Carcinogenesis

https://academic.oup.com/carcin

List of Papers (Total 1,958)

Patterns of somatic uniparental disomy identify novel tumor suppressor genes in colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is characterized by specific patterns of copy number alterations (CNAs), which helped with the identification of driver oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes (TSGs). More recently, the usage of single nucleotide polymorphism arrays provided information of copy number neutral loss of heterozygosity, thus suggesting the occurrence of somatic uniparental...

Immunosuppression associated with chronic inflammation in the tumor microenvironment

Chronic inflammation contributes to cancer development via multiple mechanisms. One potential mechanism is that chronic inflammation can generate an immunosuppressive microenvironment that allows advantages for tumor formation and progression. The immunosuppressive environment in certain chronic inflammatory diseases and solid cancers is characterized by accumulation of...

Development of APE1 enzymatic DNA repair assays: low APE1 activity is associated with increase lung cancer risk

The key role of DNA repair in removing DNA damage and minimizing mutations makes it an attractive target for cancer risk assessment and prevention. Here we describe the development of a robust assay for apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease 1 (APE1; APEX1), an essential enzyme involved in the repair of oxidative DNA damage. APE1 DNA repair enzymatic activity was measured in...

Cyclin A2 modulates EMT via β-catenin and phospholipase C pathways

We have previously demonstrated that Cyclin A2 is involved in cytoskeletal dynamics, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis. This phenotype was potentiated by activated oncogenic H-Ras. However, the mechanisms governing EMT in these cells have not yet been elucidated. Here, we dissected the pathways that are responsible for EMT in cells deficient for Cyclin A2. In...

miR-27 is associated with chemoresistance in esophageal cancer through transformation of normal fibroblasts to cancer-associated fibroblasts

There is increasing evidence that the expression of microRNA (miRNA) in cancer is associated with chemosensitivity but the mechanism of miRNA-induced chemoresistance has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to examine the role of extracellular miRNA in the response to chemotherapy in esophageal cancer. First, serum expression of miRNAs selected by miRNA array was...

Initiation of the ATM-Chk2 DNA damage response through the base excision repair pathway

The DNA damage response (DDR) is activated by various genotoxic stresses. Base lesions, which are structurally simple and predominantly fixed by base excision repair (BER), can trigger the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)–checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2) pathway, a DDR component. How these lesions trigger DDR remains unclear. Here we show that, for alkylation damage, methylpurine...

The cancer cells-of-origin in the gastrointestinal tract: progenitors revisited

A prominent model of tumor progression posits that normal self-renewing and multipotent stem cells(SCs) are the initial target of transformation. This view has been robustly challenged by the recurring observation that transit-amplifying cells and differentiated progenitors can initiate neoplasia outside the SC zone thus qualifying as cancer cells-of-origin. The emerging concept...

Survival of skin cancer stem cells requires the Ezh2 polycomb group protein

Polycomb group proteins, including Ezh2, are important candidate stem cell maintenance proteins in epidermal squamous cell carcinoma. We previously showed that epidermal cancer stem cells (ECS cells) represent a minority of cells in tumors, are highly enriched in Ezh2 and drive aggressive tumor formation. We now show that Ezh2 is required for ECS cell survival, migration...

Dimethyl fumarate and the oleanane triterpenoids, CDDO-imidazolide and CDDO-methyl ester, both activate the Nrf2 pathway but have opposite effects in the A/J model of lung carcinogenesis

Lung cancer accounts for the highest number of cancer-related deaths in the USA, highlighting the need for better prevention and therapy. Activation of the Nrf2 pathway detoxifies harmful insults and reduces oxidative stress, thus preventing carcinogenesis in various preclinical models. However, constitutive activation of the Nrf2 pathway has been detected in numerous cancers...

Reducing DNA methylation suppresses colon carcinogenesis by inducing tumor cell differentiation

The forced reduction of global DNA methylation suppresses tumor development in several cancer models in vivo. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying these suppressive effects remain unclear. In this report, we describe our findings showing that a genome-wide reduction in the DNA methylation levels induces cellular differentiation in association with decreased cell proliferation...

Fisetin, a dietary flavonoid, induces apoptosis of cancer cells by inhibiting HSF1 activity through blocking its binding to the hsp70 promoter

Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is a transcription factor for heat shock proteins (HSPs) expression that enhances the survival of cancer cells exposed to various stresses. HSF1 knockout suppresses carcinogen-induced cancer induction in mice. Therefore, HSF1 is a promising therapeutic and chemopreventive target. We performed cell-based screening with a natural compound collection and...

Radiation-induced homotypic cell fusions of innately resistant glioblastoma cells mediate their sustained survival and recurrence

Understanding of molecular events underlying resistance and relapse in glioblastoma (GBM) is hampered due to lack of accessibility to resistant cells from patients undergone therapy. Therefore, we mimicked clinical scenario in an in vitro cellular model developed from five GBM grade IV primary patient samples and two cell lines. We show that upon exposure to lethal dose of...

miR-29c suppresses pancreatic cancer liver metastasis in an orthotopic implantation model in nude mice and affects survival in pancreatic cancer patients

We investigated mechanisms of pancreatic cancer metastasis and defined the biological role of miR-29c in pancreatic cancer metastasis. After two rounds of cell selection in vivo, pancreatic cancer cells with various metastatic potentials derived from spontaneous liver metastases were used as a model of pancreatic cancer to determine the role of miR-29c in pancreatic cancer...

Expression and clinical significance of genes frequently mutated in small cell lung cancers defined by whole exome/RNA sequencing

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is the most aggressive type of lung cancer. Only 15% of SCLC patients survive beyond 2 years after diagnosis. Therefore, for the improvement of patients’ outcome in this disease, it is necessary to identify genetic alterations applicable as therapeutic targets in SCLC cells. The purpose of this study is the identification of genes frequently mutated...

Protein trafficking in colorectal carcinogenesis—targeting and bypassing resistance to currently applied treatments

Membrane receptors constitute novel targets during current treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) due to the fact that their aberrant expression/activity favors cancer cell properties. Protein trafficking is responsible for the correct targeting of membrane receptors to the apical and basolateral surfaces, as well as to the adherent and tight junctions of the cell...

The effect of environmental chemicals on the tumor microenvironment

Potentially carcinogenic compounds may cause cancer through direct DNA damage or through indirect cellular or physiological effects. To study possible carcinogens, the fields of endocrinology, genetics, epigenetics, medicine, environmental health, toxicology, pharmacology and oncology must be considered. Disruptive chemicals may also contribute to multiple stages of tumor...

The impact of low-dose carcinogens and environmental disruptors on tissue invasion and metastasis

The purpose of this review is to stimulate new ideas regarding low-dose environmental mixtures and carcinogens and their potential to promote invasion and metastasis. Whereas a number of chapters in this review are devoted to the role of low-dose environmental mixtures and carcinogens in the promotion of invasion and metastasis in specific tumors such as breast and prostate, the...