Behavior Research Methods

http://link.springer.com/journal/13428

List of Papers (Total 5,397)

A comparison of methods to combine speed and accuracy measures of performance: A rejoinder on the binning procedure

In cognitive research, speed and accuracy are two important aspects of performance. When analyzed separately, these performance variables sometimes lead to contradictory conclusions about the effect of a manipulation. To avoid such conflicts, several measures that integrate speed and accuracy have been proposed, but the added value of using such measures remains unclear. The...

Rated age-of-acquisition norms for over 3,200 German words

Words that have been learned early in life are responded to faster than words that have been acquired later. Subjective ratings of acquisition ages have been successfully employed to study the effect of age of acquisition (AoA). Although a large number of norms exist in many languages, fewer are available for German. Therefore, subjective AoA ratings for 3,259 German words were...

Simple construct evaluation with latent class analysis: An investigation of Facebook addiction and the development of a short form of the Facebook Addiction Test (F-AT)

In psychological research, there is a growing interest in using latent class analysis (LCA) for the investigation of quantitative constructs. The aim of this study is to illustrate how LCA can be applied to gain insights on a construct and to select items during test development. We show the added benefits of LCA beyond factor-analytic methods, namely being able (1) to describe...

Normative data for idiomatic expressions

Idiomatic expressions such as kick the bucket or go down a storm can differ on a number of internal features, such as familiarity, meaning, literality, and decomposability, and these types of features have been the focus of a number of normative studies. In this article, we provide normative data for a set of Bulgarian idioms and their English translations, and by doing so...

Introducing the Open Affective Standardized Image Set (OASIS)

We introduce the Open Affective Standardized Image Set (OASIS), an open-access online stimulus set containing 900 color images depicting a broad spectrum of themes, including humans, animals, objects, and scenes, along with normative ratings on two affective dimensions—valence (i.e., the degree of positive or negative affective response that the image evokes) and arousal (i.e...

A simplified version of the maximum information per time unit method in computerized adaptive testing

In this article, we propose a simplified version of the maximum information per time unit method (MIT; Fan, Wang, Chang, & Douglas, Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics 37: 655–670, 2012), or MIT-S, for computerized adaptive testing. Unlike the original MIT method, the proposed MIT-S method does not require fitting a response time model to the individual-level...

A cage-based training, cognitive testing and enrichment system optimized for rhesus macaques in neuroscience research

In neurophysiological studies with awake non-human primates (NHP), it is typically necessary to train the animals over a prolonged period of time on a behavioral paradigm before the actual data collection takes place. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) are the most widely used primate animal models in system neuroscience. Inspired by existing joystick- or touch-screen-based systems...

Norms of valence and arousal for 14,031 Spanish words

Most current models of research on emotion recognize valence (how pleasant a stimulus is) and arousal (the level of activation or intensity that a stimulus elicits) as important components in the classification of affective experiences (Barrett, 1998; Kuppens, Tuerlinckx, Russell, & Barrett, 2012). Here we present a set of norms for valence and arousal for a very large set of...

Encoding lexical tones in jTRACE: a simulation of monosyllabic spoken word recognition in Mandarin Chinese

Despite its prevalence as one of the most highly influential models of spoken word recognition, the TRACE model has yet to be extended to consider tonal languages such as Mandarin Chinese. A key reason for this is that the model in its current state does not encode lexical tone. In this report, we present a modified version of the jTRACE model in which we borrowed on its existing...

A database of body-only computer-generated pictures of women for body-image studies: Development and preliminary validation

The body-shape-related stimuli used in most body-image studies have several limitations (e.g., a lack of pilot validation procedures and the use of non-body-shape-related control/neutral stimuli). We therefore developed a database of 61 computer-generated body-only pictures of women, wherein bodies were methodically manipulated in terms of fatness versus thinness. Eighty-two...

A Bayesian approach for estimating the probability of trigger failures in the stop-signal paradigm

Response inhibition is frequently investigated using the stop-signal paradigm, where participants perform a two-choice response time task that is occasionally interrupted by a stop signal instructing them to withhold their response. Stop-signal performance is formalized as a race between a go and a stop process. If the go process wins, the response is executed; if the stop...

The Glasgow Voice Memory Test: Assessing the ability to memorize and recognize unfamiliar voices

One thousand one hundred and twenty subjects as well as a developmental phonagnosic subject (KH) along with age-matched controls performed the Glasgow Voice Memory Test, which assesses the ability to encode and immediately recognize, through an old/new judgment, both unfamiliar voices (delivered as vowels, making language requirements minimal) and bell sounds. The inclusion of...

