Pure and Applied Geophysics

http://link.springer.com/journal/24

List of Papers (Total 216)

Automated Snow Extent Mapping Based on Orthophoto Images from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

The paper presents the application of the k-means clustering in the process of automated snow extent mapping using orthophoto images generated using the Structure-from-Motion (SfM) algorithm from oblique aerial photographs taken by unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). A simple classification approach has been implemented to discriminate between snow-free and snow-covered terrain. The...

Assessing Shifts of Mediterranean and Arid Climates Under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 Climate Projections in Europe

The Mediterranean basin is the richest biodiversity region in Europe and a global hotspot of biological diversity. In spite of that, anthropogenic climate change is one of the most serious concerns for nature conservation in this region. One of the climatic threats is represented by shifts of the Mediterranean climate and expansion of the arid climate. In this paper, we present...

A Filtering of Incomplete GNSS Position Time Series with Probabilistic Principal Component Analysis

For the first time, we introduced the probabilistic principal component analysis (pPCA) regarding the spatio-temporal filtering of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) position time series to estimate and remove Common Mode Error (CME) without the interpolation of missing values. We used data from the International GNSS Service (IGS) stations which contributed to the latest...

Sub-basalt Imaging of Hydrocarbon-Bearing Mesozoic Sediments Using Ray-Trace Inversion of First-Arrival Seismic Data and Elastic Finite-Difference Full-Wave Modeling Along Sinor–Valod Profile of Deccan Syneclise, India

Imaging below the basalt for hydrocarbon exploration is a global problem because of poor penetration and significant loss of seismic energy due to scattering, attenuation, absorption and mode-conversion when the seismic waves encounter a highly heterogeneous and rugose basalt layer. The conventional (short offset) seismic data acquisition, processing and modeling techniques...

Aviation Turbulence: Dynamics, Forecasting, and Response to Climate Change

Atmospheric turbulence is a major hazard in the aviation industry and can cause injuries to passengers and crew. Understanding the physical and dynamical generation mechanisms of turbulence aids with the development of new forecasting algorithms and, therefore, reduces the impact that it has on the aviation industry. The scope of this paper is to review the dynamics of aviation...

Multichannel Singular Spectrum Analysis in the Estimates of Common Environmental Effects Affecting GPS Observations

We described a spatio-temporal analysis of environmental loading models: atmospheric, continental hydrology, and non-tidal ocean changes, based on multichannel singular spectrum analysis (MSSA). We extracted the common annual signal for 16 different sections related to climate zones: equatorial, arid, warm, snow, polar and continents. We used the loading models estimated for a...

UAS as a Support for Atmospheric Aerosols Research: Case Study

Small drones (multi-copters) have the potential to deliver valuable data for atmospheric research. They are especially useful for collecting vertical profiles of optical and microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosols. Miniaturization of sensors, such as aethalometers and particle counters, allows for collecting profiles of black carbon concentration, absorption coefficient...

Statistical Estimation of the Seismicity Level Change around Hokkaido, Northern Japan

The temporal seismicity change in two seismically active zones around Hokkaido, northern Japan was investigated using the statistical estimate of the seismicity level (SESL’09) procedure. Hypocenter data provided by the Japan Meteorological Agency from 1960 to 2013 were analyzed. The seismicity of two geographically different zones, formed by Pacific Plate subduction and Amurian...

Influence of Landscape Coverage on Measuring Spatial and Length Properties of Rock Fracture Networks: Insights from Numerical Simulation

Natural fractures are ubiquitous in the Earth’s crust and often deeply buried in the subsurface. Due to the difficulty in accessing to their three-dimensional structures, the study of fracture network geometry is usually achieved by sampling two-dimensional (2D) exposures at the Earth’s surface through outcrop mapping or aerial photograph techniques. However, the measurement...

Simulation of a Dispersive Tsunami due to the 2016 El Salvador–Nicaragua Outer-Rise Earthquake (Mw 6.9)

The 2016 El Salvador–Nicaragua outer-rise earthquake (Mw 6.9) generated a small tsunami observed at the ocean bottom pressure sensor, DART 32411, in the Pacific Ocean off Central America. The dispersive observed tsunami is well simulated using the linear Boussinesq equations. From the dispersive character of tsunami waveform, the fault length and width of the outer-rise event is...

