Current Cardiology Reports

http://link.springer.com/journal/11886

List of Papers (Total 51)

Cardiovascular Disease, the Nitric Oxide Pathway and Risk of Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

Purpose of Review In this review, we summarise the evidence on the association between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cognitive impairment and explore the role of the nitric oxide (NO) pathway as a causal mechanism. Recent Findings Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that the presence of CVD and its risk factors in midlife is associated with an increased risk of later ...

Ablative Radiotherapy as a Noninvasive Alternative to Catheter Ablation for Cardiac Arrhythmias

Purpose of Review Stereotactic radioablation is a commonly utilized technology to noninvasively treat solid tumors with precision and efficacy. Using a robotic arm mounted delivery system, multiple low-dose ionizing radiation beams are delivered from multiple angles, concentrating ablative energy at the target tissue. Recently, this technology has been evaluated for treatment of ...

Strengths and Limitations of Using the Polypill in Cardiovascular Prevention

Purpose of Review Polypill and its role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention has been extensively discussed and debated since the inception of the concept in 2003. This article reviews the subsequent accumulated research in this area. Recent Findings Several short and intermediate to long-term studies with different brands of polypills have analysed the impact of polypill in ...

Genetic Architecture of Familial Hypercholesterolaemia

Purpose of Review Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is an inherited disorder of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) which is characterised by a raised cholesterol level from birth and a high risk of premature coronary heart disease. In this paper, we review the genetic basis of FH and its impact on the clinical presentation. Recent Findings Mutations in any of three genes ...

Cardiac Biomarkers and the Diagnosis of Myocardial Infarction in Women

Purpose of review Women with suspected acute coronary syndrome are less likely to undergo investigation or receive treatment than men, and women consistently have poorer outcomes. This review summarises how the latest development in cardiac biomarkers could improve both diagnosis and outcomes in women. Recent findings Novel high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays have identified ...

Prognostic Biomarkers in Acute Coronary Syndromes: Risk Stratification Beyond Cardiac Troponins

Purpose of Review Cardiac troponin (cTn) plays an essential role for assessment of outcome in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, the prognostic value of cTn is not absolute. In this mini-review, we summarize the evidence on the utility of established biomarkers of left-ventricular dysfunction, hemodynamic stress, inflammation, and renal dysfunction for risk prediction beyond ...

Glycaemic Effects of Non-statin Lipid-Lowering Therapies

Since the publication of the JUPITER trial, attention has been focused on the adverse glycemic effects of statin therapy. Although the modest increase in the risk of new diabetes mellitus is outweighed by the reduction in cardiovascular events for statins, emerging biochemical and genetic links between lipid metabolism and glycemic control raise the prospect of a broader ...

Genetic Risk Factors for Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Stroke

Understanding the genetic risk factors for stroke is an essential step to decipher the underlying mechanisms, facilitate the identification of novel therapeutic targets, and optimize the design of prevention strategies. A very small proportion of strokes are attributable to monogenic conditions, the vast majority being multifactorial, with multiple genetic and environmental risk ...

Progressing Insights into the Role of Dietary Fats in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

Dietary fats have important effects on the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Abundant evidence shows that partial replacement of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) with unsaturated fatty acids improves the blood lipid and lipoprotein profile and reduces the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Low-fat diets high in refined carbohydrates and sugar are not effective. Very long-chain ...

Psychosocial Factors in Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease that is increasing in prevalence globally. Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in diabetes, and lifestyle and clinical risk factors do not fully account for the link between the conditions. This article provides an overview of the evidence concerning the role of psychosocial stress factors in diabetes risk, as well ...

Echocardiography in Pregnancy: Part 2

The prevalence of pregnant women with cardiovascular heart disease is increasing. Transthoracic echocardiography is safe during pregnancy, and it is an important diagnostic tool in pregnant women with established heart disease in order to monitor ventricular and valvular anatomy and function. In addition, it can be used to delineate cardiac anatomy in complex congenital heart ...

Aortic Stenosis, a Left Ventricular Disease: Insights from Advanced Imaging

Aortic stenosis (AS) is the most common primary valve disorder in the elderly with an increasing prevalence. It is increasingly clear that it is also a disease of the left ventricle (LV) rather than purely the aortic valve. The transition from left ventricular hypertrophy to fibrosis results in the eventual adverse effects on systolic and diastolic function. Appropriate selection ...

