Behavior Research Methods

List of Papers (Total 5,397)

A technique for the construction of discrete dichotic stimulation material

Procedures are described for the generation, synchronization. and accurate spacing of discrete dichotic stimulation material. A suggested standard definition of interpair interval is proposed.

Awide range timing circuit with two independent controls

The timer described in this note is an example of how a small increase in engineering complexity can lead to a marked increase in user convenience and overall system accuracy.

A simple and inexpensive transducer for quantitative measurements of penile erection during sleep

The construction of a mercury strain-gauge transducer for measuring penile erection and scoring rules for tumescence episodes are described. The gauge device has been found to be cheap, reliable, and easy to construct. It is capable of transducing changes in circumference in the penis of adults and infants, the clitoris of congenital adrenal hyperplasia patients, and the nipples...

Not-quite-random assignments

A problem of random assignment is discussed.

Control of-treadmill exercise of rats with hypothalamic stimulation

Running and resting behavior of rats was measured during treadmill exercise under conditions involving (1) rear-shock avoidance, (2) continuous electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus, or (3) no rear-shock and no hypothalamic stimulation. Hypothalamic stimulation was superior for eliciting consistent running with a minimum of resting. A second experiment demonstrated that...

Facial expressions: An objective method in the quantitative evaluation of emotional change

A method is presented for obtaining a seriesofsilhouettes that were analyzed as profiles of the human face. When depressed psychiatric patients smiled before and after electroshock therapy, a greater facial displacement was recorded after treatment. Controls did not show any trend in this regard.

Technique for monitoring activity in free-moving animals

A techique is described for measuring activity by monitoring the rotational movements of a commutator. to which animals might be connected for other experimental purposes.

A titration procedure for generating escape behavior

In a grid-shock escape paradigm using time-out as reinforcement, both fixed-ratio and variable-interval performances were established directly from a continuous reinforcement schedule with rats and guinea pigs. A procedure was developed that employed a stepwise decrease in reinforcement time for all responses except the terminal response. Acquisition and long-term maintenance...

Automated system for acoustic research

An automated system is described for stimulus presentation and response collection in psychoacoustic research. The system is capable of producing rapidly and precisely a wide range of discrete frequencies.

A note on psychophysical measures

The nature of liminal measurement is discussed, and the standard deviation is proposed asa suitable alternative measure to the limen.

A multi-purpose logic module for behavioral experiments

A notational system has been developed that can be used to describe most reinforcement schedules or other sequential procedures by appropriately interconnecting the basic notational units. The notational language has been applied in the past to develop a user-oriented computer program for behavioral experiments. The present paper describes a digital logic module designed to be...

Transistorized timer for sensory-behavioral research

A timer circuit is presented that can produce pulse durations ranging from 1 to 20,000 msec. The timer has high reliability, is inexpensive, and simple to construct.

Can a small dedicated machine find happiness in a company that pioneered time-sharing?

In the context of an automated psychophysical laboratory, the adequacies and inadequacies of a small computer are discussed. Attention is given to the rationale for choosing the implementation in particular a dedicated small system as opposed to time-shared use of a larger system. The variables discussed include cost, flexibility, language level, and storage capabilities in...



Some referents and measures of nonverbal behavior

This paper summarizes some of the measures of nonverbal behavior that have been found to be significant indicators of a communicator’s attitude toward, status relative to, and responsiveness to his addressee. The nonverbal cues considered include posture, position, movement, facial, and implicit verbal cues. In addition to providing criteria for the scoring of these cues...

on the acoustic analysis of primate vocalizations

The acoustic theory of speech production relates articulatory maneuvers to acoustic attributes of speech. Some procedures are discussed that make use of this theory to analyze the vocalizations of nonhuman primates. These procedures make use of sound spectrograms, oscillograms, and computer-implemented analogs of the primate vocal apparatus as well as anatomical measurements. The...

Partial analysis of high-way factorial designs

Inclusion of several variables in a design is often desirable, but each added variable doubles the number of significance tests in the routine analysis of variance. This note discusses a procedure of partial analysis in which interactions, primarily those involving minor variables, are omitted from the analysis when prior evidence indicates that they are probably negligible. The...

A comparison of simulated one-way and shuttle avoidance in an automated apparatus

The fully automated shuttle box employed in two experiments permitted the comparison within one apparatus of performance under a simulated one-way condition and the usual shuttle condition. Animals in the simulated one-way condition always ran from a white compartment into a black compartment, but alternated their direction of locomotion, as did the shuttle animals. In both...

Protein-binding assays for adrenocorticoids

The measurement of the adrenocortical hormones, Cortisol and corticosterone, m blood plasma has previously best been done by procedures employing varying degrees of purification of the hormone, followed by photometric or fluorimetric quantitation. These methods have been relatively difficult or laborious, particularly in the case of the procedures that most specifically measure...

An on-line computer in a visual perception laboratory

The use of a small data acquisition computer (PDP-8) is described for on-One operations in visual perception experiments. A typical pro&um to control an experiment on short-term visual memory is presented, and the interface to connect the computer to the external stimulating and response devices is described in some detail A brief description is given of some special purpose...

A convective thermal controller for behavioral experiments

The Convective Thermal Controller (CTC) is designed to provide rapid and precise control of a thermal stimulus for application to behavioral experiments with small animals. Subjects are bathed in one of two continuously recirculating air systems; two valves determine which of the systems play on S. When the systems are stabilized at different temperatures, actuation of the valves...

The roots of territorial marking in the Mongolian gerbil: A problem of species-common topography

The Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) has recently been introduced into behavioral research. Many features make it an ideal laboratory animal. It is docile, highly exploratory, a good learner, virtually odorless and can be maintained without water; other than that it metabolizes from its food. General characteristics of the gerbil are described, and a brief review of...

On assessing verbal stimulus hierarchies1

Typical word-association procedures result in verbal response hierarchies for a specific stimulus word. The problem of assessing corresponding stimulus hierarchies is discussed Three approaches are entertained: obtaining associations to all of the words in the dictionary, clerical cross-indexing of existing response-hierarchy data, and obtaining backward associations which are...