast cancer

Substantial evidence has clearly demonstrated the role of the IL-6-NF-κB signaling loop in promoting aggressive phenotypes in breast cancer. However, the exact mechanism by which this inflammatory loop is regulated remains to be defined. Here, we report that integrin-linked kinase (ILK) acts as a molecular switch for this feedback loop. Specifically, we show that IL-6 induces ILK...