Molecular Cancer

http://www.molecular-cancer.com/

List of Papers (Total 1,810)

Circular RNA_LARP4 inhibits cell proliferation and invasion of gastric cancer by sponging miR-424-5p and regulating LATS1 expression

Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been shown to regulate gene expression involved in tumor progression of multiple malignancies. Our previous studies indicated that large tumor suppressor kinase 1 (LATS1), a core part of Hippo signaling pathway, functions as a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer (GC). But, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which ncRNAs modulate LATS1 expression in ...

Up-regulation of lncRNA CASC9 promotes esophageal squamous cell carcinoma growth by negatively regulating PDCD4 expression through EZH2

Abnormal expression of numerous long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) has been reported in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) recently, but the great majority of their roles and mechanisms remain largely unclear. We aim to identify the critical ESCC-associated lncRNAs and elucidate the functions and mechanisms in detail. Microarrays were used to analyze the differentially expressed ...

The biology of Hepatocellular carcinoma: implications for genomic and immune therapies

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common type of primary liver cancer, is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. It is highly refractory to most systemic therapies. Recently, significant progress has been made in uncovering genomic alterations in HCC, including potentially targetable aberrations. The most common molecular anomalies in this malignancy are ...

The lncRNA CRNDE promotes colorectal cancer cell proliferation and chemoresistance via miR-181a-5p-mediated regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling

Background With more than 600,000 mortalities each year, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed type of cancer worldwide. Recently, mechanisms involving noncoding RNAs have been implicated in the development of CRC. Methods We examined expression levels of lncRNA CRNDE and miR-181a-5p in 64 cases of CRC tissues and cell lines by qRT-PCR. Gain-of-function and ...

Long non-coding RNA TUG1 is involved in cell growth and chemoresistance of small cell lung cancer by regulating LIMK2b via EZH2

Background Taurine upregulated gene1 (TUG1) as a 7.1-kb lncRNA, has been shown to play an oncogenic role in various cancers. However, the biological functions of lncRNA TUG1 in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) remain unknown. The aim of this study is to explore the roles of TUG1 in cell growth and chemoresistance of SCLC and its possible molecular mechanism. Methods The expression of ...

SPAG6 and L1TD1 are transcriptionally regulated by DNA methylation in non-small cell lung cancers

Background DNA methylation regulates together with other epigenetic mechanisms the transcriptional activity of genes and is involved in the pathogenesis of malignant diseases including lung cancer. In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) various tumor suppressor genes are already known to be tumor-specifically methylated. However, from the vast majority of a large number of genes ...

Choosing the right cell line for renal cell cancer research

Cell lines are still a tool of choice for many fields of biomedical research, including oncology. Although cancer is a very complex disease, many discoveries have been made using monocultures of established cell lines. Therefore, the proper use of in vitro models is crucial to enhance our understanding of cancer. Therapeutics against renal cell cancer (RCC) are also screened with ...

miR-138-5p contributes to cell proliferation and invasion by targeting Survivin in bladder cancer cells

Background Survivin (encoded by the gene BIRC5) plays an important role in the carcinogenesis of bladder cancer. Identifying miRNAs that target Survivin in the setting of bladder cancer will help to develop Survivin-based therapies for bladder cancer. Methods The expression levels of miR-138-5p and Survivin protein were measured in 12 resected bladder cancer specimens. The ...

Depletion of SAG/RBX2 E3 ubiquitin ligase suppresses prostate tumorigenesis via inactivation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR axis

Background SAG (Sensitive to Apoptosis Gene), also known as RBX2, ROC2 or RNF7, is a RING component of CRL (Cullin-RING ligase), required for its activity. Our recent study showed that SAG/RBX2 co-operated with Kras to promote lung tumorigenesis, but antagonized Kras to inhibit skin tumorigenesis, suggesting a tissue/context dependent function of Sag. However, it is totally unknown ...

STAT3 signaling drives EZH2 transcriptional activation and mediates poor prognosis in gastric cancer

Background STAT3 signaling plays the pivotal role in tumorigenesis through EZH2 epigenetic modification, which enhanced STAT3 activity by increased tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3. Here, another possible feedback mechanism and clinical significance of EZH2 and STAT3 were investigated in gastric cancer (GC). Methods STAT3, p-STAT3 (Tyr 705) and EZH2 expression were examined in 63 ...

NOTCH receptors in gastric and other gastrointestinal cancers: oncogenes or tumor suppressors?

Gastric cancer (GC) ranks the most common cancer types and is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. Due to delayed diagnosis and high metastatic frequency, 5-year survival rate of GC is rather low. It is a complex disease resulting from the interaction between environmental factors and host genetic alterations that deregulate multiple signaling pathways. The Notch ...

Acidic tumor microenvironment abrogates the efficacy of mTORC1 inhibitors

Background Blocking the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex-1 (mTORC1) with chemical inhibitors such as rapamycin has shown limited clinical efficacy in cancer. The tumor microenvironment is characterized by an acidic pH which interferes with cancer therapies. The consequences of acidity on the anti-cancer efficacy of mTORC1 inhibitors have not been characterized and are thus ...

