Carcinogenesis

https://academic.oup.com/carcin

List of Papers (Total 1,683)

Systematic validation of hypothesis-driven candidate genes for cervical cancer in a genome-wide association study

A large number of genetic associations with cervical cancer have been reported in hypothesis-driven candidate gene studies, but most studies have not included an independent replication or the results have been inconsistent between studies. In order to independently validate these associations, we reexamined 58 candidate gene/regions previously reported to be associated with...

Shared and independent colorectal cancer risk alleles in TGFβ-related genes in African and European Americans

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in colorectal cancer (CRC) identified five regions near transforming growth factor β-related genes BMP4, GREM1, CDH1, SMAD7 and RPHN2. The true risk alleles remain to be identified in these regions, and their role in CRC risk in non-European populations has been understudied. Our previous work noted significant genetic heterogeneity between...

ATM-mediated Mad1 Serine 214 phosphorylation regulates Mad1 dimerization and the spindle assembly checkpoint

The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), which blocks anaphase onset until all chromosomes have bi-oriented, is one of the key self-monitoring systems of the eukaryotic cell cycle for genome stability. The mitotic arrest-deficient protein 1 (Mad1), a critical component of the SAC, is hyperphosphorylated in mitosis. However, the kinases responsible for Mad1 phosphorylation and its...

High-risk HPV16E6 stimulates hADA3 degradation by enhancing its SUMOylation

Despite significant research, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) induced cancers remains incomplete. Majority of invasive cervical cancers are caused by high-risk HPV 16 and 18. Two potent HPV oncoproteins, E6 and E7, promote human malignancies by disrupting the activities of key regulators of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Recent...

Genetic variants in interleukin genes are associated with breast cancer risk and survival in a genetically admixed population: the Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study

Interleukins (ILs) are key regulators of immune response. Genetic variation in IL genes may influence breast cancer risk and mortality given their role in cell growth, angiogenesis and regulation of inflammatory process. We examined 16 IL genes with breast cancer risk and mortality in an admixed population of Hispanic/Native American (NA) (2111 cases and 2597 controls) and non...

Tumor-associated macrophages promote the metastatic potential of thyroid papillary cancer by releasing CXCL8

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) can promote cancer initiation and progression by releasing cytokines. Previously, we have found the density of TAMs correlated with lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). However, the mechanisms of how TAMs promote PTC progression remain unclear. In this study, we first showed that the TAMs density in the tumor core was...

Speckle-type POZ protein, SPOP, is involved in the DNA damage response

Speckle-type POZ protein (SPOP) is an adaptor of the cullin 3-based ubiquitin ligase responsible for the degradation of oncoproteins frequently overexpressed in many tumor cells. Altered expression and somatic mutations of SPOP have been observed in various tumor types with chromosomal aberrations, indicating a role of SPOP in maintaining genome stability, although a detailed...

NRAGE promotes cell proliferation by stabilizing PCNA in a ubiquitin–proteasome pathway in esophageal carcinomas

Neurotrophin receptor-interacting melanoma antigen-encoding gene homolog (NRAGE) is generally recognized as a tumor suppressor as it induces cell apoptosis and suppresses cell metastasis. However, it has recently been reported that NRAGE is overexpressed in lung cancer, melanoma and colon cancer, implicating a complicated role of NRAGE as we have expected. In the study, we aim to...

Loss of glutathione peroxidase 7 promotes TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation in Barrett’s carcinogenesis

Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is a classic example of inflammation-associated cancer, which develops through GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease)-Barrett’s esophagus (BE)-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence. The incidence of EAC has been rising rapidly in the USA and Western countries during the last few decades. The functions of glutathione peroxidase 7 (GPX7), an antioxidant...

Smad7 induces plasticity in tumor-infiltrating Th17 cells and enables TNF-alpha-mediated killing of colorectal cancer cells

Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is deeply involved in colorectal cancer development and the disruption of the TGF-β signaling in dysplastic cells is required for tumor to grow. Nevertheless, tumor cells express TGF-β to escape the immune surveillance mediated by T cells. T-cell expression of Smad7, an intracellular inhibitor of the TGF-β signaling, protects against...

HOTAIR long non-coding RNA is a negative prognostic factor not only in primary tumors, but also in the blood of colorectal cancer patients

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the main causes of death of neoplasia. Demand for predictive and prognostic markers to reverse this trend is increasing. Long non-coding RNA HOTAIR (Homeobox Transcript Antisense Intergenic RNA) overexpression in tumors was previously associated with poor prognosis and higher mortality in different carcinomas. We analyzed HOTAIR expression levels...

hRAD9 functions as a tumor suppressor by inducing p21-dependent senescence and suppressing epithelial–mesenchymal transition through inhibition of Slug transcription

Senescence and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) have opposing roles in tumor progression, in that, one is a barrier against tumorigenesis, whereas the other is required for invasive malignancies. Here, we report that the DNA damage response (DDR) protein hRAD9 contributes to induction of senescence and inhibition of EMT. Our data show that hRAD9 is frequently downregulated...

Interleukin-22 promotes epithelial cell transformation and breast tumorigenesis via MAP3K8 activation

Interleukin-22 (IL-22), one of the cytokines secreted by T-helper 17 (Th17) cells, binds to a class II cytokine receptor containing an IL-22 receptor 1 (IL-22R1) and IL-10R2 and influences a variety of immune reactions. IL-22 has also been shown to modulate cell cycle and proliferation mediators such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK...

Enterohepatic recirculation of bioactive ginger phytochemicals is associated with enhanced tumor growth-inhibitory activity of ginger extract

Phytochemical complexity of plant foods confers health-promoting benefits including chemopreventive and anticancer effects. Isolating single constituents from complex foods may render them inactive, emphasizing the importance of preserving the natural composition of whole extracts. Recently, we demonstrated in vitro synergy among the most abundant bioactive constituents of ginger...

Cell-type-specific roles for COX-2 in UVB-induced skin cancer

In human tumors, and in mouse models, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) levels are frequently correlated with tumor development/burden. In addition to intrinsic tumor cell expression, COX-2 is often present in fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and endothelial cells of the tumor microenvironment, and in infiltrating immune cells. Intrinsic cancer cell COX-2 expression is postulated as only one...