Behavior Research Methods

http://link.springer.com/journal/13428

List of Papers (Total 5,319)

Validation of sleep-2-Peak: A smartphone application that can detect fatigue-related changes in reaction times during sleep deprivation

Despite its high sensitivity and validity in the context of sleep loss, the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) could be improved. The aim of the present study was to validate a new smartphone PVT-type application called sleep-2-Peak (s2P) by determining its ability to assess fatigue-related changes in alertness in a context of extended wakefulness. Short 3-min versions of s2P and of ...

The Set of Fear Inducing Pictures (SFIP): Development and validation in fearful and nonfearful individuals

Emotionally charged pictorial materials are frequently used in phobia research, but no existing standardized picture database is dedicated to the study of different phobias. The present work describes the results of two independent studies through which we sought to develop and validate this type of database—a Set of Fear Inducing Pictures (SFIP). In Study 1, 270 fear-relevant and ...

PageFocus: Using paradata to detect and prevent cheating on online achievement tests

Cheating threatens the validity of unproctored online achievement tests. To address this problem, we developed PageFocus, a JavaScript that detects when participants abandon test pages by switching to another window or browser tab. In a first study, we aimed at testing whether PageFocus could detect and prevent cheating. We asked 115 lab and 186 online participants to complete a ...

Trial-by-trial identification of categorization strategy using iterative decision-bound modeling

Identifying the strategy that participants use in laboratory experiments is crucial in interpreting the results of behavioral experiments. This article introduces a new modeling procedure called iterative decision-bound modeling (iDBM), which iteratively fits decision-bound models to the trial-by-trial responses generated from single participants in perceptual categorization ...

Using propensity score matching to construct experimental stimuli

Propensity score matching is widely used in various fields of research, including psychology, medicine, education, and sociology. It is usually applied to find a matched control group for a treatment group. In the present article, we suggest that propensity score matching might also be used to construct item sets matched for different parameters. We constructed stimuli to ...

Auditory presentation and synchronization in Adobe Flash and HTML5/JavaScript Web experiments

Substantial recent research has examined the accuracy of presentation durations and response time measurements for visually presented stimuli in Web-based experiments, with a general conclusion that accuracy is acceptable for most kinds of experiments. However, many areas of behavioral research use auditory stimuli instead of, or in addition to, visual stimuli. Much less is known ...

Formality of the Chinese collective leadership

We investigated the linguistic patterns in the discourse of four generations of the collective leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC) from 1921 to 2012. The texts of Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping, Jiang Zemin, and Hu Jintao were analyzed using computational linguistic techniques (a Chinese formality score) to explore the persuasive linguistic features of the leaders in the ...

Evaluation of the Tobii EyeX Eye tracking controller and Matlab toolkit for research

The Tobii Eyex Controller is a new low-cost binocular eye tracker marketed for integration in gaming and consumer applications. The manufacturers claim that the system was conceived for natural eye gaze interaction, does not require continuous recalibration, and allows moderate head movements. The Controller is provided with a SDK to foster the development of new eye tracking ...

A study of artificial eyes for the measurement of precision in eye-trackers

The precision of an eye-tracker is critical to the correct identification of eye movements and their properties. To measure a system’s precision, artificial eyes (AEs) are often used, to exclude eye movements influencing the measurements. A possible issue, however, is that it is virtually impossible to construct AEs with sufficient complexity to fully represent the human eye. To ...

A computational modeling of semantic knowledge in reading comprehension: Integrating the landscape model with latent semantic analysis

It is a well-accepted view that the prior semantic (general) knowledge that readers possess plays a central role in reading comprehension. Nevertheless, computational models of reading comprehension have not integrated the simulation of semantic knowledge and online comprehension processes under a unified mathematical algorithm. The present article introduces a computational model ...

Characterization of graphomotor functions in individuals with Parkinson’s disease and essential tremor

In this study, we explored the relationship between the clinical features and motor impairments related to the graphomotor function of individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and essential tremor (ET). We recruited 46 participants: 12 with PD, 13 with ET, and 21 controls. All participants were asked to perform six graphomotor tasks on a digitizer tablet: drawing straight lines, ...