HelexKids: A word frequency database for Greek and Cypriot primary school children

In this article, we introduce HelexKids, an online written-word database for Greek-speaking children in primary education (Grades 1 to 6). The database is organized on a grade-by-grade basis, and on a cumulative basis by combining Grade 1 with Grades 2 to 6. It provides values for Zipf, frequency per million, dispersion, estimated word frequency per million, standard word...

Confidence intervals for correlations when data are not normal

With nonnormal data, the typical confidence interval of the correlation (Fisher z') may be inaccurate. The literature has been unclear as to which of several alternative methods should be used instead, and how extreme a violation of normality is needed to justify an alternative. Through Monte Carlo simulation, 11 confidence interval methods were compared, including Fisher z', two...

Quantification and analysis of saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements and fixations to detect oculomotor deficits

Assessment of deficits in oculomotor function may be useful to detect visuomotor impairments due to a closed head injury. Systematic analysis schemes are needed to reliably quantify oculomotor deficits associated with oculomotor impairment via brain trauma. We propose a systematic, automated analysis scheme using various eye-tracking tasks to assess oculomotor function in a...

Using Automated Learning Devices for Monkeys (ALDM) to study social networks

Social network analysis has become a prominent tool to study animal social life, and there is an increasing need to develop new systems to collect social information automatically, systematically, and reliably. Here we explore the use of a freely accessible Automated Learning Device for Monkeys (ALDM) to collect such social information on a group of 22 captive baboons (Papio...

In dialogue with an avatar, language behavior is identical to dialogue with a human partner

The use of virtual reality (VR) as a methodological tool is becoming increasingly popular in behavioral research as its flexibility allows for a wide range of applications. This new method has not been as widely accepted in the field of psycholinguistics, however, possibly due to the assumption that language processing during human-computer interactions does not accurately...

How to detect which variables are causing differences in component structure among different groups

When comparing the component structures of a multitude of variables across different groups, the conclusion often is that the component structures are very similar in general and differ in a few variables only. Detecting such “outlying variables” is substantively interesting. Conversely, it can help to determine what is common across the groups. This article proposes and...

The area-of-interest problem in eyetracking research: A noise-robust solution for face and sparse stimuli

A problem in eyetracking research is choosing areas of interest (AOIs): Researchers in the same field often use widely varying AOIs for similar stimuli, making cross-study comparisons difficult or even impossible. Subjective choices while choosing AOIs cause differences in AOI shape, size, and location. On the other hand, not many guidelines for constructing AOIs, or comparisons...

Bonn eXperimental System (BoXS): An open-source platform for interactive experiments in psychology and economics

The increased interest in complex-interactive behavior on the one hand and the cognitive and affective processes underlying behavior on the other are a challenge for researchers in psychology and behavioral economics. Research often necessitates that participants strategically interact with each other in dyads or groups. At the same time, to investigate the underlying cognitive...

The sensitivity and specificity of a diagnostic test of sequence-space synesthesia

People with sequence-space synesthesia (SSS) report stable visuo-spatial forms corresponding to numbers, days, and months (amongst others). This type of synesthesia has intrigued scientists for over 130 years but the lack of an agreed upon tool for assessing it has held back research on this phenomenon. The present study builds on previous tests by measuring the consistency of...

A dyadic stimulus set of audiovisual affective displays for the study of multisensory, emotional, social interactions

We describe the creation of the first multisensory stimulus set that consists of dyadic, emotional, point-light interactions combined with voice dialogues. Our set includes 238 unique clips, which present happy, angry and neutral emotional interactions at low, medium and high levels of emotional intensity between nine different actor dyads. The set was evaluated in a between...

Spanish norms for affective and lexico-semantic variables for 1,400 words

Studies of semantic variables (e.g., concreteness) and affective variables (i.e., valence and arousal) have traditionally tended to run in different directions. However, in recent years there has been growing interest in studying the relationship, as well as the potential overlaps, between the two. This article describes a database that provides subjective ratings for 1,400...

Hierarchical Bayesian estimation and hypothesis testing for delay discounting tasks

A state-of-the-art data analysis procedure is presented to conduct hierarchical Bayesian inference and hypothesis testing on delay discounting data. The delay discounting task is a key experimental paradigm used across a wide range of disciplines from economics, cognitive science, and neuroscience, all of which seek to understand how humans or animals trade off the immediacy...