Sports Medicine - Open

http://link.springer.com/journal/40798

List of Papers (Total 102)

Genomic Integrity Is Favourably Affected by High-Intensity Interval Training in an Animal Model of Early-Stage Chronic Kidney Disease

Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an irreversible disease that diminishes length and quality of life. Emerging evidence suggests CKD progression and genomic integrity are inversely and causally related. To reduce health complications related to CKD progression, chronic aerobic exercise is often recommended. To date, appraisals of differing modes of exercise, along with ...

Medical Care for Swimmers

Swimming is one of the most popular sports worldwide. Competitive swimming is one of the most watched sports during the Olympic Games. Swimming has unique medical challenges as a result of a variety of environmental and chemical exposures. Musculoskeletal overuse injuries, overtraining, respiratory problems, and dermatologic conditions are among the most common problems swimmers ...

Body Mass Changes Across a Variety of Running Race Distances in the Tropics

Background Current literature evaluating body mass (BM) changes across a variety of running race distances is limited. The primary objective of this study was to profile the range of BM changes across race distances. The secondary objective was to evaluate the prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) in runners admitted to the on-site medical tent following ...

Association Between Lipid Biomarkers, Physical Activity, and Socioeconomic Status in a Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study in the UK

Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of global death. Physical activity can help individuals reduce their CVD risk. However, the biological mechanisms explaining the link between physical activity and CVD risk and how they may be mediated by socioeconomic status are not well understood. Methods We use cross-sectional data from 2010/2011 of the Understanding ...

Athletes: Fit but Unhealthy?

While the words “fit” and “healthy” are often used synonymously in everyday language, the terms have entirely separate meanings. Fitness describes the ability to perform a given exercise task, and health explains a person’s state of well-being, where physiological systems work in harmony. Although we typically view athletes as fit and healthy, they often are not. The global term we ...

Prevalence and Impact of Anemia on Basic Trainees in the US Air Force

Background Anemia has been implicated in adverse health outcomes of athletes and military trainees, ranging from overuse injuries to degraded physical and cognitive performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate prevalence of anemia among US Air Force (USAF) basic trainees, to compare physical performance and discharge rates between anemic and non-anemic trainees, and to ...

Musculoskeletal Lower Limb Injury Risk in Army Populations

Injuries are common within military populations, with high incidence rates well established in the literature. Injuries cause a substantial number of working days lost, a significant cost through compensation claims and an increased risk of attrition. In an effort to address this, a considerable amount of research has gone into identifying the most prevalent types of injury and ...

Acute Changes in Inflammatory Biomarker Levels in Recreational Runners Participating in a Marathon or Half-Marathon

Background Strenuous physical activity activates the participant’s immune responses; however, few studies exist, observing exercise-induced simultaneous changes in mediators of inflammation. Methods We examined individual responses in soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), a marker of immune activation, soluble endocytic receptor for haptoglobin-hemoglobin ...

Comparison of Two Different Sprint Interval Training Work-to-Rest Ratios on Acute Inflammatory Responses

Background The study aims to compare how work-to-rest ratio (W:R) influences insulin sensitivity (Si) and inflammatory responses following one session of sprint interval training (SIT). Methods Thirteen men and two women completed a cross-over comparison of two SIT interventions—Tabata (TAB), 10 × 20-s sprints/10-s rest, and Wingate (WIN), 5 × 30-s sprints with 270-s rest. IL-6, ...

Prohibiting Headgear for Safety in Amateur Boxing? Opinion of the Canadian Boxing Community: an Online Poll

Background In 2013, the Amateur International Boxing Association (AIBA) introduced a rule banning headgear for male-senior open class boxers during competition. The AIBA has defended the rule change as motivated by safety and supported by internal unpublished studies. As a result, in 2018, the AIBA plans to universally prohibit headgear in competition: for all competitors (male and ...

Does Relative Age Affect Career Length in North American Professional Sports?

Background Relative age effects (RAEs) typically favour older members within a cohort; however, research suggests that younger players may experience some long-term advantages, such as longer career length. The purposes of this study were to replicate previous findings on RAEs among National Hockey League (NHL) ice hockey players, National Basketball Association (NBA) basketball ...

Measuring Dyspnea and Perceived Exertion in Healthy Adults and with Respiratory Disease: New Pictorial Scales

Background Dyspnea or perceived exertion during exercise is most commonly measured using Borg or visual analog scales, created for use in adults. In contrast, pictorial scales have been promoted for children due to skepticism concerning applicability of the said scales in pediatrics. We sought to validate our newly created, pictorial Dalhousie Dyspnea and Perceived Exertion Scales ...

