Carcinogenesis

https://academic.oup.com/carcin

List of Papers (Total 1,972)

Acute exposure to DEHP metabolite, MEHP cause genotoxicity, mutagenesis and carcinogenicity in mammalian Chinese hamster ovary cells

Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), the common plasticizer used in the production of polyvinyl chloride, can be converted to the more potent metabolite mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP). Epidemiological studies have shown an association with elevated induction of rat hepatic cancer and reproductive toxicity in response to MEHP exposure. However, the mechanism of genotoxicity and...

Molecular profiles of benign and (pre)malignant endometrial lesions

Endometrial carcinomas are histologically classified as endometrioid, assumed to originate from hyperplastic endometrium, or non-endometrioid carcinomas, assumed to originate from atrophic endometrium. However, both on a histological and a molecular level there are indications that there are more carcinoma types and carcinogenetic pathways. This study aims to analyze endometrial...

Six1 promotes colorectal cancer growth and metastasis by stimulating angiogenesis and recruiting tumor-associated macrophages

The homeoprotein Six1 is overexpressed in many human cancers and is associated with increased tumor progression and metastasis. Recent studies have shown that Six1 is associated with poorer overall survival in advanced-stage colorectal cancer (CRC). In the current study, we explored the functional changes and molecular events associated with Six1 overexpression in a mouse model...

Microbiota, NASH, HCC and the potential role of probiotics

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for the majority of primary liver cancers. Clearly identifiable risk factors are lacking in up to 30% of HCC patients and most of these cases are attributed to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Beyond the known risk factors for NAFLD, the intestinal microbiota, in particular dysbiosis...

Prevalence of HPV infection in racial–ethnic subgroups of head and neck cancer patients

The landscape of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in racial/ethnic subgroups of head and neck cancer (HNC) patients has not been evaluated carefully. In this study, a meta-analysis examined the prevalence of HPV in HNC patients of African ancestry. Additionally, a pooled analysis of subject-level data was also performed to investigate HPV prevalence and patterns of p16...

Downregulation of AZGP1 by Ikaros and histone deacetylase promotes tumor progression through the PTEN/Akt and CD44s pathways in hepatocellular carcinoma

Increasing evidence has shown that zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein (AZGP1) is associated with the progression and prognosis of several tumor types. However, little is known regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms of AZGP1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we report that transcription factor Ikaros bound to the AZGP1 promoter and increased its expression in HCC...

An indel polymorphism within pre-miR3131 confers risk for hepatocellular carcinoma

Polymorphisms in pre-miRNAs may affect its expression, then have effect on its target mRNAs and be associated with cancer susceptibility. In this study, we evaluated the association of an indel polymorphism rs57408770 in pre-miR-3131 with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) susceptibility in a Chinese population. The contribution of rs57408770 to HCC risk was investigated in two...

Mutation patterns in small cell and non-small cell lung cancer patients suggest a different level of heterogeneity between primary and metastatic tumors

Several studies have shown heterogeneity in lung cancer, with parallel existence of multiple subclones characterized by their own specific mutational landscape. The extent to which minor clones become dominant in distinct metastasis is not clear. The aim of our study was to gain insight in the evolution pattern of lung cancer by investigating genomic heterogeneity between primary...

Anti-inflammatory natural product goniothalamin reduces colitis-associated and sporadic colorectal tumorigenesis

The tumor microenvironment offers multiple targets for cancer therapy, including pro-tumorigenic inflammation. Natural compounds represent an enormous source of new anti-inflammatory and anticancer agents. We previously showed that the styryl lactone goniothalamin (GTN) has promising antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities. Because inflammation is a major driver of...

Frequently mutated genes/pathways and genomic instability as prevention targets in liver cancer

The incidence of liver cancer has increased in recent years. Worldwide, liver cancer is common: more than 600000 related deaths are estimated each year. In the USA, about 27170 deaths due to liver cancer are estimated for 2016. Liver cancer is highly resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. For all stages combined, the 5-year survival rate is 15–17%, leaving much...

