Carcinogenesis

https://academic.oup.com/carcin

List of Papers (Total 1,106)

Interactions of DNA repair gene variants modulate chromosomal aberrations in healthy subjects

Human cancers are often associated with numerical and structural chromosomal instability. Structural chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) arise as consequences of direct DNA damage or due to replication on a damaged DNA template. In both cases, DNA repair is critical and inter-individual differences in its capacity are probably due to corresponding...

Strong association between long and heterogeneous telomere length in blood lymphocytes and bladder cancer risk in Egyptian

Although it is widely recognized that telomere dysfunction plays an important role in cancer, the relationship between telomere function and bladder cancer risk is not well defined. In a case–control study of bladder cancer in Egypt, we examined relationships between two telomere features and bladder cancer risk. Telomere fluorescent in situ hybridization was used to measure...

HBP21, a chaperone of heat shock protein 70, functions as a tumor suppressor in hepatocellular carcinoma

Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, caused by genetic and epigenetic alterations, is one of the key issues in the development and progression of cancer. To identify and characterize cancer related genes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) pathogenesis, transcriptome sequencing has been applied to compare expression profiles between tumor and non-tumor tissues. Among the down...

Immunosuppression associated with chronic inflammation in the tumor microenvironment

Chronic inflammation contributes to cancer development via multiple mechanisms. One potential mechanism is that chronic inflammation can generate an immunosuppressive microenvironment that allows advantages for tumor formation and progression. The immunosuppressive environment in certain chronic inflammatory diseases and solid cancers is characterized by accumulation of...

Development of APE1 enzymatic DNA repair assays: low APE1 activity is associated with increase lung cancer risk

The key role of DNA repair in removing DNA damage and minimizing mutations makes it an attractive target for cancer risk assessment and prevention. Here we describe the development of a robust assay for apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease 1 (APE1; APEX1), an essential enzyme involved in the repair of oxidative DNA damage. APE1 DNA repair enzymatic activity was measured in...

miR-27 is associated with chemoresistance in esophageal cancer through transformation of normal fibroblasts to cancer-associated fibroblasts

There is increasing evidence that the expression of microRNA (miRNA) in cancer is associated with chemosensitivity but the mechanism of miRNA-induced chemoresistance has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to examine the role of extracellular miRNA in the response to chemotherapy in esophageal cancer. First, serum expression of miRNAs selected by miRNA array was...

Initiation of the ATM-Chk2 DNA damage response through the base excision repair pathway

The DNA damage response (DDR) is activated by various genotoxic stresses. Base lesions, which are structurally simple and predominantly fixed by base excision repair (BER), can trigger the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)–checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2) pathway, a DDR component. How these lesions trigger DDR remains unclear. Here we show that, for alkylation damage, methylpurine...

The cancer cells-of-origin in the gastrointestinal tract: progenitors revisited

A prominent model of tumor progression posits that normal self-renewing and multipotent stem cells(SCs) are the initial target of transformation. This view has been robustly challenged by the recurring observation that transit-amplifying cells and differentiated progenitors can initiate neoplasia outside the SC zone thus qualifying as cancer cells-of-origin. The emerging concept...

Reducing DNA methylation suppresses colon carcinogenesis by inducing tumor cell differentiation

The forced reduction of global DNA methylation suppresses tumor development in several cancer models in vivo. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying these suppressive effects remain unclear. In this report, we describe our findings showing that a genome-wide reduction in the DNA methylation levels induces cellular differentiation in association with decreased cell proliferation...

Fisetin, a dietary flavonoid, induces apoptosis of cancer cells by inhibiting HSF1 activity through blocking its binding to the hsp70 promoter

Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is a transcription factor for heat shock proteins (HSPs) expression that enhances the survival of cancer cells exposed to various stresses. HSF1 knockout suppresses carcinogen-induced cancer induction in mice. Therefore, HSF1 is a promising therapeutic and chemopreventive target. We performed cell-based screening with a natural compound collection and...

miR-29c suppresses pancreatic cancer liver metastasis in an orthotopic implantation model in nude mice and affects survival in pancreatic cancer patients

We investigated mechanisms of pancreatic cancer metastasis and defined the biological role of miR-29c in pancreatic cancer metastasis. After two rounds of cell selection in vivo, pancreatic cancer cells with various metastatic potentials derived from spontaneous liver metastases were used as a model of pancreatic cancer to determine the role of miR-29c in pancreatic cancer...