Behavior Research Methods

http://link.springer.com/journal/13428

List of Papers (Total 5,318)

How to quantify the evidence for the absence of a correlation

We present a suite of Bayes factor hypothesis tests that allow researchers to grade the decisiveness of the evidence that the data provide for the presence versus the absence of a correlation between two variables. For concreteness, we apply our methods to the recent work of Donnellan et al. (in press) who conducted nine replication studies with over 3,000 participants and failed ...

Impact of an equality constraint on the class-specific residual variances in regression mixtures: A Monte Carlo simulation study

Regression mixture models are a novel approach to modeling the heterogeneous effects of predictors on an outcome. In the model-building process, often residual variances are disregarded and simplifying assumptions are made without thorough examination of the consequences. In this simulation study, we investigated the impact of an equality constraint on the residual variances across ...

Predictors of photo naming: Dutch norms for 327 photos

In the present study, we report naming latencies and norms for 327 photos of objects in Dutch. We provide norms for eight psycholinguistic variables: age of acquisition, familiarity, imageability, image agreement, objective and subjective visual complexity, word frequency, word length in syllables and letters, and name agreement. Furthermore, multiple regression analyses revealed ...

Performance impact of stop lists and morphological decomposition on word–word corpus-based semantic space models

Corpus-based semantic space models, which primarily rely on lexical co-occurrence statistics, have proven effective in modeling and predicting human behavior in a number of experimental paradigms that explore semantic memory representation. The most widely studied extant models, however, are strongly influenced by orthographic word frequency (e.g., Shaoul & Westbury, Behavior ...

Quint: An R package for the identification of subgroups of clients who differ in which treatment alternative is best for them

In the analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), treatment effect heterogeneity often occurs, implying differences across (subgroups of) clients in treatment efficacy. This phenomenon is typically referred to as treatment-subgroup interactions. The identification of subgroups of clients, defined in terms of pretreatment characteristics that are involved in a ...

The Monkey game: A computerized verbal working memory task for self-reliant administration in primary school children

In two studies, the psychometric properties of an online self-reliant verbal working memory task (the Monkey game) for primary school children (6–12 years of age) were examined. In Study 1, children (n = 5,203) from 31 primary schools participated. The participants completed computerized verbal and visual–spatial working memory tasks (i.e., the Monkey game and the Lion game) and a ...

Norms for name agreement, familiarity, subjective frequency, and imageability for 348 object names in Tunisian Arabic

Normative databases for pictorial stimuli are widely used in research on language processing in order to control for a number of psycholinguistic variables in the selected stimuli. Such resources are lacking for Arabic and its dialectal varieties. In the present study, we aimed to provide Tunisian Arabic (TA) normative data for 348 line drawings taken from Cycowicz, Friedman, ...

Modeling error distributions of growth curve models through Bayesian methods

Growth curve models are widely used in social and behavioral sciences. However, typical growth curve models often assume that the errors are normally distributed although non-normal data may be even more common than normal data. In order to avoid possible statistical inference problems in blindly assuming normality, a general Bayesian framework is proposed to flexibly model normal ...

Conducting spoken word recognition research online: Validation and a new timing method

Models of spoken word recognition typically make predictions that are then tested in the laboratory against the word recognition scores of human subjects (e.g., Luce & Pisoni Ear and Hearing, 19, 1–36, 1998). Unfortunately, laboratory collection of large sets of word recognition data can be costly and time-consuming. Due to the numerous advantages of online research in speed, cost, ...

PsiMLE: A maximum-likelihood estimation approach to estimating psychophysical scaling and variability more reliably, efficiently, and flexibly

A simple and popular psychophysical model—usually described as overlapping Gaussian tuning curves arranged along an ordered internal scale—is capable of accurately describing both human and nonhuman behavioral performance and neural coding in magnitude estimation, production, and reproduction tasks for most psychological dimensions (e.g., time, space, number, or brightness). This ...

Color associations to emotion and emotion-laden words: A collection of norms for stimulus construction and selection

Color has the ability to influence a variety of human behaviors, such as object recognition, the identification of facial expressions, and the ability to categorize stimuli as positive or negative. Researchers have started to examine the relationship between emotional words and colors, and the findings have revealed that brightness is often associated with positive emotional words ...

Multiple imputation of missing covariate values in multilevel models with random slopes: a cautionary note

Multiple imputation (MI) has become one of the main procedures used to treat missing data, but the guidelines from the methodological literature are not easily transferred to multilevel research. For models including random slopes, proper MI can be difficult, especially when the covariate values are partially missing. In the present article, we discuss applications of MI in ...

Tutorial dialogues and gist explanations of genetic breast cancer risk

The intelligent tutoring system (ITS) BRCA Gist is a Web-based tutor developed using the Shareable Knowledge Objects (SKO) platform that uses latent semantic analysis to engage women in natural-language dialogues to teach about breast cancer risk. BRCA Gist appears to be the first ITS designed to assist patients’ health decision making. Two studies provide fine-grained analyses of ...

Biclustering methods for one-mode asymmetric matrices

An asymmetric one-mode data matrix has rows and columns that correspond to the same set of objects. However, the roles of the objects frequently differ for the rows and the columns. For example, in a visual alphabetic confusion matrix from an experimental psychology study, both the rows and columns pertain to letters of the alphabet. Yet the rows correspond to the presented ...

Disparity in organizational research: How should we measure it?

Researchers can use the coefficient of variation (CV), Gini coefficient, standard deviation (SD), Theil index, or relative mean deviation (RMD) to measure organizational disparity. Because these five measures have different properties, however, using them interchangeably may lead to inconsistent findings. Using simulated team pay data, we conducted two simulation studies to examine ...

The multidimensional randomized response design: Estimating different aspects of the same sensitive behavior

The conventional randomized response design is unidimensional in the sense that it measures a single dimension of a sensitive attribute, like its prevalence, frequency, magnitude, or duration. This paper introduces a multidimensional design characterized by categorical questions that each measure a different aspect of the same sensitive attribute. The benefits of the ...

When emotions are expressed figuratively: Psycholinguistic and Affective Norms of 619 Idioms for German (PANIG)

Despite flourishing research on the relationship between emotion and literal language, and despite the pervasiveness of figurative expressions in communication, the role of figurative language in conveying affect has been underinvestigated. This study provides affective and psycholinguistic norms for 619 German idiomatic expressions and explores the relationships between affective ...

Normative data for Italian Deese/Roediger–McDermott lists

The present study provides norms for Deese/Roediger–McDermott (DRM) lists that were used to create false memories in native speakers of Italian. The word lists reported in this article are based on the DRM lists that have been used extensively to examine illusory memories in English speakers (Deese in Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58, 17–22, 1959; Roediger & McDermott in ...

A 25-year replication of Katz et al.’s (1988) metaphor norms

Research in metaphor processing has made extensive use of the normed metaphor database created by Katz, Paivio, Marschark, & Clark (Metaphor and Symbolic Activity, 3, 191–214, 1988). Because of the plasticity of figurative language, we conducted a renorming of selected metaphors from the database on a new student population. Correlations between Katz et al.’s and the present data ...

Psychophysics in a Web browser? Comparing response times collected with JavaScript and Psychophysics Toolbox in a visual search task

Behavioral researchers are increasingly using Web-based software such as JavaScript to conduct response time experiments. Although there has been some research on the accuracy and reliability of response time measurements collected using JavaScript, it remains unclear how well this method performs relative to standard laboratory software in psychologically relevant experimental ...