Sports Medicine - Open

http://link.springer.com/journal/40798

List of Papers (Total 102)

Measurement of Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure in Wheelchair Users: Methods, Considerations and Future Directions

Accurately measuring physical activity and energy expenditure in persons with chronic physical disabilities who use wheelchairs is a considerable and ongoing challenge. Quantifying various free-living lifestyle behaviours in this group is at present restricted by our understanding of appropriate measurement tools and analytical techniques. This review provides a detailed evaluation ...

Physical and Physiological Profiles of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Athletes: a Systematic Review

Background Brazilian jiu-jitsu is a grappling combat sport that has intermittency as its core element; in other words, actions of high, moderate and low intensity are interspersed during matches, requiring a high level of conditioning to support optimal levels of performance for the total match time. The athletes perform from four to six matches during a day of competition, and ...

Total Energy Expenditure, Energy Intake, and Body Composition in Endurance Athletes Across the Training Season: A Systematic Review

Background Endurance athletes perform periodized training in order to prepare for main competitions and maximize performance. However, the coupling between alterations of total energy expenditure (TEE), energy intake, and body composition during different seasonal training phases is unclear. So far, no systematic review has assessed fluctuations in TEE, energy intake, and/or body ...

The Effect of Concurrent Plyometric Training Versus Submaximal Aerobic Cycling on Rowing Economy, Peak Power, and Performance in Male High School Rowers

Background Plyometric training has been shown to increase muscle power, running economy, and performance in athletes. Despite its use by rowing coaches, it is unknown whether plyometrics might improve rowing economy or performance. The purpose was to determine if plyometric training, in conjunction with training on the water, would lead to improved rowing economy and performance. ...

The analysis of knee joint loading during drop landing from different heights and under different instruction sets in healthy males

Background Mechanical loading during exercise has been shown to promote tissue remodeling. Safe and accessible exercise may be beneficial to populations at risk of diminished bone and joint health. We examined the effect of drop height and instruction on knee loading during a drop-landing task and proposed a task that makes use of drop heights that may be appropriate for ...

A Randomised, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study Investigating the Effects of Nicotine Gum on Strength, Power and Anaerobic Performance in Nicotine-Naïve, Active Males

Background Nicotine use amongst athletes is high and increasing, especially team sports, yet the limited previous studies investigating the performance consequences of this behaviour have not examined the effects of the principal active ingredient, nicotine, per se. Therefore, we determined whether nicotine gum affected muscular and anaerobic performance. Methods Nine active males ...

The Beneficial Effects of Physical Activity: Is It Down to Your Genes? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Twin and Family Studies

Background There is evidence for considerable heterogeneity in the responsiveness to regular physical activity (PA) which might reflect the influence of genetic factors. The aim of this systematic review was to assess whether the response to a PA intervention for measures of body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness is (i) correlated within twin pairs and/or families and (ii) ...

Salivary alpha amylase not chromogranin A reflects sympathetic activity: exercise responses in elite male wheelchair athletes with or without cervical spinal cord injury

Background Salivary alpha amylase (sAA) and chromogranin A (sCgA) have both been suggested as non-invasive markers for sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. A complete cervical spinal cord injury leading to tetraplegia is accompanied with sympathetic dysfunction; the aim of this study was to establish the exercise response of these markers in this in vivo model. Methods ...

Consensus on measurement properties and feasibility of performance tests for the exercise and sport sciences: a Delphi study

Background Performance tests are used for multiple purposes in exercise and sport science. Ensuring that a test displays an appropriate level of measurement properties for use within a population is important to ensure confidence in test findings. The aim of this study was to obtain subject matter expert consensus on the measurement and feasibility properties that should be ...

Effect of Repeated Whole Blood Donations on Aerobic Capacity and Hemoglobin Mass in Moderately Trained Male Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Background The aims of the present study were to investigate the impact of three whole blood donations on endurance capacity and hematological parameters and to determine the duration to fully recover initial endurance capacity and hematological parameters after each donation. Methods Twenty-four moderately trained subjects were randomly divided in a donation (n = 16) and a placebo ...

Long-Term, Competitive Swimming and the Association with Atrial Fibrillation

Background Endurance exercise plays a role in cardiovascular risk reduction, but may also be a risk factor for atrial fibrillation. This study was performed to assess the prevalence of atrial fibrillation in a population of long-term, competitive swimmers compared with patients within an internal medicine clinic with known risk factors for atrial fibrillation such as diabetes ...

Mechanistic Insights into the Efficacy of Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation to Improve Athletic Performance

A large proportion of empirical research and reviews investigating the ergogenic potential of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation have focused predominately on performance outcomes and only speculate about underlying mechanisms responsible for any benefit. The aim of this review was to critically evaluate the influence of NaHCO3 supplementation on mechanisms associated with ...