Default “Gunel and Dickey” Bayes factors for contingency tables

The analysis of R×C contingency tables usually features a test for independence between row and column counts. Throughout the social sciences, the adequacy of the independence hypothesis is generally evaluated by the outcome of a classical p-value null-hypothesis significance test. Unfortunately, however, the classical p-value comes with a number of well-documented drawbacks. Here ...

Chinese translation norms for 1,429 English words

We present Chinese translation norms for 1,429 English words. Chinese-English bilinguals (N = 28) were asked to provide the first Chinese translation that came to mind for 1,429 English words. The results revealed that 71 % of the English words received more than one correct translation indicating the large amount of translation ambiguity when translating from English to Chinese. ...

3-minute smartphone-based and tablet-based psychomotor vigilance tests for the assessment of reduced alertness due to sleep deprivation

The psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) is widely used to measure reduced alertness due to sleep loss. Here, two newly developed, 3-min versions of the psychomotor vigilance test, one smartphone-based and the other tablet-based, were validated against a conventional 10-min laptop-based PVT. Sixteen healthy participants (ages 22–40; seven males, nine females) completed a laboratory ...

How many trials are required for parameter estimation in diffusion modeling? A comparison of different optimization criteria

Diffusion models (Ratcliff, 1978) make it possible to identify and separate different cognitive processes underlying responses in binary decision tasks (e.g., the speed of information accumulation vs. the degree of response conservatism). This becomes possible because of the high degree of information utilization involved. Not only mean response times or error rates are used for ...

Opportunity for verbalization does not improve visual change detection performance: A state-trace analysis

Evidence suggests that there is a tendency to verbally recode visually-presented information, and that in some cases verbal recoding can boost memory performance. According to multi-component models of working memory, memory performance is increased because task-relevant information is simultaneously maintained in two codes. The possibility of dual encoding is problematic if the ...

A cluster-based approach to selecting representative stimuli from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) database

The International Affective Picture System (IAPS; Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 2008) is a stimulus database that is frequently used to investigate various aspects of emotional processing. Despite its extensive use, selecting IAPS stimuli for a research project is not usually done according to an established strategy, but rather is tailored to individual studies. Here we propose a ...

iMap4: An open source toolbox for the statistical fixation mapping of eye movement data with linear mixed modeling

A major challenge in modern eye movement research is to statistically map where observers are looking, by isolating the significant differences between groups and conditions. As compared to the signals from contemporary neuroscience measures, such as magneto/electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging, eye movement data are sparser, with much larger variations ...

TurkPrime.com: A versatile crowdsourcing data acquisition platform for the behavioral sciences

In recent years, Mechanical Turk (MTurk) has revolutionized social science by providing a way to collect behavioral data with unprecedented speed and efficiency. However, MTurk was not intended to be a research tool, and many common research tasks are difficult and time-consuming to implement as a result. TurkPrime was designed as a research platform that integrates with MTurk and ...

Minho Affective Sentences (MAS): Probing the roles of sex, mood, and empathy in affective ratings of verbal stimuli

During social communication, words and sentences play a critical role in the expression of emotional meaning. The Minho Affective Sentences (MAS) were developed to respond to the lack of a standardized sentence battery with normative affective ratings: 192 neutral, positive, and negative declarative sentences were strictly controlled for psycholinguistic variables such as numbers ...

The Calgary semantic decision project: concrete/abstract decision data for 10,000 English words

Psycholinguistic research has been advanced by the development of word recognition megastudies. For instance, the English Lexicon Project (Balota et al., 2007) provides researchers with access to naming and lexical-decision latencies for over 40,000 words. In the present work, we extended the megastudy approach to a task that emphasizes semantic processing. Using a ...

Normative data for idiomatic expressions

Idiomatic expressions such as kick the bucket or go down a storm can differ on a number of internal features, such as familiarity, meaning, literality, and decomposability, and these types of features have been the focus of a number of normative studies. In this article, we provide normative data for a set of Bulgarian idioms and their English translations, and by doing so ...

Introducing the Open Affective Standardized Image Set (OASIS)

We introduce the Open Affective Standardized Image Set (OASIS), an open-access online stimulus set containing 900 color images depicting a broad spectrum of themes, including humans, animals, objects, and scenes, along with normative ratings on two affective dimensions—valence (i.e., the degree of positive or negative affective response that the image evokes) and arousal (i.e., the ...