Sports Medicine - Open

http://link.springer.com/journal/40798

List of Papers (Total 94)

Comparison of Two Different Sprint Interval Training Work-to-Rest Ratios on Acute Inflammatory Responses

Background The study aims to compare how work-to-rest ratio (W:R) influences insulin sensitivity (Si) and inflammatory responses following one session of sprint interval training (SIT). Methods Thirteen men and two women completed a cross-over comparison of two SIT interventions—Tabata (TAB), 10 × 20-s sprints/10-s rest, and Wingate (WIN), 5 × 30-s sprints with 270-s rest. IL-6, ...

Prohibiting Headgear for Safety in Amateur Boxing? Opinion of the Canadian Boxing Community: an Online Poll

Background In 2013, the Amateur International Boxing Association (AIBA) introduced a rule banning headgear for male-senior open class boxers during competition. The AIBA has defended the rule change as motivated by safety and supported by internal unpublished studies. As a result, in 2018, the AIBA plans to universally prohibit headgear in competition: for all competitors (male and ...

Does Relative Age Affect Career Length in North American Professional Sports?

Background Relative age effects (RAEs) typically favour older members within a cohort; however, research suggests that younger players may experience some long-term advantages, such as longer career length. The purposes of this study were to replicate previous findings on RAEs among National Hockey League (NHL) ice hockey players, National Basketball Association (NBA) basketball ...

Measuring Dyspnea and Perceived Exertion in Healthy Adults and with Respiratory Disease: New Pictorial Scales

Background Dyspnea or perceived exertion during exercise is most commonly measured using Borg or visual analog scales, created for use in adults. In contrast, pictorial scales have been promoted for children due to skepticism concerning applicability of the said scales in pediatrics. We sought to validate our newly created, pictorial Dalhousie Dyspnea and Perceived Exertion Scales ...

The Impact of Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Dermatological Injuries on Nutritional Intake and Hydration Status During Ultramarathon Events

Background Debilitating gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) and dermatological injuries (DI) are common during and after endurance events and have been linked to performance decrements, event withdrawal, and issues requiring medical attention. The study aimed to determine whether GIS and DI affect food and fluid intake, and nutritional and hydration status, of ultramarathon runners ...

Sodium Intake During an Ultramarathon Does Not Prevent Muscle Cramping, Dehydration, Hyponatremia, or Nausea

Background Ultramarathon runners commonly believe that sodium replacement is important for prevention of muscle cramping, dehydration, hyponatremia, and nausea during prolonged continuous exercise. The purpose of this study was to measure total sodium intake to determine if these beliefs are supported. Methods Participants of a 161-km ultramarathon (air temperature reaching 39 °C) ...

Female Athlete Triad Awareness Among Multispecialty Physicians

Background The female athlete triad (Triad) is a serious condition with lifelong consequences seen in physically active females. Prior studies assessing Triad knowledge among coaches/athletic trainers reported surprisingly low awareness results. Our aims were to (1) determine the percentage of physicians across multiple specialties who had heard of the phrase “female athlete triad” ...

Effects of High-Intensity Training on Anaerobic and Aerobic Contributions to Total Energy Release During Repeated Supramaximal Exercise in Obese Adults

Background Studying relative anaerobic and aerobic metabolism contributions to total energy release during exercise may be valuable in understanding exercise energetic demands and the energetic adaptations that occur in response to acute or chronic exercise in obese adults. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of 6 weeks of high-intensity training (HIT) on ...

Effect of Low-intensity Exercise on Physical and Cognitive Health in Older Adults: a Systematic Review

Background It is well known that physical exercise is important to promote physical and cognitive health in older population. However, inconsistent research findings were shown regarding exercise intensity, particularly on whether low-intensity exercise (1.5 metabolic equivalent tasks (METs) to 3.0 METs) can improve physical and cognitive health of older adults. This systematic ...

A Systematic Review of the Acute Effects of Exercise on Immune and Inflammatory Indices in Untrained Adults

Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of global mortality. Although the incidence may be reduced with regular exercise, the health benefits of a single bout of exercise on selected CVD risk factors are not well understood. The primary objective of this review is to consider the transient effects of exercise on immune (neutrophil count) and inflammatory ...

Obesity-Related Genetic Variants and their Associations with Physical Activity

Background Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identified obesity-related genetic variants. Due to the pleiotropic effects of related phenotypes, we tested six of these obesity-related genetic variants for their association with physical activity: fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO)(rs9939609)T>A, potassium channel tetramerization domain containing (KCTD15) ...

