Behavior Research Methods

List of Papers (Total 5,324)

The effects of response bias in two-alternative-forced-choice discrimination matrices

Traditionally the two-alternative forced-choice technique has been employed in the investigation of stimulus discriminability in cases where it has been desirable to limit the effects of response bias on the discrimination performance. The efficacy of this method of response bias control is assessed in relation to a number of perceptual models of the receiver-operating ...

Simultaneous switching of auditory transients For two-channel presentation

A modification of the Grason-Stadler Series 829 D&E Electronic Switches that enables simultaneous cross-channel presentation of auditory signals at the two ears is described.

A photoelectric sound-activated relay

By activating photocell control circuits by a low voltage lamp in parallel with speaker outputs on conventional recorders, it is possible to obtain reliable and inexpensive program capability.

A note on methods of indexing associative relatedness

A method of indexing response relations among stimulus words on a word association test is presented utilizing the concept of mathematical sets. Two coefficients of associative relatedness are proposed and some relationships between these and a number of other coefficients are given.

Programmed presentation of pure tones of different frequencies using a single oscillator

A simple and inexpensive method is described for the programmed presentation of pure tones of different frequencies using a single oscillator.

An improved shocking surface for pigeons and rats

A resistive shocking surface and an appropriate power supply are described. The efficacy of the system is illustrated with some data on the activity of pigeons and rats as a function of the voltage applied.

A simplified technique for conditioning respiratory mouth movements in fish

This report describes a simple technique and restraining device for investigating classically conditioned inhibition of respiration in the fish. The restraining device is seen as having wide applicability for investigations which necessitate the immobilization of the S.

Babies by bar-press: Maternal behavior in the rat

Pregnant rats were trained to press a bar for food rewards: Postpartum these Ss were tested when each bar-press delivered a rat pup (S’s own or foster) into the food cup. Ss repetitively bar-pressed, snatched up the pup as it tumbled down the chute and retrieved the pup into the adjacent nest box. Ss lived with 6 nursing pups but bar-pressed for hundreds: E removed all but 6 pups ...

The use of strain rank orders in assessing equivalence of techniques

In situations where effects of previous testing make it impossible to compare putativety equivalent forms of a behavioral test, inbred strains may be useful. To a considerable extent, animals from an inbred strain represent replicate individuals. Different naive samples from the same strain may be tested in different forms of a test. There is presumptive evidence that the two forms ...

An apparatus for use in 2 by 2 game research

This article describes a solid state apparatus for use in 2 by 2 game research. There are two individual player’s boards and a control panel for E. Following E’s signal, each player chooses one of two responses. Their choices are immediately registered on E’s panel, but appear on each individual game board only after both have responded. Provisions are made for E to transmit false ...

A solid-state device for presenting moving shadows

The use of luminescent panels controlled by solid-state circuitry to produce moving shadows is described. Advantages include lack of vibration, noise, and heat.

A one-trial non-shock passive avoidance task for rats

Apparatus and procedure are described for providing a one-trial nonshock passive-avoidance task.

A runway for chicks

Problems associated with using chicks in a runway are discussed. Acquisition and extinction data are presented from a sample of 12 Australorp chicks.

An ultraflexible microminiature multilead electrode

Winding jig and construction details aregiven for a microminiature electrode for chronic small animal work. Electrode configuration is that of intermeshed helices. Increasing the number of leads does not affect bulk or flexibility.

A simple and inexpensive click-free audio switch

This paper describes a click-free audio switch that functions by controlling the rate of onset and decay of a signal. The principle component of the switch is a device whose resistance is a function of the light intensity falling upon it. Circuit diagrams and suggested applications are provided.

Bias due to individual differences in yoked control designs

Church’s objections to the yoked control design are reviewed and criticized. To deal with them more effectively, a reciprocal yoked control design is presented, in which each S of a yoked pair receives training with two CSs, one of which involves an instrumental contingency while the other is in a yoked control arrangement with the other S’s instrumental CS. Thus, each S in the ...

Two Improvements for the Econo-Cage #110 metabolism unit

The Econo-Cage metabolism unit is improved by replacing a breakable plastic rod which holds the feeder screen in place and by collecting feces on a removable screen instead of from the urine contaminated base.

A portable, audible-Interval signal device1

Described here is a compact and battery-operated unit that produces a short audible signal at uniform intervals, variable from 2 sec to 2 min.

A photoelectric shock scrambler

A shock scrambler using photoelectric conductors which operate relays is described. The scrambler has advantages of low cost and reliable operation.

Free association, free recall, and stimulated recall compared

Three primary methods of recall (free association, free recall, stimulated recall) and two modifications of them (modified free association, modified stimulated recall) were defined by use of three variables: (a) presence or absence of prior laboratory training, (b) presence or absence of E controlled test stimulation, and (c) test instructions to free associate or to recall Data ...

An inexpensive retraction mechanism

An electric retraction mechanism, which is adaptable to a wide range of operant manipulanda, was developed. Miniaturized, inexpensive toy railroad equipment was used to simplify construction. The mechanism, utilized as a retractable rat lever, has operated reliably and uniformly over a range of independent retraction and extension times.