Carcinogenesis

https://academic.oup.com/carcin

List of Papers (Total 1,106)

Identification of novel sequence variations in microRNAs in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

MicroRNA (miRNA) expression is deregulated in many tumors including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Although the particular mechanism(s) responsible for their aberrant expression is not well characterized, the presence of mutations and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in miRNA genes, possibly affecting their secondary structure and expression, has been described. In CLL...

Molecular mechanisms underlying the divergent roles of SPARC in human carcinogenesis

Communication between the cell and its surrounding environment, consisting of proteinaceous (non-living material) and extracellular matrix (ECM), is important for biophysiological and chemical signaling. This signaling results in a range of cellular activities, including cell division, adhesion, differentiation, invasion, migration and angiogenesis. The ECM non-structural...

Tumor-promoting role of TGFβ1 signaling in ultraviolet B-induced skin carcinogenesis is associated with cutaneous inflammation and lymph node migration of dermal dendritic cells

Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) is a pleiotropic cytokine in the skin that can function both as a tumor promoter and suppressor in chemically induced skin carcinogenesis, but the function in ultraviolet B (UVB) carcinogenesis is not well understood. Treatment of SKH1 hairless mice with the activin-like kinase 5 (ALK5) inhibitor SB431542 to block UVB-induced activation...

Polyphenon E®, a standardized green tea extract, induces endoplasmic reticulum stress, leading to death of immortalized PNT1a cells by anoikis and tumorigenic PC3 by necroptosis

Increasing doses of Polyphenon E®, a standardized green tea extract, were given to PNT1a and PC3 prostate epithelial cells mimicking initial and advanced stages of prostate cancer (PCa), respectively. Cell death occurred in both cell lines, with PNT1a being more sensitive [half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) = 35 μg/ml] than PC3 (IC50 = 145 μg/ml) to Polyphenon E®. Cell...

Identification of KLF17 as a novel epithelial to mesenchymal transition inducer via direct activation of TWIST1 in endometrioid endometrial cancer

Krüppel-like factor 17 (KLF17), a member of the KLF transcription factor family, has been shown to inhibit the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and tumor growth. However, the expression, the cellular function and the mechanism of KLF17 in endometrioid endometrial cancer (EEC; a dominant type of endometrial cancer) remain elusive. Here, we report that among the KLF family...

SH3RF2 functions as an oncogene by mediating PAK4 protein stability

SH3RF (SH3-domain-containing RING finger protein) family members, SH3RF1-3, are multidomain scaffold proteins involved in promoting cell survival and apoptosis. In this report, we show that SH3RF2 is an oncogene product that is overexpressed in human cancers and regulates p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4) protein stability. Immunohistochemical analysis of 159 colon cancer tissues...

Requirement of estrogen receptor alpha DNA-binding domain for HPV oncogene-induced cervical carcinogenesis in mice

Cervical cancer is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) in collaboration with other non-viral factors. The uterine cervix is hormone responsive and female hormones have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease. HPV transgenic mice expressing HPV16 oncogenes E6 ( K14E6 ) and/or E7 ( K14E7 ) have been employed to study a mechanism of estrogen and estrogen receptor α (ER...

MYCN and survivin cooperatively contribute to malignant transformation of fibroblasts

The oncogenes MYCN and survivin ( BIRC5 ) maintain aggressiveness of diverse cancers including sarcomas. To investigate whether these oncogenes cooperate in initial malignant transformation, we transduced them into Rat-1 fibroblasts. Indeed, survivin enhanced MYCN-driven contact-uninhibited and anchorage-independent growth in vitro . Importantly, upon subcutaneous transplantation...

Mechanisms of platelet-stimulated colon cancer invasion: role of clusterin and thrombospondin 1 in regulation of the P38MAPK–MMP-9 pathway

Platelets have been implicated in colon cancer metastasis and prognosis but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We evaluated the role of the different mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in platelet-stimulated matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) generation and colon cancer invasion. In addition, proteins released during platelet–tumour cell...

Cooperative behavior of the nuclear receptor superfamily and its deregulation in prostate cancer

The current study aimed to assess the topology of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily in normal prostate epithelial cells and its distortion in prostate cancer. Both in vitro and in silico approaches were utilized to profile NRs expressed in non-malignant RWPE-1 cells, which were subsequently investigated by treating cells with 132 binary NR ligand combinations. Nine...

Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) promotes glioblastoma cell chemotaxis via Lyn activation

The long-term survival of patients with glioblastoma is compromised by the proclivity for local invasion into the surrounding normal brain, escaping surgical resection and contributing to therapeutic resistance. Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, can stimulate glioma cell invasion via binding to...

Human cytomegalovirus immediate early proteins promote degradation of connexin 43 and disrupt gap junction communication: implications for a role in gliomagenesis

A lack of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) is common in cancer. Many oncogenic viruses have been shown to downregulate the junctional protein connexin 43 (Cx43) and reduce GJIC. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous, species-specific betaherpesvirus that establishes life-long latency after primary infection. It encodes two viral gene products, immediate...

Genome-wide methylation analysis shows similar patterns in Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma

Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is a precursor of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). To identify novel tumor suppressors involved in esophageal carcinogenesis and potential biomarkers for the malignant progression of BE, we performed a genome-wide methylation profiling of BE and EAC tissues. Using Illumina’s Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip microarray, we examined the methylation...

Transcription onset of genes critical in liver carcinogenesis is epigenetically regulated by methylated DNA-binding protein MBD2

We previously delineated genes whose promoters are hypomethylated and induced in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. The purpose of this study was to establish the players that regulate these genes in liver cancer cells. We performed chromatin immunoprecipitation with methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 2 (MBD2), RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein...

Enhanced inhibition of urinary bladder cancer growth and muscle invasion by allyl isothiocyanate and celecoxib in combination

Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) occurs in cruciferous vegetables that are commonly consumed by humans and has been shown to inhibit urinary bladder cancer growth and progression in previous preclinical studies. However, AITC does not significantly modulate cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), whose oncogenic activity has been well documented in bladder cancer and other cancers. Celecoxib is a...