Oxidative Stress in Female Athletes Using Combined Oral Contraceptives

Background Oxidative stress in female athletes is understudied. We investigated oxidative stress in sportswomen of different disciplines according to combined oral contraceptive (OC) use and lifestyle/alimentary habits. Methods Italian sportswomen (n = 144; mean age 23.4 ± 4.2 years; body mass index 21.2 ± 2.2 kg m−2; sport activity 9.2 ± 4.1 h week−1) were analyzed; 48 % were ...

Implication of Socio-Demographics on Cognitive-Related Symptoms in Sports Concussion Among Children

Background Sports-related concussion remains a public health challenge due to its morbidity and mortality. One of the consequences of concussion is cognitive impairment (CI) and cognitive-related symptoms (CRS) which determine, to some extent, physical and behavioral functioning of children who sustain concussion. Despite the high prevalence of CI and CRS associated with ...

A Preliminary Study of the Effectiveness of an Allostatic, Closed-Loop, Acoustic Stimulation Neurotechnology in the Treatment of Athletes with Persisting Post-concussion Symptoms

Background Effective interventions are needed for individuals with persisting post-concussion symptoms. High-resolution, relational, resonance-based, electroencephalic mirroring (HIRREM®) is an allostatic, closed-loop, acoustic stimulation neurotechnology, designed to facilitate relaxation and self-optimization of neural oscillations. Methods Fifteen athletes (seven females, mean ...

Physical Load Affects Perceptual-Cognitive Performance of Skilled Athletes: a Systematic Review

Background Many researchers have considered the impact of physical exercise on perceptual-cognitive performance. There have also been a substantial number of studies that have examined how perceptual-cognitive skills differ between elite athletes and non-athletes. However, the knowledge on how physical exercise interacts with perceptual-cognitive skill is limited. This systematic ...

A Descriptive Study of Hot Aches: a Previously Unreported Winter Climbing Phenomenon

Background Hot aches, also known as the screaming barfies in North America, are a recognised phenomenon amongst winter climbers, assumed to be triggered by the reperfusion of cold peripheries which then rapidly progresses to a systemic vasodilatory syndrome. Symptoms experienced in the hands include pain, numbness and throbbing followed by systemic symptoms such as nausea, ...

Fat Utilization During High-Intensity Exercise: When Does It End?

Background This study examined substrate oxidation at high-intensity exercise and aimed to determine when fat oxidation ends (FATmin). We hypothesized the existence of a connection between the anaerobic threshold (AnT) and FATmin point. Methods Breath-by-breath data obtained from indirect calorimetry during a graded treadmill test were used to measure substrate oxidation and ...

Aerobic Fitness Level Affects Cardiovascular and Salivary Alpha Amylase Responses to Acute Psychosocial Stress

Background Good physical fitness seems to help the individual to buffer the potential harmful impact of psychosocial stress on somatic and mental health. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of physical fitness levels on the autonomic nervous system (ANS; i.e. heart rate and salivary alpha amylase) responses to acute psychosocial stress, while controlling for ...

Hyperoxia Extends Time to Exhaustion During High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise: a Randomized, Crossover Study in Male Cyclists

Background Some endurance athletes exhibit exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia during high-intensity exercise. Inhalation of hyperoxic gas during exercise has been shown to counteract this exercise-associated reduction in hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SaO2), but the effects of hyperoxic gas inhalation on performance and SaO2 during high-intensity intermittent exercise remain ...

Effect of Forefoot Strike on Lower Extremity Muscle Activity and Knee Joint Angle During Cutting in Female Team Handball Players

Background The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of different strike forms, during cutting, on knee joint angle and lower limb muscle activity. Methods Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activity in individuals performing cutting manoeuvres involving either rearfoot strikes (RFS) or forefoot strikes (FFS). Three-dimensional motion analysis was used to ...

Potential Effects on Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Status After a Concurrent Strength and Endurance Training Program in Diabetes Patients — a Randomized Controlled Trial

Background Concurrent aerobic and resistance training (CART) programs have been widely recommended as an important strategy to improve physiologic and functional performance in patients with chronic diseases. However, the impact of a personalized CART program in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) requires investigation. Therefore, the primary aim of the current study is to ...

Growth Hormone Concentrations in Different Body Fluids Before and After Moderate Exercise

Background Growth hormone (GH) has many direct and indirect actions and roles including substrate regulation and priming of some cells of the immune system, and the expected aspects of growth and repair. Different concentrations in human body fluids reflect the exercise-induced growth hormone response (EIGR) after exercise. In populations such as elite athletes, the invasive nature ...

Cardiovascular Risk and Disease Among Masters Endurance Athletes: Insights from the Boston MASTER (Masters Athletes Survey To Evaluate Risk) Initiative

Background Masters athletes (MAs), people over the age of 35 that participate in competitive sports, are a rapidly growing population that may be uniquely at risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease. The objective of this study was to develop a comprehensive clinical CV profile of MA. Methods An electronic Internet-based survey (survey response rate = 66 %) was used to characterize a ...