Lipocalin2 suppresses metastasis of colorectal cancer by attenuating NF-κB-dependent activation of snail and epithelial mesenchymal transition

Background Lipocalin2 (LCN2) is a secretory protein that is aberrantly expressed in several types of cancer and has been involved in metastatic progression. However, neither mechanisms nor the role that LCN2 plays in the metastasis of colorectal cancer are clear. Methods LCN2 expression in colorectal cancer was detected by immunohistochemistry in 400 tissue specimens and ...

Cancer somatic mutations cluster in a subset of regulatory sites predicted from the ENCODE data

Background Transcriptional regulation of gene expression is essential for cellular differentiation and function, and defects in the process are associated with cancer. The ENCODE project has mapped potential regulatory sites across the complete genome in many cell types, and these regions have been shown to harbour many of the somatic mutations that occur in cancer cells, ...

Tryptophan hydroxylase 1 and 5-HT 7 receptor preferentially expressed in triple-negative breast cancer promote cancer progression through autocrine serotonin signaling

Background Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has a high risk of relapse and there are few chemotherapy options. Although 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) signaling pathways have been suggested as potential targets for anti-cancer drug development, the mechanism responsible for the action of 5-HT in TNBC remains unknown. Methods Quantitative real-time polymerase chain ...

PI3 kinase pathway regulated miRNome in glioblastoma: identification of miR-326 as a tumour suppressor miRNA

Background Glioblastomas (GBM) continue to remain one of the most dreaded tumours that are highly infiltrative in nature and easily preclude comprehensive surgical resection. GBMs pose an intricate etiology as they are being associated with a plethora of genetic and epigenetic lesions. Misregulation of the PI3 kinase pathway is one of the most familiar events in GBM. While the PI3 ...

Comprehensive screening of target molecules by next-generation sequencing in patients with malignant solid tumors: guiding entry into phase I clinical trials

It is still controversial whether comprehensive genome screening of target molecules by next generation sequencing (NGS) is needed to increase clinical efficacy of investigational drugs or accelerate drug development, although several studies are being carried out. Therefore, we performed a prospective study to evaluate the feasibility of comprehensive gene screening in this ...

Systems analysis identifies miR-29b regulation of invasiveness in melanoma

Background In many cancers, microRNAs (miRs) contribute to metastatic progression by modulating phenotypic reprogramming processes such as epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity. This can be driven by miRs targeting multiple mRNA transcripts, inducing regulated changes across large sets of genes. The miR-target databases TargetScan and DIANA-microT predict putative relationships by ...

Caveolin-1 in the regulation of cell metabolism: a cancer perspective

Caveolin-1 (CAV1) is an oncogenic membrane protein associated with endocytosis, extracellular matrix organisation, cholesterol distribution, cell migration and signaling. Recent studies reveal that CAV1 is involved in metabolic alterations – a critical strategy adopted by cancer cells to their survival advantage. Consequently, research findings suggest that CAV1, which is altered ...

miR-375 induces docetaxel resistance in prostate cancer by targeting SEC23A and YAP1

Background Treatment options for metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) are limited and typically are centered on docetaxel-based chemotherapy. We previously reported that elevated miR-375 levels were significantly associated with poor overall survival of mCRPC patients. In this study, we evaluated if miR-375 induced chemo-resistance to docetaxel through regulating ...

Cancer stem cell metabolism: a potential target for cancer therapy

Cancer Stem cells (CSCs) are a unipotent cell population present within the tumour cell mass. CSCs are known to be highly chemo-resistant, and in recent years, they have gained intense interest as key tumour initiating cells that may also play an integral role in tumour recurrence following chemotherapy. Cancer cells have the ability to alter their metabolism in order to fulfil ...

Pharmacological targeting of CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling in prostate cancer bone metastasis

Background The CXCL12/CXCR4 axis transactivates HER2 and promotes intraosseous tumor growth. To further explore the transactivation of HER2 by CXCL12, we investigated the role of small GTP protein G αi2 in Src and HER2 phosphorylation in lipid raft membrane microdomains and the significance of CXCR4 in prostate cancer bone tumor growth. Methods We used a variety of methods such as ...

Emerging roles of T helper 17 and regulatory T cells in lung cancer progression and metastasis

Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Lung cancer risk factors, including smoking and exposure to environmental carcinogens, have been linked to chronic inflammation. An integral feature of inflammation is the activation, expansion and infiltration of diverse immune cell types, including CD4 + T cells. Within this T cell subset are immunosuppressive ...

Prediction of chemo-response in serous ovarian cancer

Background Nearly one-third of serous ovarian cancer (OVCA) patients will not respond to initial treatment with surgery and chemotherapy and die within one year of diagnosis. If patients who are unlikely to respond to current standard therapy can be identified up front, enhanced tumor analyses and treatment regimens could potentially be offered. Using the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) ...

Less is more: low expression of MT1-MMP is optimal to promote migration and tumourigenesis of breast cancer cells

Background Membrane Type-1 Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is a multifunctional protease implicated in metastatic progression ostensibly due to its ability to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) components and allow migration of cells through the basement membrane. Despite in vitro studies demonstrating this principle, this knowledge has not translated into the use of MMP ...