Diabetologia

http://link.springer.com/journal/125

List of Papers (Total 6,384)

Pericyte degeneration and acellular capillaries are increased in the feet of human diabetic patients

Ultrastractural morphometry was used to quantify capillary basement membrane width, pericyte coverage of capillaries, pericyte degeneration, and the extent of acellular capillaries in skeletal muscle obtained at autopsy from neck, thigh, calf and foot of five male and four female diabetic subjects and an equal number of sex- and age-matched nondiabetic subjects. Within diabetic or ...

Diabetes in part-Aborigines of Western Australia

One thousand, two hundred and eighteen diabetic subjects living in and around country towns of Western Australia were screened for complications of diabetes. This population included 134 subjects of Aboriginal descent, who were compared with the Caucasoids taking part. In the Aboriginal group there was a greater porportion of Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients, a ...

Prevalence of coronary heart disease, left ventricular failure and hypertension in middle-aged, newly diagnosed Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic subjects

The prevalence of coronary heart disease, left ventricular failure and hypertension was examined in a representative group of 133 newly diagnosed Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic subjects (70 men, 63 women), aged 45 to 64 years, and in a group of 144 randomly selected non-diabetic control subjects (62 men, 82 women) of the same age group. The prevalence of previous ...

Sorbitol dehydrogenase deficiency in several pig tissues: potential implications for studies of experimental diabetes

Screening for red blood cell sorbitol dehydrogenase deficiency in 12 different mammalian species was performed. A wide inter-species variability in red cell sorbitol dehydrogenase with a virtually complete deficiency in pigs was observed. Aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase activities in 12 different pig tissues also were measured. Aldose reductase activity was present in ...

Islet cell surface and lymphocyte antibodies often precede the spontaneous diabetes in the BB rat

The diabetic syndrome of the BB rat shows many homologies with that of human insulin-dependent diabetes and evidence that the onset of the disease is associated with the presence of autoantibodies, including islet cell surface antibodies. In this study, sera were sampled serially from weaning to 157 days of age from 26 BB rats in two low-incidence litters, and 22 rats of three ...

Effects of synthetic rat C-peptide in normal and diabetic rats

The effects of synthetic rat C-peptide 1 and C-peptide 2 on plasma insulin and blood glucose concentrations in the rat were studied. Infusion of rat C-peptide (500μg·h-1· kg-1) diminished glucose induced increase of plasma insulin by 56% (15.2±0.9 versus 6.6± 0.6 ng/ml, p<0.01, mean±SEM). Somatostatin infused at a rate of 50 μg·h-1·kg-1 body weight inhibited glucose-induced insulin ...

Relationship between impaired parasympathetic and sympathetic cardiovascular control in diabetes mellitus

We have investigated the relationship between vagal and sympathetic lesions in 62 diabetic patients and compared the results with those from 37 healthy subjects. Vagal function was assessed by heart rate changes with forced breathing. Sympathetic control was measured by the heart rate and blood pressure changes after standing and the concomitant plasma catecholamine response. The ...

Regulatory effect of glucagon on its own receptor concentrations and target-cell sensitivity in the rat

To evaluate the role of glucagon on its hepatocyte receptor concentrations, groups of rats were injected with a long-acting glucagon preparation (20 [G-20], 40 [G-40] or 60 [G-60] μg/100 g body weight) every 8 h for 4 days. Glucagon receptors in liver plasma membranes of treated animals were decreased in number (control = 1.66±0.20 ng/0.5 mg protein versus G-20=1.24±0.26, ...

Diurnal profiles of plasma magnesium and blood glucose in diabetes

In order to study the relation between plasma magnesium and blood glucose concentrations in diabetes, diurnal profiles were obtained in nine diabetic patients and five healthy subjects. A significant inverse relationship between the two variables was found in seven of the nine diabetic patients and in one healthy subject. This could not be attributed solely to changes in plasma ...

The effect of treatment of Type 2 (insulin independent) diabetes mellitus on plasma concentrations of pancreatic polypeptide and glucagon

The effect of the control of diabetes with diet and insulin upon plasma levels of human pancreatic polypeptide and glucagon was determined in eight patients with Type 2 (insulin independent) diabetes mellitus. The mean±SEM fasting plasma glucose was 15.9±1.3mmol/l for 5 days of diet treatment and 5.9±0.4 mmol/l for the last 5 days of treatment with diet plus insulin (p < 0.0001); ...

Severely uncontrolled diabetes in the over-fifties

Between 1969 and 1976, 317 adults were admitted to hospital in Nottingham with severely uncontrolled diabetes (plasma glucose over 33 mmol/l and/or venous bicarbonate less than 14 mmol/l). A third of episodes were in patients over the age of 50 years, of which 43% were fatal. In contrast, only 3.4% of episodes in patients under 50 years were fatal. In the older group, 65% of deaths ...

