Sports Medicine - Open

http://link.springer.com/journal/40798

List of Papers (Total 102)

Influence of Active Recovery on Cardiovascular Function During Ice Hockey

Background Ice hockey is a popular sport comprised of high-intensity repeated bouts of activity. Light activity, as opposed to passive rest, has been shown to improve power output in repeated sprinting and could potentially help to offset venous pooling, poor perfusion, and the risk of an ischemic event. The objective of our study was, thus, to examine the efficacy of low-intensity ...

Do Elite Athletes Live Longer? A Systematic Review of Mortality and Longevity in Elite Athletes

Background Understanding of an athlete’s lifespan is limited with a much more sophisticated knowledge of their competitive careers and little knowledge of post-career outcomes. In this review, we consider the relationship between participation at elite levels of sport and mortality risk relative to other athletes and age- and sex-matched controls from the general population. Our ...

Spontaneous Entrainment of Running Cadence to Music Tempo

Background Since accumulating evidence suggests that step rate is strongly associated with running-related injuries, it is important for runners to exercise at an appropriate running cadence. As music tempo has been shown to be capable of impacting exercise performance of repetitive endurance activities, it might also serve as a means to (re)shape running cadence. The aim of this ...

Effect of Segment-Body Vibration on Strength Parameters

Background In this study, we examine the biomechanical advantage of combining localized vibrations to hamstring muscles involved in a traditional resistance training routine. Methods Thirty-six male and female participants with at least 2 years of experience in resistance training were recruited from the German Sport University Cologne. The participants were randomized into two ...

ACTN3 Polymorphism: Comparison Between Elite Swimmers and Runners

Background The human ACTN3 gene encodes α-actinin-3, an actin-binding protein with a pivotal role in muscle structure and metabolism. A common genetic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at codon 577 of the ACTN3 results in the replacement of an arginine (R) with a stop codon (X). The R allele is a normal functional version of the gene, whereas the X allele contains a sequence ...

Evaluation of Global Health in Master Swimmers Involved in French National Championships

Background Swimming is often recommended as a means of increasing physical activity and gaining health benefits. The present study examined the psychological, social, and physical health states in competitive swimmers engaged in long-term training. Methods The study took place during the 4 days of the French master championships in France in 2011 (from 10 to 13 March). Global ...

The acute effect of exercise modality and nutrition manipulations on post-exercise resting energy expenditure and respiratory exchange ratio in women: a randomized trial

Background The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of exercise modality and pre-exercise carbohydrate (CHO) or protein (PRO) ingestion on post-exercise resting energy expenditure (REE) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in women. Methods Twenty recreationally active women (mean ± SD; age 24.6 ± 3.9 years; height 164.4 ± 6.6 cm; weight 62.7 ± 6.6 kg) participated in ...

Single parent status and children’s objectively measured level of physical activity

Background Single-parent family status has been investigated as a possible psychosocial determinant of children’s level of physical activity (PA)—although with mixed and inconclusive results. Prevailing evidence of the importance of two-parent family status as a resource for children’s PA is based on a mix of subjective and objective measurements of PA. Objectives: To investigate ...

Looking back at ECSS 2014

With the 2015 European College of Sports Science (ECSS) meeting in Malmö just around the corner (in time, if not space), I thought I would recap on what was an exciting meeting in Amsterdam last July. As Deputy Editor of a journal that, at the time, was yet to be launched - the 19th ECSS meeting provided the perfect place to make acquaintance with new and potential Editorial Board ...

Muscle Cramping During a 161-km Ultramarathon: Comparison of Characteristics of Those With and Without Cramping

Background This work sought to identify characteristics differing between those with and without muscle cramping during a 161-km ultramarathon. Methods In this observational study, race participants underwent body weight measurements before, during, and after the race; completed a post-race questionnaire about muscle cramping and “near” cramping (controllable, not reaching ...

The impact of trunk impairment on performance of wheelchair activities with a focus on wheelchair court sports: a systematic review

Background Trunk impairment seems to impact significantly on performance in wheelchair court sports, but evidence to support this impression has never been systematically assessed. The objective of this study is to systematically review, describe and synthesise the literature investigating the impact of trunk impairment on wheelchair activities in court sports. Methods This ...

