Carcinogenesis

https://academic.oup.com/carcin

List of Papers (Total 1,683)

Enhanced non-homologous end joining contributes toward synthetic lethality of pathological RAD51C mutants with poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase

Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) inhibitors are actively under clinical trials for the treatment of breast and ovarian cancers that arise due to mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. The RAD51 paralog RAD51C has been identified as a breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene. The pathological RAD51C mutants that were identified in cancer patients are hypomorphic with partial...

The role of miR-200a in mammalian epithelial cell transformation

Cancer is a multistep disease that begins with malignant cell transformation and frequently culminates in metastasis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory 21–25 nt RNA molecules and are frequently deregulated in cancer. miR-200a is a member of the miR-200 family, which are known inhibitors of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. As such, the tumor-suppressive role of miR...

Non-genotoxic activation of p53 through the RPL11-dependent ribosomal stress pathway

Nucleolar disruption has recently emerged as a relevant means to activate p53 through inhibition of HDM2 by ribosome-free RPL11. Most drugs that induce nucleolar disruption also possess important genotoxic activity, which can have lasting mutagenic effects. Therefore, it is of interest to identify compounds that selectively produce nucleolar disruption in the absence of DNA...

Carcinogenicity and DNA adduct formation of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone and enantiomers of its metabolite 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol in F-344 rats

4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is metabolized to enantiomers of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), found in the urine of virtually all people exposed to tobacco products. We assessed the carcinogenicity in male F-344 rats of (R)-NNAL (5 ppm in drinking water), (S)-NNAL (5 ppm), NNK (5 ppm) and racemic NNAL (10 ppm) and analyzed DNA adduct...

Clinical potential role of circulating microRNAs in early diagnosis of colorectal cancer patients

Current procedures for diagnosis and biomarker examination of colorectal cancer (CRC) are invasive and unpleasant. There is a great need to identify sensitive and specific biomarkers for early diagnosis of CRC. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are promising molecular markers for CRC prediction. We performed a comprehensive meta-analysis to integrate an evaluation index for...

Methylation-mediated repression of PRDM14 contributes to apoptosis evasion in HPV-positive cancers

Promoter methylation of the transcription factor PRDM14 (PRDI-BF1 and RIZ domain containing 14) represents a highly frequent event in human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced cervical cancers and cancer precursor lesions. Here, we aimed to assess the functional consequences of PRDM14 promoter methylation in HPV-induced carcinogenesis. PRDM14 promoter methylation, expression and...

Concerted loss of TGFβ-mediated proliferation control and E-cadherin disrupts epithelial homeostasis and causes oral squamous cell carcinoma

Although the etiology of squamous cell carcinomas of the oral mucosa is well understood, the cellular origin and the exact molecular mechanisms leading to their formation are not. Previously, we observed the coordinated loss of E-cadherin (CDH1) and transforming growth factor beta receptor II (TGFBR2) in esophageal squamous tumors. To investigate if the coordinated loss of Cdh1...

Upregulation of CYP1B1 expression by inflammatory cytokines is mediated by the p38 MAP kinase signal transduction pathway

Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is an enzyme that has a unique tumor-specific pattern of expression and is capable of bioactivating a wide range of carcinogenic compounds. We have reported previously that coordinated upregulation of CYP1B1 by inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands, may increase bioactivation of...

A novel colorectal cancer risk locus at 4q32.2 identified from an international genome-wide association study

Only a fraction of colorectal cancer heritability is explained by known risk-conferring genetic variation. This study was designed to identify novel risk alleles in Europeans. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of colorectal cancer in participants from a population-based case–control study in Israel (n = 1616 cases, 1329 controls) and a consortium...

Podocalyxin-like 1 promotes invadopodia formation and metastasis through activation of Rac1/Cdc42/cortactin signaling in breast cancer cells

Metastatic disease is the leading cause of cancer mortality. Identifying biomarkers and regulatory mechanisms is important toward developing diagnostic and therapeutic tools against metastatic cancer. In this study, we demonstrated that podocalyxin-like 1 (PODXL) is overexpressed in breast tumor cells and increased in lymph node metastatic cancer. Mechanistically, we found that...

Luteolin, ellagic acid and punicic acid are natural products that inhibit prostate cancer metastasis

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second cause of cancer deaths in men in the USA. When the cancer recurs, early stages can be controlled with hormone ablation therapy to delay the rate of cancer progression but, over time, the cancer overcomes its hormone dependence, becomes highly aggressive and metastasizes. Clinical trials have shown that pomegranate juice (PJ) inhibits PCa...

Assay of lapatinib in murine models of cigarette smoke carcinogenesis

Lapatinib, a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), is prescribed for the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer overexpressing HER-2. Involvement of this drug in pulmonary carcinogenesis has been poorly investigated. We used murine models suitable to evaluate...

MicroRNA-200b targets protein kinase Cα and suppresses triple-negative breast cancer metastasis

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer with poor prognosis and lacks effective targeted therapies. The microRNA-200 (miR-200) family is found to inhibit or promote breast cancer metastasis; however, the underlying mechanism is not well understood. This study was performed to investigate the effect and mechanism of miR-200b on TNBC...

Transcriptional and posttranslational regulation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 by Akt3

Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-dependent and -independent antitumor activities of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) have been proposed in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. However, the mechanism underlying regulation of IGFBP-3 expression in NSCLC cells is not well understood. In this study, we show that activation of Akt, especially Akt3...

Lung adenocarcinoma subtypes definable by lung development-related miRNA expression profiles in association with clinicopathologic features

Accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes alters regulation of a web of interconnected genes including microRNAs (miRNAs), which confer hallmark capabilities and characteristic cancer features. In this study, the miRNA and messenger RNA expression profiles of 126 non-small cell lung cancer specimens were analyzed, with special attention given to the diversity of lung...

Flavonoids from each of the six structural groups reactivate BRM, a possible cofactor for the anticancer effects of flavonoids

Flavonoids have been extensively studied and are well documented to have anticancer effects, but it is not entirely known how they impact cellular mechanisms to elicit these effects. In the course of this study, we found that a variety of different flavonoids readily restored Brahma (BRM) in BRM-deficient cancer cell lines. Flavonoids from each of the six different structural...

Conditional knockout of the leptin receptor in the colonic epithelium revealed the local effects of leptin receptor signaling in the progression of colonic tumors in mice

Leptin, secreted by the adipose tissue and known to be related to obesity, is considered to be involved in the onset and progression of colorectal cancer. However, the exact role of leptin in colorectal carcinogenesis is still unclear, as several controversial reports have been published on the various systemic effects of leptin. The aim of this study was to clarify the local and...