LPIN1 promotes epithelial cell transformation and mammary tumourigenesis via enhancing insulin receptor substrate 1 stability

LPIN1 is a protein that exhibits dual functions as a phosphatidic acid phosphatase enzyme in regulation of triglyceride and glycerophospholipid metabolism and a transcriptional coregulator. Through unknown tumour-promoting mechanism, LPIN1 frequently observed in various human cancer cell lines controls main cellular processes involved in cancer progression. Here, we demonstrate...

Aurora kinase-A overexpression in mouse mammary epithelium induces mammary adenocarcinomas harboring genetic alterations shared with human breast cancer

Recent data from The Cancer Genome Atlas analysis have revealed that Aurora kinase A (AURKA) amplification and overexpression characterize a distinct subset of human tumors across multiple cancer types. Although elevated expression of AURKA has been shown to induce oncogenic phenotypes in cells in vitro, findings from transgenic mouse models of Aurora-A overexpression in mammary...

Prevention of DNA damage in Barrett’s esophageal cells exposed to acidic bile salts

Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) is one of the fastest rising tumors in the USA. The major risk factor for EA is gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). During GERD, esophageal cells are exposed to refluxate which contains gastric acid frequently mixed with duodenal bile. This may lead to mucosal injury and Barrett’s metaplasia (BE) that are important factors contributing to...

Downregulation of AIF by HIF-1 contributes to hypoxia-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition of colon cancer

Recently, we have reported that apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) regulates the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) process of cancers, but the mechanisms underlying the regulation of AIF expression in cancers remain greatly unknown. Here, we report that hypoxia inversely correlates with the expression of AIF in tumor tissues from a cohort of colon cancer patients and inhibits...

Honokiol suppresses pancreatic tumor growth, metastasis and desmoplasia by interfering with tumor–stromal cross-talk

The poor clinical outcome of pancreatic cancer (PC) is largely attributed to its aggressive nature and refractoriness to currently available therapeutic modalities. We previously reported antitumor efficacy of honokiol (HNK), a phytochemical isolated from various parts of Magnolia plant, against PC cells in short-term in vitro growth assays. Here, we report that HNK reduces...

TGF-β-induced stromal CYR61 promotes resistance to gemcitabine in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma through downregulation of the nucleoside transporters hENT1 and hCNT3

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal cancer in part due to inherent resistance to chemotherapy, including the first-line drug gemcitabine. Although low expression of the nucleoside transporters hENT1 and hCNT3 that mediate cellular uptake of gemcitabine has been linked to gemcitabine resistance, the mechanisms regulating their expression in the PDAC tumor...

Dual targeting of MDM2 with a novel small-molecule inhibitor overcomes TRAIL resistance in cancer

Mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) protein functionally inactivates the tumor suppressor p53 in human cancer. Conventional MDM2 inhibitors provide limited clinical application as they interfere only with the MDM2–p53 interaction to release p53 from MDM2 sequestration but do not prevent activated p53 from transcriptionally inducing MDM2 expression. Here, we report a rationally...

Gender differences in cancer susceptibility: role of oxidative stress

Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and environmental factors, including chemicals, have been suggested as major etiological incitements. Cancer statistics indicates that men get more cancer than women. However, differences in the known risk factors including life style or occupational exposure only offer partial explanation. Using a text mining tool, we have...

p53 functional deficiency in human colon cancer cells promotes fibroblast-mediated angiogenesis and tumor growth

Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) create a microenvironment that contributes to tumor growth; however, the mechanism by which fibroblasts are phenotypically altered to CAFs remains unclear. Loss or mutation of the tumor suppressor p53 plays a crucial role in cancer progression. Herein, we analyzed how the p53 status of cancer cells affects fibroblasts by investigating the in...