Synchronized personalized music audio-playlists to improve adherence to physical activity among patients participating in a structured exercise program: a proof-of-principle feasibility study

Background Preference-based tempo-pace synchronized music has been shown to reduce perceived physical activity exertion and improve exercise performance. The extent to which such strategies can improve adherence to physical activity remains unknown. The objective of the study is to explore the feasibility and efficacy of tempo-pace synchronized preference-based music ...

Strength training in soccer with a specific focus on highly trained players

Background Data concerning the physical demands of soccer (e.g., activity pattern) suggest that a high level of performance requires well-developed neuromuscular function (NF). Proficient NF may be relevant to maintain and/or increase players’ short- (intense periods of soccer-specific activity; accelerations, decelerations, and sprinting) and long-term performance during a match ...

Influence of playing standard and physical fitness on activity profiles and post-match fatigue during intensified junior rugby league competition

Background The aim of this study was to determine whether the fatigue responses to the same intensified rugby league competition differed depending on playing standard and physical fitness. Methods Players from a high-standard (n = 15) and a low-standard (n = 16) junior rugby league team had lower body neuromuscular fatigue, perceptual wellbeing, and blood creatine kinase (CK) ...

Response of oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers to a 12-week aerobic exercise training in women with metabolic syndrome

Background Evidences have been highlighted the relationship among metabolic syndrome, chronic low-grade inflammation, oxidative stress and several diseases. In this sense, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise training on oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters on women with metabolic syndrome (MS). Methods Twenty-three untrained women (51.86 ...

Preventive effects of regular physical exercise against cognitive decline and the risk of dementia with age advancement

With age advancement, cognitive function is impaired and the risk of dementia is increased under the influence of normal or pathological cortical and subcortical neuronal alterations. Significant researches has been undertaken to analyze the preventive effects of exercise against the decline of cognitive function and the risk of dementia (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease), particularly ...

Bra strap orientations and designs to minimise bra strap discomfort and pressure during sport and exercise in women with large breasts

Background Bra straps are a primary source of discomfort during sport and exercise, particularly for women with large breasts. This study aimed to investigate the effects of altering bra strap orientation and design on bra strap comfort, pressure and breast support in women with large breasts. This is a descriptive laboratory study. Methods Bra strap discomfort (visual analogue ...

A tutorial on oxidative stress and redox signaling with application to exercise and sedentariness

Oxidative stress has been shown to play a role in the etiology of several chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Free radicals and, most prominently, the superoxide radical, result from oxidative metabolism and several enzyme-catalyzed reactions, and endogenous cellular antioxidants dismutate many reactive oxygen species (ROS). Under ...

The efficacy of exercise in preventing injury in adult male football: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials

Background Injury prevention measures might reduce the impact of injury on footballers and football clubs. Increasing research has evaluated the use of exercise for injury prevention. However, research has focused on adolescent females. No high-quality systematic reviews have evaluated the efficacy of all forms of exercise on preventing injury in adult male football. Objective Our ...

A cross-cultural re-evaluation of the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI) in five countries

Research into the detrimental effects of excessive exercise has been conceptualized in a number of similar ways, including ‘exercise addiction’, ‘exercise dependence’, ‘obligatory exercising’, ‘exercise abuse’, and ‘compulsive exercise’. Among the most currently used (and psychometrically valid and reliable) instruments is the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI). The present study ...

Falls and injuries to Polo players: risk perception, mitigation and risk factors

Polo, one of the world’s oldest sports, is played in over 80 countries. It is unique in combining the skills of a person with the agility and performance of an animal in a contact sport. There is only one report of the frequency and type of injuries in this population. Here we report risk perception, mitigation and risk factors for injuries and falls in UK polo players. Data were ...

Human tendon adaptation in response to mechanical loading: a systematic review and meta-analysis of exercise intervention studies on healthy adults

Background The present article systematically reviews recent literature on the in vivo adaptation of asymptomatic human tendons following increased chronic mechanical loading, and meta-analyzes the loading conditions, intervention outcomes, as well as methodological aspects. Methods The search was performed in the databases PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and Scopus as well as in the ...

Running economy: measurement, norms, and determining factors

Running economy (RE) is considered an important physiological measure for endurance athletes, especially distance runners. This review considers 1) how RE is defined and measured and 2) physiological and biomechanical factors that determine or influence RE. It is difficult to accurately ascertain what is good, average, and poor RE between athletes and studies due to variation in ...