Sea Surface Temperature in the Mediterranean: Trends and Spatial Patterns (1982–2016)

Oceans play a key role in energy storage in the global Earth–Ocean–Atmosphere system. Within this framework, the knowledge of past evolution and future trends of sea surface temperature is crucial for the future climate scenarios. Previous studies have highlighted the role of sea surface temperature as an important ingredient for the development and/or intensification of heavy...

Airburst-Generated Tsunamis

This paper examines the questions of whether smaller asteroids that burst in the air over water can generate tsunamis that could pose a threat to distant locations. Such airburst-generated tsunamis are qualitatively different than the more frequently studied earthquake-generated tsunamis, and differ as well from tsunamis generated by asteroids that strike the ocean. Numerical...

Geovisualisation of relief in a virtual reality system on the basis of low-level aerial imagery

The aim of the following paper was to present the geomatic process of transforming low-level aerial imagery obtained with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) into a digital terrain model (DTM) and implementing the model into a virtual reality system (VR). The object of the study was a natural aggretage heap of an irregular shape and denivelations up to 11 m. Based on the obtained...

Tsunami Source Inversion Using Tide Gauge and DART Tsunami Waveforms of the 2017 Mw8.2 Mexico Earthquake

On September 8, 2017 (UTC), a normal-fault earthquake occurred 87 km off the southeast coast of Mexico. This earthquake generated a tsunami that was recorded at coastal tide gauge and offshore buoy stations. First, we conducted a numerical tsunami simulation using a single-fault model to understand the tsunami characteristics near the rupture area, focusing on the nearby tide...

Multitemporal Accuracy and Precision Assessment of Unmanned Aerial System Photogrammetry for Slope-Scale Snow Depth Maps in Alpine Terrain

Reliable and timely information on the spatio-temporal distribution of snow in alpine terrain plays an important role for a wide range of applications. Unmanned aerial system (UAS) photogrammetry is increasingly applied to cost-efficiently map the snow depth at very high resolution with flexible applicability. However, crucial questions regarding quality and repeatability of this...

Correction to: Surface Rupture Effects on Earthquake Moment-Area Scaling Relations

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UAV and SfM in Detailed Geomorphological Mapping of Granite Tors: An Example of Starościńskie Skały (Sudetes, SW Poland)

The paper presents an example of using photographs taken by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and processed using the structure from motion (SfM) procedure in a geomorphological study of rock relief. Subject to analysis is a small rock city in the West Sudetes (SW Poland), known as Starościńskie Skały and developed in coarse granite bedrock. The aims of this paper were, first, to...

Voids and Rock Friction at Subseismic Slip Velocity

We found that the amplitudes of transmitted waves across the sliding surfaces are inversely correlated to high slip rate friction, especially when the interfaces slide fast (> 10−3 m/s). During the rock–rock friction experiments of metagabbro and diorite at sub-seismic slip rate (~ 10−3 m/s), friction does not reach steady state but fluctuates within certain range. The amplitudes...

Geothermal Anomaly Mapping Using Landsat ETM+ Data in Ilan Plain, Northeastern Taiwan

Geothermal energy is an increasingly important component of green energy in the globe. A prerequisite for geothermal energy development is to acquire the local and regional geothermal prospects. Existing geophysical methods of estimating the geothermal potential are usually limited to the scope of prospecting because of the operation cost and site reachability in the field. Thus...

Improved Holistic Analysis of Rayleigh Waves for Single- and Multi-Offset Data: Joint Inversion of Rayleigh-Wave Particle Motion and Vertical- and Radial-Component Velocity Spectra

Rayleigh waves often propagate according to complex mode excitation so that the proper identification and separation of specific modes can be quite difficult or, in some cases, just impossible. Furthermore, the analysis of a single component (i.e., an inversion procedure based on just one objective function) necessarily prevents solving the problems related to the non-uniqueness...

Application of Low-Cost Fixed-Wing UAV for Inland Lakes Shoreline Investigation

One of the most important factors that influences the performance of geomorphologic parameters on urban lakes is the water level. It fluctuates periodically, causing shoreline changes. It is especially significant for typical environmental studies like bathymetric surveys, morphometric parameters calculation, sediment depth changes, thermal structure, water quality monitoring...