Real-Time Systems

http://link.springer.com/journal/11241

List of Papers (Total 41)

Response-time analysis for fixed-priority systems with a write-back cache

This paper introduces analyses of write-back caches integrated into response-time analysis for fixed-priority preemptive and non-preemptive scheduling. For each scheduling paradigm, we derive four different approaches to computing the additional costs incurred due to write backs. We show the dominance relationships between these different approaches and note how they can be...

Optimal harmonic period assignment: complexity results and approximation algorithms

Harmonic periods have wide applicability in industrial real-time systems. Rate monotonic (RM) is able to schedule task sets with harmonic periods up to 100% utilization. Also, if there is no release jitter and execution time variation, RM and EDF generate the same schedule for each instance of a task. As a result, all instances of a task are interfered by the same amount of...

On the analysis of random replacement caches using static probabilistic timing methods for multi-path programs

Probabilistic hard real-time systems, based on hardware architectures that use a random replacement cache, provide a potential means of reducing the hardware over-provision required to accommodate pathological scenarios and the associated extremely rare, but excessively long, worst-case execution times that can occur in deterministic systems. Timing analysis for probabilistic...

Automated competitive analysis of real-time scheduling with graph games

This paper is devoted to automatic competitive analysis of real-time scheduling algorithms for firm-deadline tasksets, where only completed tasks contribute some utility to the system. Given such a taskset \({\mathcal {T}}\), the competitive ratio of an on-line scheduling algorithm \({\mathcal {A}}\) for \({\mathcal {T}}\) is the worst-case utility ratio of \({\mathcal {A...

Exact speedup factors and sub-optimality for non-preemptive scheduling

Fixed priority scheduling is used in many real-time systems; however, both preemptive and non-preemptive variants (FP-P and FP-NP) are known to be sub-optimal when compared to an optimal uniprocessor scheduling algorithm such as preemptive earliest deadline first (EDF-P). In this paper, we investigate the sub-optimality of fixed priority non-preemptive scheduling. Specifically...

Energy-efficient real-time scheduling for two-type heterogeneous multiprocessors

We propose three novel mathematical optimization formulations that solve the same two-type heterogeneous multiprocessor scheduling problem for a real-time taskset with hard constraints. Our formulations are based on a global scheduling scheme and a fluid model. The first formulation is a mixed-integer nonlinear program, since the scheduling problem is intuitively considered as an...

An extensible framework for multicore response time analysis

In this paper, we introduce a multicore response time analysis (MRTA) framework, which decouples response time analysis from a reliance on context-independent WCET values. Instead, the analysis formulates response times directly from the demands placed on different hardware resources. The MRTA framework is extensible to different multicore architectures, with a variety of...

rt-muse: measuring real-time characteristics of execution platforms

Operating systems code is often developed according to principles like simplicity, low overhead, and low memory footprint. Schedulers are no exceptions. A scheduler is usually developed with flexibility in mind, and this restricts the ability to provide real-time guarantees. Moreover, even when schedulers can provide real-time guarantees, it is unlikely that these guarantees are...

Designing end-to-end resource reservations in predictable distributed embedded systems

Contemporary distributed embedded systems in many domains have become highly complex due to ever-increasing demand on advanced computer controlled functionality. The resource reservation techniques can be effective in lowering the software complexity, ensuring predictability and allowing flexibility during the development and execution of these systems. This paper proposes a...

Using non-preemptive regions and path modification to improve schedulability of real-time traffic over priority-based NoCs

Network-on-Chip (NoC) is a preferred communication medium for massively parallel platforms. Fixed-priority based scheduling using virtual-channels is one of the promising solutions to support real-time traffic in on-chip networks. Most of the existing works regarding priority-based NoCs use a flit-level preemptive scheduling. Under such a mechanism, preemptions can only happen...

Bounded determinization of timed automata with silent transitions

Deterministic timed automata are strictly less expressive than their non-deterministic counterparts, which are again less expressive than those with silent transitions. As a consequence, timed automata are in general non-determinizable. This is unfortunate since deterministic automata play a major role in model-based testing, observability and implementability. However, by...

Verification and control of partially observable probabilistic systems

We present automated techniques for the verification and control of partially observable, probabilistic systems for both discrete and dense models of time. For the discrete-time case, we formally model these systems using partially observable Markov decision processes; for dense time, we propose an extension of probabilistic timed automata in which local states are partially...

Schedulability analysis of Ethernet Audio Video Bridging networks with scheduled traffic support

The IEEE Audio Video Bridging (AVB) technology is nowadays under consideration in several automation domains, such as, automotive, avionics, and industrial communications. AVB offers several benefits, such as open specifications, the existence of multiple providers of electronic components, and the real-time support, as AVB provides bounded latency to real-time traffic classes...

Fixed priority scheduling with pre-emption thresholds and cache-related pre-emption delays: integrated analysis and evaluation

Commercial off-the-shelf programmable platforms for real-time systems typically contain a cache to bridge the gap between the processor speed and main memory speed. Because cache-related pre-emption delays (CRPD) can have a significant influence on the computation times of tasks, CRPD have been integrated in the response time analysis for fixed-priority pre-emptive scheduling...

Real-time scheduling algorithm for safety-critical systems on faulty multicore environments

An algorithm (called FTM) for scheduling of real-time sporadic tasks on a multicore platform is proposed. Each task has a deadline by which it must complete its non-erroneous execution. The FTM algorithm executes backups in order to recover from errors caused by non-permanent and permanent hardware faults. The worst-case schedulability analysis of FTM algorithm is presented...

On the effectiveness of cache partitioning in hard real-time systems

In hard real-time systems, cache partitioning is often suggested as a means of increasing the predictability of caches in pre-emptively scheduled systems: when a task is assigned its own cache partition, inter-task cache eviction is avoided, and timing verification is reduced to the standard worst-case execution time analysis used in non-pre-emptive systems. The downside of cache...

Formal timing analysis of CAN-to-Ethernet gateway strategies in automotive networks

Due to increased bandwidth and scalability demands, Ethernet technology is finding its way into recent in-vehicle networks. Tomorrow’s heterogeneous networks will feature legacy buses [e.g. controller area network (CAN) or FlexRay] as well as high-speed Ethernet devices, connected by switches and gateways. As Ethernet offers significantly larger frame sizes than CAN, the...