Carcinogenesis

https://academic.oup.com/carcin

List of Papers (Total 1,106)

Expression and clinical significance of genes frequently mutated in small cell lung cancers defined by whole exome/RNA sequencing

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is the most aggressive type of lung cancer. Only 15% of SCLC patients survive beyond 2 years after diagnosis. Therefore, for the improvement of patients’ outcome in this disease, it is necessary to identify genetic alterations applicable as therapeutic targets in SCLC cells. The purpose of this study is the identification of genes frequently mutated...

The impact of low-dose carcinogens and environmental disruptors on tissue invasion and metastasis

The purpose of this review is to stimulate new ideas regarding low-dose environmental mixtures and carcinogens and their potential to promote invasion and metastasis. Whereas a number of chapters in this review are devoted to the role of low-dose environmental mixtures and carcinogens in the promotion of invasion and metastasis in specific tumors such as breast and prostate, the...

Epigenetic clustering of gastric carcinomas based on DNA methylation profiles at the precancerous stage: its correlation with tumor aggressiveness and patient outcome

The aim of this study was to clarify the significance of DNA methylation alterations during gastric carcinogenesis. Single-CpG resolution genome-wide DNA methylation analysis using the Infinium assay was performed on 109 samples of non-cancerous gastric mucosa (N) and 105 samples of tumorous tissue (T). DNA methylation alterations in T samples relative to N samples were evident...

Testosterone regulates thyroid cancer progression by modifying tumor suppressor genes and tumor immunity

Cancer gender disparity has been observed for a variety of human malignancies. Thyroid cancer is one such cancer with a higher incidence in women, but more aggressive disease in men. There is scant evidence on the role of sex hormones on cancer initiation/progression. Using a transgenic mouse model of follicular thyroid cancer (FTC), we found castration led to lower rates of...

Nanoparticles increase the efficacy of cancer chemopreventive agents in cells exposed to cigarette smoke condensate

Lung cancer is a leading cause of death in developed countries. Although smoking cessation is a primary strategy for preventing lung cancer, former smokers remain at high risk of cancer. Accordingly, there is a need to increase the efficacy of lung cancer prevention. Poor bioavailability is the main factor limiting the efficacy of chemopreventive agents. The aim of this study was...

Antitumor effects of hyaluronan inhibition in desmoid tumors

Desmoid tumors (DTs) are rare, mesenchymal tumors that exhibit features of an abundant wound healing process. Previously, we showed that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are constituents of DTs and may contribute to desmoid tumorigenesis via activities associated with wound healing. Hyaluronan (HA) is a long-charged chain of repeating glucuronate and N-acetylglucosamine...

Glioblastoma stem-like cells: at the root of tumor recurrence and a therapeutic target

Glioblastoma is the most common and most aggressive primary brain malignancy. The current initial standard of care consists of maximal safe surgical resection followed by radical radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide. Despite optimal therapy, median survival is ~15 months from diagnosis in molecularly unselected patients, and <6 months for patients with recurrent disease...

Polymorphisms in microRNA genes as predictors of clinical outcomes in colorectal cancer patients

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed malignancies worldwide. It is routinely cured by a 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy which improves outcomes in patients. We investigated the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in two microRNA (miRNA)-encoding genes that have been previously reported as important in prognosis in patients with...

Syndecan-1 regulates adipogenesis: new insights in dedifferentiated liposarcoma tumorigenesis

Syndecan-1 (SDC1/CD138) is one of the main cell surface proteoglycans and is involved in crucial biological processes. Only a few studies have analyzed the role of SDC1 in mesenchymal tumor pathogenesis. In particular, its involvement in adipose tissue tumors has never been investigated. Dedifferentiated liposarcoma, one of the most frequent types of malignant adipose tumors, has...

The role of miR-200a in mammalian epithelial cell transformation

Cancer is a multistep disease that begins with malignant cell transformation and frequently culminates in metastasis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory 21–25 nt RNA molecules and are frequently deregulated in cancer. miR-200a is a member of the miR-200 family, which are known inhibitors of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. As such, the tumor-suppressive role of miR...

Non-genotoxic activation of p53 through the RPL11-dependent ribosomal stress pathway

Nucleolar disruption has recently emerged as a relevant means to activate p53 through inhibition of HDM2 by ribosome-free RPL11. Most drugs that induce nucleolar disruption also possess important genotoxic activity, which can have lasting mutagenic effects. Therefore, it is of interest to identify compounds that selectively produce nucleolar disruption in the absence of DNA...

Clinical potential role of circulating microRNAs in early diagnosis of colorectal cancer patients

Current procedures for diagnosis and biomarker examination of colorectal cancer (CRC) are invasive and unpleasant. There is a great need to identify sensitive and specific biomarkers for early diagnosis of CRC. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are promising molecular markers for CRC prediction. We performed a comprehensive meta-analysis to integrate an evaluation index for...

Concerted loss of TGFβ-mediated proliferation control and E-cadherin disrupts epithelial homeostasis and causes oral squamous cell carcinoma

Although the etiology of squamous cell carcinomas of the oral mucosa is well understood, the cellular origin and the exact molecular mechanisms leading to their formation are not. Previously, we observed the coordinated loss of E-cadherin (CDH1) and transforming growth factor beta receptor II (TGFBR2) in esophageal squamous tumors. To investigate if the coordinated loss of Cdh1...

Upregulation of CYP1B1 expression by inflammatory cytokines is mediated by the p38 MAP kinase signal transduction pathway

Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is an enzyme that has a unique tumor-specific pattern of expression and is capable of bioactivating a wide range of carcinogenic compounds. We have reported previously that coordinated upregulation of CYP1B1 by inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands, may increase bioactivation of...