Carcinogenesis

https://academic.oup.com/carcin

List of Papers (Total 1,958)

Prostate cancer risk and DNA damage: translational significance of selenium supplementation in a canine model

Daily supplementation with the essential trace mineral selenium significantly reduced prostate cancer risk in men in the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial. However, the optimal intake of selenium for prostate cancer prevention is unknown. We hypothesized that selenium significantly regulates the extent of genotoxic damage within the aging prostate and that the relationship...

Chlorophyll, chlorophyllin and related tetrapyrroles are significant inducers of mammalian phase 2 cytoprotective genes

Plant chlorophylls and carotenoids are highly colored, conjugated polyenes that play central roles in photosynthesis. Other porphyrins (tetrapyrroles), such as cytochromes, which are structurally related to chlorophyll, participate in redox reactions in many living systems. An unexpected new property of tetrapyrroles, including tetramethyl coproporphyrin III, tetrabenzoporphine...

Extracellular protease mRNAs are predominantly expressed in the stromal areas of microdissected mouse breast carcinomas

Solid tumors synthesize a number of extracellular matrix-degrading proteases that are important for tumor progression. Based on qualitative in situ hybridization studies in human cancer tissue, a range of components involved in proteolysis appear to be expressed by stromal cells rather than cancer cells. We have now used laser capture microdissection and real-time PCR to quantify...

Prostate carcinogenesis and inflammation: emerging insights

Prostate cancer remains a significant health concern for men throughout the world. Recently, there has developed an expanding multidisciplinary body of literature suggesting a link between chronic inflammation and prostate cancer. In support of this hypothesis, population studies have found an increased relative risk of prostate cancer in men with a prior history of certain...

Geranylgeraniol and β-ionone inhibit hepatic preneoplastic lesions, cell proliferation, total plasma cholesterol and DNA damage during the initial phases of hepatocarcinogenesis, but only the former inhibits NF-κB activation

Chemopreventive activities of the isoprenoids geranylgeraniol (GGO) and β-ionone (BI) were evaluated during initial phases of hepatocarcinogenesis. Rats received 8 or 16 mg/100 g body wt GGO (GGO8 and GGO16 groups) or BI (BI8 and BI16 groups), or only corn oil (CO group, controls) daily for 7 weeks. Incidence (%) and the mean number of visible hepatocyte nodules/animal were...

Assessment of 3 xeroderma pigmentosum group C gene polymorphisms and risk of cutaneous melanoma: a case–control study

Individuals with the rare DNA repair deficiency syndrome xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) are sensitive to the sun and exhibit a 1000-fold increased risk for developing skin cancers, including cutaneous melanoma. Inherited polymorphisms of XP genes may contribute to subtle variations in DNA repair capacity and genetic susceptibility to melanoma. We investigated the role of three...

Prevention of mouse skin tumor promotion by dietary energy restriction requires an intact adrenal gland and glucocorticoid supplementation restores inhibition

Our laboratory has demonstrated in the previous studies that dietary energy restriction (DER) inhibited the promotion of skin tumorigenesis and others have found that adrenalectomy may reverse that inhibition. The purpose of the research reported here was to determine if circulating corticosterone (CCS) may be the adrenal hormone responsible for DER prevention of skin...

Estrogen or antiprogestin treatment induces complete regression of pulmonary and axillary metastases in an experimental model of breast cancer progression

In this paper we demonstrate, using the C7-2-HI metastatic transplantable ductal mammary tumor, that endocrine therapy can induce complete regression of spontaneous lymph node and lung metastases in a mouse model of breast cancer progression. This tumor expresses high levels of estrogen and progesterone receptors and shows a high incidence of early axillary lymph nodes and lung...

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate induces mitochondrial membrane depolarization and caspase-dependent apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells

Polyphenols such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) from green tea extract can exert a growth-suppressive effect on human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro . In pursuit of our investigations to dissect the molecular mechanism of EGCG action on pancreatic cancer, we observed that the antiproliferative action of EGCG on pancreatic carcinoma is mediated through programmed cell...

Role of ICAM1 in invasion of human breast cancer cells

We identified previously a region on chromosome 19p13.2 spanning the genes encoding the intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAM), ICAM1, ICAM4 and ICAM5 as a breast cancer susceptibility locus. Genetic variants in this region were also associated with indicators of disease severity, including higher rates of metastases to other organs. Based on this association, we set out to...

Association of Ets-related transcriptional factor E1AF expression with overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases, COX-2 and iNOS in the early stage of colorectal carcinogenesis

It is now becoming clear that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a key role in tumor development and growth. MMPs are overexpressed in a variety of premalignant tumor tissues, including colorectal adenoma. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying the overexpression of MMPs in adenoma tissues. E1AF, an Ets family transcriptional factor, has been shown to play an...

Senescence and immortalization: role of telomeres and telomerase

Telomere dynamics are a critical component of both aging and cancer. Telomeres progressively shorten in almost all dividing cells and most human cells do not express or maintain sufficient telomerase activity to fully maintain telomeres. There is accumulating evidence that when only a few telomeres are short, they form end-associations, leading to a DNA damage signal resulting in...

Dual inhibition of 5-LOX and COX-2 suppresses colon cancer formation promoted by cigarette smoke

Previous studies indicate that the arachidonic acid-metabolizing enzymes COX-2 and 5-LOX are overexpressed during the process of colonic adenoma formation promoted by cigarette smoke. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether there exists a relationship between COX-2 and 5-LOX, and whether dual inhibition of COX-2 and 5-LOX has an anticarcinogenic effect in the...

Combined inhibition of PDGF and VEGF receptors by ellagic acid, a dietary-derived phenolic compound

The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors play essential and complementary roles in angiogenesis and combined inhibition of these receptors has been shown to result in potent antitumor activity in vivo . In this study, we report that ellagic acid (EA), a natural polyphenol found in fruits and nuts, inhibits VEGF-induced...

3,3′-Diindolylmethane inhibits angiogenesis and the growth of transplantable human breast carcinoma in athymic mice

Studies have linked the consumption of broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables to a reduced risk of breast cancer. The phytochemical indole-3-carbinol (I3C), present in cruciferous vegetables, and its major acid-catalyzed reaction product 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM) have bioactivities relevant to the inhibition of carcinogenesis. In this study, the effect of DIM on angiogenesis...

The rare ERBB2 variant Ile654Val is associated with an increased familial breast cancer risk

Overexpression of the proto-oncogene ERBB2 ( HER2 / NEU ) has been observed in 20–30% of breast cancers involving poor prognosis. Genetic alterations within ERBB2 have been shown to induce carcinogenesis and metastasis. We investigated eight annotated single nucleotide polymorphisms for occurrence in familial breast cancer samples. The confirmed variants Ile654Val, Ile655Val and...