We present a closed-form formula for the general solution to the difference equation x n + k − q n x n = f n , n ∈ N 0 , $$x_{n+k}-q_{n}x_{n}=f_{n},\quad n\in \mathbb {N}_{0}, $$ where k ∈ N $k\in \mathbb {N}$ , ( q n ) n ∈ N 0 $(q_{n})_{n\in \mathbb {N}_{0}}$ , ( f n ) n ∈ N 0 ⊂ C $(f_{n})_{n\in \mathbb {N}_{0}}\subset \mathbb {C}$ , in the case q n = q $q_{n}=q$ , n ∈ N 0 $n\in...

In this paper, we study a Lotka-Volterra prey-predator system with feedback control. We establish sufficient conditions under which a unique positive equilibrium is globally stable. Further, we show that a suitable feedback control on predator species can make prey species that is on the brink of extinction become globally stable, but under the conditions of small feedback...

A new nonlinear partial differential system called two-mode higher-order Boussinesq-Burgers system is established. We aim to use the simplified bilinear method to find the necessary constraint conditions that guarantee the existence of both regular and singular multiple soliton solutions of the model. To study the correctness of the obtained results, we use the hyperbolic-tangent...

We present a closed-form formula for the general solution to the difference equation x n + k − q n x n = f n , n ∈ N 0 , $$x_{n+k}-q_{n}x_{n}=f_{n},\quad n\in \mathbb {N}_{0}, $$ where k ∈ N $k\in \mathbb {N}$ , ( q n ) n ∈ N 0 $(q_{n})_{n\in \mathbb {N}_{0}}$ , ( f n ) n ∈ N 0 ⊂ C $(f_{n})_{n\in \mathbb {N}_{0}}\subset \mathbb {C}$ , in the case q n = q $q_{n}=q$ , n ∈ N 0 $n\in...

We present a closed-form formula for the general solution to the difference equation x n + k − q n x n = f n , n ∈ N 0 , $$x_{n+k}-q_{n}x_{n}=f_{n},\quad n\in \mathbb {N}_{0}, $$ where k ∈ N $k\in \mathbb {N}$ , ( q n ) n ∈ N 0 $(q_{n})_{n\in \mathbb {N}_{0}}$ , ( f n ) n ∈ N 0 ⊂ C $(f_{n})_{n\in \mathbb {N}_{0}}\subset \mathbb {C}$ , in the case q n = q $q_{n}=q$ , n ∈ N 0 $n\in...

A strongly coupled cooperative parabolic system, which describes fecally-orally epidemic model with cross-diffusion in a heterogeneous environment, was formulated and analyzed. The basic reproduction number R 0 D $R_{0} ^{D}$ , which serves as a threshold parameter that predicts whether the coexistence will exist or not, is introduced by the next infection operator and the...

We formulate a stochastic SIS epidemic model with vaccination by introducing a Lévy noise and regime switching into the epidemic model. First, we prove that the stochastic model admits a unique global positive solution. Moreover, we study the asymptotic behavior of the stochastic regime switching SIS model with vaccination driven by Lévy noise.

In this paper, we study a Lotka-Volterra prey-predator system with feedback control. We establish sufficient conditions under which a unique positive equilibrium is globally stable. Further, we show that a suitable feedback control on predator species can make prey species that is on the brink of extinction become globally stable, but under the conditions of small feedback...

We consider adaptive compensation for infinite number of actuator failures in the tracking control of uncertain nonlinear systems. We construct an adaptive controller by combining the common Lyapunov function approach and the structural characteristic of neural networks. The proposed control strategy is feasible under the presupposition that the systems have a nonstrict-feedback...

The square iterative roots for strictly monotonic and upper semicontinuous functions with one set-valued point were fully described in (Li et al. in Publ. Math. (Debr.) 75:203-220, 2009). As a continuation, we study both strictly monotonic and nonmonotonic multifunctions. We present sufficient and necessary conditions under which those multifunctions have nth iterative roots...