Influence of the MCT1 rs1049434 on Indirect Muscle Disorders/Injuries in Elite Football Players

Background The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MCT1 rs1049434 polymorphism and indirect muscle injuries in elite football players. One hundred and seventy-three male elite Italian football players (age = 19.2 ± 5.3 years) were recruited from a first-league football club participating at the Official National Italian Football Championship (Serie A, ...

Obesity-Related Oxidative Stress: the Impact of Physical Activity and Diet Manipulation

Obesity-related oxidative stress, the imbalance between pro-oxidants and antioxidants (e.g., nitric oxide), has been linked to metabolic and cardiovascular disease, including endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are essential for physiological functions including gene expression, cellular growth, infection defense, and modulating endothelial ...

Image-Guided Hyaluronic Acid Injection and Knee Bracing Significantly Improve Clinical Outcomes for High-Grade Osteoarthritis

Background Intra-articular hyaluronic acid (HA) injection is an intermediate option between analgesics and knee joint replacement in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Our objective was to test whether image-guided HA injections may improve knee OA outcomes after 6 months of treatment independent of potential covariates. Methods This is a retrospective case series with multivariate ...

Ultra-Marathon Athletes at Risk for the Female Athlete Triad

Background Worldwide female participation in ultra-endurance events may place them at risk for the female athlete triad (FAT). The study objectives were to establish triad knowledge, occurrence of disordered eating and triad risk amongst participants of the 2014 89-km Comrades Marathon event. Methods A survey utilising the Low Energy Availability in Females questionnaire (LEAF-Q) ...

Influence of Active Recovery on Cardiovascular Function During Ice Hockey

Background Ice hockey is a popular sport comprised of high-intensity repeated bouts of activity. Light activity, as opposed to passive rest, has been shown to improve power output in repeated sprinting and could potentially help to offset venous pooling, poor perfusion, and the risk of an ischemic event. The objective of our study was, thus, to examine the efficacy of low-intensity ...

Do Elite Athletes Live Longer? A Systematic Review of Mortality and Longevity in Elite Athletes

Background Understanding of an athlete’s lifespan is limited with a much more sophisticated knowledge of their competitive careers and little knowledge of post-career outcomes. In this review, we consider the relationship between participation at elite levels of sport and mortality risk relative to other athletes and age- and sex-matched controls from the general population. Our ...

Spontaneous Entrainment of Running Cadence to Music Tempo

Background Since accumulating evidence suggests that step rate is strongly associated with running-related injuries, it is important for runners to exercise at an appropriate running cadence. As music tempo has been shown to be capable of impacting exercise performance of repetitive endurance activities, it might also serve as a means to (re)shape running cadence. The aim of this ...

Effect of Segment-Body Vibration on Strength Parameters

Background In this study, we examine the biomechanical advantage of combining localized vibrations to hamstring muscles involved in a traditional resistance training routine. Methods Thirty-six male and female participants with at least 2 years of experience in resistance training were recruited from the German Sport University Cologne. The participants were randomized into two ...

ACTN3 Polymorphism: Comparison Between Elite Swimmers and Runners

Background The human ACTN3 gene encodes α-actinin-3, an actin-binding protein with a pivotal role in muscle structure and metabolism. A common genetic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at codon 577 of the ACTN3 results in the replacement of an arginine (R) with a stop codon (X). The R allele is a normal functional version of the gene, whereas the X allele contains a sequence ...

Evaluation of Global Health in Master Swimmers Involved in French National Championships

Background Swimming is often recommended as a means of increasing physical activity and gaining health benefits. The present study examined the psychological, social, and physical health states in competitive swimmers engaged in long-term training. Methods The study took place during the 4 days of the French master championships in France in 2011 (from 10 to 13 March). Global ...

The acute effect of exercise modality and nutrition manipulations on post-exercise resting energy expenditure and respiratory exchange ratio in women: a randomized trial

Background The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of exercise modality and pre-exercise carbohydrate (CHO) or protein (PRO) ingestion on post-exercise resting energy expenditure (REE) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in women. Methods Twenty recreationally active women (mean ± SD; age 24.6 ± 3.9 years; height 164.4 ± 6.6 cm; weight 62.7 ± 6.6 kg) participated in ...