Carcinogenesis

https://academic.oup.com/carcin

List of Papers (Total 1,603)

Genetic variants in interleukin genes are associated with breast cancer risk and survival in a genetically admixed population: the Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study

Interleukins (ILs) are key regulators of immune response. Genetic variation in IL genes may influence breast cancer risk and mortality given their role in cell growth, angiogenesis and regulation of inflammatory process. We examined 16 IL genes with breast cancer risk and mortality in an admixed population of Hispanic/Native American (NA) (2111 cases and 2597 controls) and non...

Tumor-associated macrophages promote the metastatic potential of thyroid papillary cancer by releasing CXCL8

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) can promote cancer initiation and progression by releasing cytokines. Previously, we have found the density of TAMs correlated with lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). However, the mechanisms of how TAMs promote PTC progression remain unclear. In this study, we first showed that the TAMs density in the tumor core was...

Speckle-type POZ protein, SPOP, is involved in the DNA damage response

Speckle-type POZ protein (SPOP) is an adaptor of the cullin 3-based ubiquitin ligase responsible for the degradation of oncoproteins frequently overexpressed in many tumor cells. Altered expression and somatic mutations of SPOP have been observed in various tumor types with chromosomal aberrations, indicating a role of SPOP in maintaining genome stability, although a detailed...

NRAGE promotes cell proliferation by stabilizing PCNA in a ubiquitin–proteasome pathway in esophageal carcinomas

Neurotrophin receptor-interacting melanoma antigen-encoding gene homolog (NRAGE) is generally recognized as a tumor suppressor as it induces cell apoptosis and suppresses cell metastasis. However, it has recently been reported that NRAGE is overexpressed in lung cancer, melanoma and colon cancer, implicating a complicated role of NRAGE as we have expected. In the study, we aim to...

Loss of glutathione peroxidase 7 promotes TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation in Barrett’s carcinogenesis

Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is a classic example of inflammation-associated cancer, which develops through GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease)-Barrett’s esophagus (BE)-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence. The incidence of EAC has been rising rapidly in the USA and Western countries during the last few decades. The functions of glutathione peroxidase 7 (GPX7), an antioxidant...

Smad7 induces plasticity in tumor-infiltrating Th17 cells and enables TNF-alpha-mediated killing of colorectal cancer cells

Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is deeply involved in colorectal cancer development and the disruption of the TGF-β signaling in dysplastic cells is required for tumor to grow. Nevertheless, tumor cells express TGF-β to escape the immune surveillance mediated by T cells. T-cell expression of Smad7, an intracellular inhibitor of the TGF-β signaling, protects against...

HOTAIR long non-coding RNA is a negative prognostic factor not only in primary tumors, but also in the blood of colorectal cancer patients

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the main causes of death of neoplasia. Demand for predictive and prognostic markers to reverse this trend is increasing. Long non-coding RNA HOTAIR (Homeobox Transcript Antisense Intergenic RNA) overexpression in tumors was previously associated with poor prognosis and higher mortality in different carcinomas. We analyzed HOTAIR expression levels...

Interleukin-22 promotes epithelial cell transformation and breast tumorigenesis via MAP3K8 activation

Interleukin-22 (IL-22), one of the cytokines secreted by T-helper 17 (Th17) cells, binds to a class II cytokine receptor containing an IL-22 receptor 1 (IL-22R1) and IL-10R2 and influences a variety of immune reactions. IL-22 has also been shown to modulate cell cycle and proliferation mediators such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK...

Enterohepatic recirculation of bioactive ginger phytochemicals is associated with enhanced tumor growth-inhibitory activity of ginger extract

Phytochemical complexity of plant foods confers health-promoting benefits including chemopreventive and anticancer effects. Isolating single constituents from complex foods may render them inactive, emphasizing the importance of preserving the natural composition of whole extracts. Recently, we demonstrated in vitro synergy among the most abundant bioactive constituents of ginger...

Cell-type-specific roles for COX-2 in UVB-induced skin cancer

In human tumors, and in mouse models, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) levels are frequently correlated with tumor development/burden. In addition to intrinsic tumor cell expression, COX-2 is often present in fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and endothelial cells of the tumor microenvironment, and in infiltrating immune cells. Intrinsic cancer cell COX-2 expression is postulated as only one...

Involvement of CDX2 in the cross talk between TNF-α and Wnt signaling pathway in the colon cancer cell line Caco-2

Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is highly upregulated in inflammation and reduces the expression of the intestinal transcription factor, Caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2). Wnt/β-catenin signaling is critical for intestinal cell proliferation, but a decreased CDX2 expression has influence on the Wnt signaling-related genes and progression of colorectal cancer...

Tumor promoter-induced sulfiredoxin is required for mouse skin tumorigenesis

Sulfiredoxin (Srx), the exclusive enzyme that reduces the hyperoxidized inactive form of peroxiredoxins (Prxs), has been found highly expressed in several types of human skin cancer. To determine whether Srx contributed to skin tumorigenesis in vivo, Srx null mice were generated on an FVB background. Mouse skin tumorigenesis was induced by a 7,12-dimethylbenz[α]anthracene/12-O...

Regulation of TRAIL receptor expression by β-catenin in colorectal tumours

Tumour-necrosis-factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is being investigated as a targeted cancer therapeutic and the expression of its pro-apoptotic receptors, DR4 and DR5, increases during colorectal carcinogenesis. This study investigated the role of β-catenin in the regulation of these receptors. In human colorectal adenoma and carcinoma cell lines, downregulation...

Paradoxic effects of metformin on endothelial cells and angiogenesis

The biguanide metformin is used in type 2 diabetes management and has gained significant attention as a potential cancer preventive agent. Angioprevention represents a mechanism of chemoprevention, yet conflicting data concerning the antiangiogenic action of metformin have emerged. Here, we clarify some of the contradictory effects of metformin on endothelial cells and...

Genome-wide association study identifies 25 known breast cancer susceptibility loci as risk factors for triple-negative breast cancer

Triple-negative (TN) breast cancer is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer associated with a unique set of epidemiologic and genetic risk factors. We conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study of TN breast cancer (stage 1: 1529 TN cases, 3399 controls; stage 2: 2148 cases, 1309 controls) to identify loci that influence TN breast cancer risk. Variants in the 19p13.1 and...

Macrophage-derived reactive oxygen species suppress miR-328 targeting CD44 in cancer cells and promote redox adaptation

CD44 is frequently overexpressed in a wide variety of epithelial malignancies including gastrointestinal cancer and causes resistance to currently available treatments. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that regulate molecular pathways in cancer by targeting various genes. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulation of CD44 expression by miRNAs and to develop new...