In this paper, a reaction-diffusion trimolecular biochemical model with autocatalysis and fractional-order derivative is proposed. We establish the existence and uniqueness of a positive solution to this system in a Besov space. Besides, for this system, we obtain stability, Hopf and Turing bifurcations and spatial patterns. These dynamic behaviors of this system are slightly...

A strongly coupled cooperative parabolic system, which describes fecally-orally epidemic model with cross-diffusion in a heterogeneous environment, was formulated and analyzed. The basic reproduction number R 0 D $R_{0} ^{D}$ , which serves as a threshold parameter that predicts whether the coexistence will exist or not, is introduced by the next infection operator and the...

We present a fractional-order model of two-species facultative mutualism with harvesting. We investigate the stability of the equilibrium points of the model by using the linearization method for noncoexistence of equilibrium points and the Lyapunov direct method for the positive coexistence of an equilibrium point. In addition, we obtain sufficient conditions to ensure the local...

In this paper, a reaction-diffusion trimolecular biochemical model with autocatalysis and fractional-order derivative is proposed. We establish the existence and uniqueness of a positive solution to this system in a Besov space. Besides, for this system, we obtain stability, Hopf and Turing bifurcations and spatial patterns. These dynamic behaviors of this system are slightly...

Many numerical methods have been developed for nonlinear fractional integro-differential Volterra’s population model (FVPG). In these methods, to approximate a function on a particular interval, only a restricted number of points have been employed. In this research, we show that it is possible to use the fuzzy transform method (F-transform) to tackle with FVPG. It makes the F...

The square iterative roots for strictly monotonic and upper semicontinuous functions with one set-valued point were fully described in (Li et al. in Publ. Math. (Debr.) 75:203-220, 2009). As a continuation, we study both strictly monotonic and nonmonotonic multifunctions. We present sufficient and necessary conditions under which those multifunctions have nth iterative roots...

We discuss the calculation of discriminating kernel for the discrete-time dynamic game and continuous-time dynamic game (namely differential game) using the viability kernel and reachable set. For the discrete-time dynamic game, we give an approximation of the viability kernel by the maximal reachable set. Then, based on the relationship between viability and discriminating...

In this paper, we consider the nonergodic Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process X 0 = 0 , d X t = θ X t d t + d B t a , b , t ≥ 0 , $$ X_{0}=0, \quad\quad dX_{t}=\theta X_{t} \,dt+dB_{t}^{a,b},\quad t\geq0, $$ driven by the weighted fractional Brownian motion B t a , b $B_{t}^{a,b}$ with parameter a and b. Our goal is to estimate the unknown parameter θ > 0 $\theta>0$ based on the discrete...

We begin by proving a local existence result for a fractional Caputo nonlocal thermistor problem. Then additional existence and continuation theorems are obtained, ensuring global existence of solutions.

The paper is devoted to investigating a class of neutral stochastic integro-differential equations with impulses driven by fractional Brownian motion. By establishing two new impulsive integral inequalities which improve the inequalities established by Li (Neurocomputing 177:620-627, 2016) and Long et al. (Stat. Probab. Lett. 82(9):1699-1709, 2012), attracting and quasi-invariant...

We provide the numerical solution of a Volterra integro-differential equation of parabolic type with memory term subject to initial boundary value conditions. Finite difference method in combination with product trapezoidal integration rule is used to discretize the equation in time and sinc-collocation method is employed in space. A weakly singular kernel has been viewed as an...

In this paper, we study the necessary and sufficient optimality conditions for problems of the fractional calculus of variations with a Lagrange function depending on a Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative. The new kernel of Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative has no singularity, which is critical to interpreting the memory aftermath of the system. This property was not...

In this paper, we derive a discretized multi-group epidemic model with time delay by using a nonstandard finite difference (NSFD) scheme. A crucial observation regarding the advantage of the NSFD scheme is that the positivity and boundedness of solutions of the continuous model are preserved. Furthermore, we show that the discrete model has the same equilibria, and the conditions...