Effects of calcium and calcitonin on circulating levels of glucagon and glucose in diabetes mellitus

The effects of Ca2+ and calcitonin infusions on circulating glucagon, glucose, C-peptide, Ca2+, and calcitonin were investigated in hyperglucagonaemic insulin-dependent diabetics. In 14 insulin-deprived diabetics and 12 healthy volunteers 2 h infusions of saline (0.154 mol/l), Ca2+ (0.375 mmol/kg body weight), and calcitonin (4.5 IU/kg body weight) were performed. There were no ...

Mechanism of action of insulin and insulin analogues

A [14C]-glucose tracer infusion method was used to compare the effects of insulin infusion on glucose metabolism with the effects of infusion of three semisynthetic modified insulins and of proinsulin. Insulin produced hypoglycaemia in the anaesthetised dog by decreasing hepatic glucose production and increasing peripheral glucose utilisation. Compensatory antihypoglycaemic ...

Synthesis and release of glucagon by human salivary glands

Pieces of human salivary glands were homogenised with acid-ethanol or acid-saline solutions immediately after surgical removal. With both extraction procedures the immunoreactive glucagon (IRG) content in the submaxillary glands was greater than in parotid glands as determined with a C-terminal reactive glucagon antiserum (30K). Higher amounts of IRG were determined in acid-saline ...

The prevalence of diabetic impotence

In a survey of 541 diabetic males, aged 20–59 years, 190 (35%) had erectile impotence. Using linear logistic regression models for analysis the five most significant associations with impotence were age (p<0.001), treatment with either insulin or oral hypoglycaemic agents (p<0.001), retinopathy (p<0.001), symptomatic peripheral neuropathy (p<0.001) and symptomatic autonomic ...

Disturbed α-adrenergic modulation of insulin and growth hormone secretion in chronic alcoholics

The effect of α-adrenergic stimulation by IV adrenaline and propranolol infusion upon basal insulin and growth hormone secretion was studied in six chronic alcoholics during alcohol withdrawal, two alcoholics recently admitted to hospital with alcohol-induced hypoglycaemia and twelve healthy subjects. In all healthy subjects a decline in basal insulin (mean ±SEM decremental area ...

Binding of3H-progesterone by isolated rat islets of Langerhans

Islets of Langerhans isolated from normal female rats have been used in studies of3H-progesterone uptake by intact islet cells. The intracellular sites which are involved in binding of the hormones have been determined by subcellular fractionation and autoradiography. Uptake of3H-progesterone into islets occurred in a temperature and concentration dependent manner. The uptake ...

Sulphydryl requirement for insulin release from the perfused pancreas

Using the isolated, perfused rat pancreas the importance of sulphydryl groups for the secretory process of insulin was investigated. It was found that ethacrynic acid (EA, 0.075–0.6 mmol/1) caused a dose-dependent, monophasic insulin release. Addition of EA to a glucose-stimulated (20 mmol/1) pancreas led to a sudden increase in hormone release, followed by a dose-dependent ...

Haloperidol, a dopaminergic antagonist: Somatostatin-like inhibition of glucagon and insulin release from the isolated, perfused canine pancreas

The effect of haloperidol, a dopaminergic antagonist, on insulin and glucagon secretion was investigated using the isolated, perfused canine pancreas. Haloperidol at 4 × 10−7 to 10−5 mol/l caused a dose-dependent inhibition of glucagon release both at low (25 mg/100 ml) and high glucose concentrations (150 mg/100 ml). At the low glucose concentration insulin release was already ...

Quantitative evaluation of somatotrophic cells (SC) in the adenohypophysis of normal and diabetic male Chinese hamsters

The pituitary of genetically diabetic Chinese hamsters contains significantly (p<0.001) greater numbers of somatotrophes than pituitary of nondiabetics. This may play a role in the aetiopathology of diabetes in this species or at least contribute to the maintenance of hyperglycaemia.

Plasma immunoreactive glucagon fractions in four cases of glucagonoma: Increased “Large glucagon — immunoreactivity”

Immunoreactive glucagon (IRG) fractions from plasma of 8 normal subjects and 4 patients with glucagon secreting tumors were studied by gel filtration techniques on Bio Gel P-30 and Sephadex G-50 columns. The pancreatic glucagon specific anti serum (30K) of Unger was utilized to measure IRG. Columns were calibrated with labelled albumin, proinsulin, insulin and glucagon. Four peaks ...