The Impact of Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Dermatological Injuries on Nutritional Intake and Hydration Status During Ultramarathon Events

Background Debilitating gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) and dermatological injuries (DI) are common during and after endurance events and have been linked to performance decrements, event withdrawal, and issues requiring medical attention. The study aimed to determine whether GIS and DI affect food and fluid intake, and nutritional and hydration status, of ultramarathon runners ...

Sodium Intake During an Ultramarathon Does Not Prevent Muscle Cramping, Dehydration, Hyponatremia, or Nausea

Background Ultramarathon runners commonly believe that sodium replacement is important for prevention of muscle cramping, dehydration, hyponatremia, and nausea during prolonged continuous exercise. The purpose of this study was to measure total sodium intake to determine if these beliefs are supported. Methods Participants of a 161-km ultramarathon (air temperature reaching 39 °C) ...

Female Athlete Triad Awareness Among Multispecialty Physicians

Background The female athlete triad (Triad) is a serious condition with lifelong consequences seen in physically active females. Prior studies assessing Triad knowledge among coaches/athletic trainers reported surprisingly low awareness results. Our aims were to (1) determine the percentage of physicians across multiple specialties who had heard of the phrase “female athlete triad” ...

Effects of High-Intensity Training on Anaerobic and Aerobic Contributions to Total Energy Release During Repeated Supramaximal Exercise in Obese Adults

Background Studying relative anaerobic and aerobic metabolism contributions to total energy release during exercise may be valuable in understanding exercise energetic demands and the energetic adaptations that occur in response to acute or chronic exercise in obese adults. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of 6 weeks of high-intensity training (HIT) on ...

Effect of Low-intensity Exercise on Physical and Cognitive Health in Older Adults: a Systematic Review

Background It is well known that physical exercise is important to promote physical and cognitive health in older population. However, inconsistent research findings were shown regarding exercise intensity, particularly on whether low-intensity exercise (1.5 metabolic equivalent tasks (METs) to 3.0 METs) can improve physical and cognitive health of older adults. This systematic ...

A Systematic Review of the Acute Effects of Exercise on Immune and Inflammatory Indices in Untrained Adults

Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of global mortality. Although the incidence may be reduced with regular exercise, the health benefits of a single bout of exercise on selected CVD risk factors are not well understood. The primary objective of this review is to consider the transient effects of exercise on immune (neutrophil count) and inflammatory ...

Obesity-Related Genetic Variants and their Associations with Physical Activity

Background Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identified obesity-related genetic variants. Due to the pleiotropic effects of related phenotypes, we tested six of these obesity-related genetic variants for their association with physical activity: fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO)(rs9939609)T>A, potassium channel tetramerization domain containing (KCTD15) ...

Influence of the MCT1 rs1049434 on Indirect Muscle Disorders/Injuries in Elite Football Players

Background The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MCT1 rs1049434 polymorphism and indirect muscle injuries in elite football players. One hundred and seventy-three male elite Italian football players (age = 19.2 ± 5.3 years) were recruited from a first-league football club participating at the Official National Italian Football Championship (Serie A, ...

Obesity-Related Oxidative Stress: the Impact of Physical Activity and Diet Manipulation

Obesity-related oxidative stress, the imbalance between pro-oxidants and antioxidants (e.g., nitric oxide), has been linked to metabolic and cardiovascular disease, including endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are essential for physiological functions including gene expression, cellular growth, infection defense, and modulating endothelial ...

Image-Guided Hyaluronic Acid Injection and Knee Bracing Significantly Improve Clinical Outcomes for High-Grade Osteoarthritis

Background Intra-articular hyaluronic acid (HA) injection is an intermediate option between analgesics and knee joint replacement in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Our objective was to test whether image-guided HA injections may improve knee OA outcomes after 6 months of treatment independent of potential covariates. Methods This is a retrospective case series with multivariate ...

Ultra-Marathon Athletes at Risk for the Female Athlete Triad

Background Worldwide female participation in ultra-endurance events may place them at risk for the female athlete triad (FAT). The study objectives were to establish triad knowledge, occurrence of disordered eating and triad risk amongst participants of the 2014 89-km Comrades Marathon event. Methods A survey utilising the Low Energy Availability in Females questionnaire (LEAF-Q) ...