Genetics of Insulin Resistance and the Metabolic Syndrome

Insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome are complex metabolic traits and key risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease. They result from the interplay of environmental and genetic factors but the full extent of the genetic background to these conditions remains incomplete. Large-scale genome-wide association studies have helped advance the identification of ...

Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins and Remnants: Targets for Therapy?

It is now evident that elevated circulating levels of triglycerides in the non-fasting state, a marker for triglyceride (TG)-rich remnant particles, are associated with increased risk of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recent findings from basic and clinical studies have begun to elucidate the mechanisms that contribute to the atherogenicity of these apoB-containing ...

Prevention of Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy: a Novel Application of the Polypill Concept

Nearly all of the annual 287,000 global maternal deaths are preventable. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are among the major causes. A novel fixed-dose combination pill or polypill to prevent cardiovascular disease is a promising strategy for prevention of HDP. The aim of this study was to identify eligible candidates for a polypill for the prevention of HDP. A ...

To Revascularise or Not To Revascularise, That Is the Question: the Diagnostic and Management Conundrum of Ischaemic Cardiomyopathy

Ischaemic cardiomyopathy is an important cardiovascular condition that has differing pathophysiological substrates and clinical manifestations. Contemporary management involves the administration of heart failure pharmacotherapy and device therapy where indicated, which has good prognostic data to support it. Whilst the role of revascularisation is clear in those patients ...

Role of Echocardiography Before Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI)

Aortic stenosis (AS) is the most common primary valve disorder in the elderly with an increasing prevalence; transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become an accepted alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR) in the high risk or inoperable patient. Appropriate selection of patients for TAVI is crucial and requires a multidisciplinary approach including ...

Impact of Right-Sided-Catheter-Based Valve Implantation on Decision-Making in Congenital Heart Disease

There is a growing appreciation for the adverse long-term impact of right-sided valvular dysfunction in patients with congenital heart disease. Although right-sided valvular stenosis and/or regurgitation is often better tolerated than left-sided valvular dysfunction in the short and intermediate term, the long-term consequences are numerous and include, but are not limited to, ...

Intracoronary Imaging in the Detection of Vulnerable Plaques

Coronary artery disease is the result of atherosclerotic changes to the coronary arterial wall, comprising endothelial dysfunction, vascular inflammation and deposition of lipid-rich macrophage foam cells. Certain high-risk atherosclerotic plaques are vulnerable to disruption, leading to rupture, thrombosis and the clinical sequelae of acute coronary syndrome. Though recognised as ...

Coronary CT Angiography as a Diagnostic and Prognostic Tool: Perspectives from the SCOT-HEART Trial

Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Many trials to date have investigated the diagnostic accuracy of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) when compared to the gold standard diagnostic test, invasive coronary angiography. However, whether the use of a non-invasive anatomical test, such as CCTA, can translate into improved patient risk ...

New Approaches in Detection and Treatment of Familial Hypercholesterolemia

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder that clinically leads to increased low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. As a consequence, FH patients are at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Mutations are found in genes coding for the LDLR, apoB, and PCSK9, although FH cannot be ruled out in the absence of a mutation in one of ...

CVD Prevention Through Policy: a Review of Mass Media, Food/Menu Labeling, Taxation/Subsidies, Built Environment, School Procurement, Worksite Wellness, and Marketing Standards to Improve Diet

Poor diet is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease in the USA and globally. Evidence-based policies are crucial to improve diet and population health. We reviewed the effectiveness for a range of policy levers to alter diet and diet-related risk factors. We identified evidence to support benefits of focused mass media campaigns (especially for fruits, vegetables, salt), food ...

Work Stress as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease

The role of psychosocial work stress as a risk factor for chronic disease has been the subject of considerable debate. Many researchers argue in support of a causal connection while others remain skeptical and have argued that the effect on specific health conditions is either negligible or confounded. This review of evidence from over 600,000 men and women from 27 cohort studies ...

Optimizing Treatment of Familial Hypercholesterolemia in Children and Adolescents

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still the most prominent cause of death and morbidity in the world, and one of the major risk factors for developing CVD is hypercholesterolemia. Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a dominantly inherited disorder characterized by markedly elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and premature coronary heart disease. Currently, several ...