Diabetologia

http://link.springer.com/journal/125

List of Papers (Total 7,109)

Defects in insulin signal transduction in liver and muscle of pregnant rats

Pregnancy is known to induce insulin resistance, but the exact molecular mechanism involved is unknown. In the present study, we have examined the levels and phosphorylation state of the insulin receptor and of insulin receptor substrate 1(IRS-1), as well as the association between IRS-1 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) in the liver and muscle of pregnant rats (day ...

Endothelial cells as cytotoxic effector cells: cytokine-activated rat islet endothelial cells lyse syngeneic islet cells via nitric oxide

In vivo, each beta cell is located in proximity to at least one capillary islet endothelial cell. Rat aorta and islet endothelial cells can be activated in vitro to express inducible nitric oxide synthase by a cytokine mixture of tumour necrosis factor-α, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-1β and to produce high concentrations of nitric oxide. We have performed co-culture ...

Accelerated gastric emptying of glucose in Zucker type 2 diabetic rats: role in postprandial hyperglycaemia

Patients with early non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) empty glucose solutions from their stomachs more rapidly than non-diabetic control subjects, and this exacerbates postprandial hyperglycaemia.To determine if accelerated gastric emptying occurred in a rat model of NIDDM and influenced postprandial hyperglycaemia, gastric emptying of glucose was measured, and the ...

IA-2-autoantibodies complement GAD65-autoantibodies in new-onset IDDM patients and help predict impending diabetes in their siblings

IA-2 has been identified as an autoantigen that is recognized by immunoglobulins from insulin-dependent diabetic (IDDM) patients. Using a liquid phase radiobinding assay, we performed an IA-2-autoantibody (IA-2-Ab) assay in 474 IDDM patients and 482 non-diabetic control subjects aged 0–39 years. IA-2-Ab were detected in 58 % of the patients and 0.8 % of control subjects. Their ...

Infusion of pramlintide, a human amylin analogue, delays gastric emptying in men with IDDM

Pramlintide, a human amylin analogue, reduces hyperglycaemia after meals in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). We investigated whether this was due to delayed gastric emptying. Eight men with uncomplicated IDDM were studied twice in a randomised, double-blind crossover design. Euglycaemia was maintained overnight by intravenous infusion of glucose and/or ...

Influence of protamine on adhesion, chemotaxis and proliferation of human vascular smooth muscle cells

It has been shown that, in streptozotocin diabetic rats, protamine-retarded insulin administered in vivo stimulates intimal hyperplasia in balloon-injured carotid artery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of protamine on cultured human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMC), by observing its effects on adhesion, chemotaxis and proliferation. hVSMC were isolated ...

A search for evidence of viral infection in pancreases of newly diagnosed patients with IDDM

Techniques were developed to look for evidence of viral infection in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded autopsy pancreatic tissues from patients who had died of recent-onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. DNA extracted from 47 pancreases in which good DNA preservation was confirmed was analysed by a polymerase chain reaction for Epstein-Barr virus and by a nested polymerase ...

Renal antioxidant enzyme mRNA levels are increased in rats with experimental diabetes mellitus

Exposure to high glucose concentrations increases the mRNA levels of oxygen radical scavenging enzymes in cultured endothelial cells, suggesting a compensatory response to increased free radical production. To test the hypothesis that this response also occurs in vivo, Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) and catalase mRNA levels, were measured in the kidneys of Sprague-Dawley ...

Effect of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol on glucose metabolism in gestational diabetes mellitus

The effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D supplement on glucose metabolism was evaluated in 12 women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). All women had an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) performed at inclusion in the study. Thereafter, each patient was instructed to continue their normal diet during the following 2 days, after which they received 2 μg/m2 Etalpha i. v. 2 h prior ...

Teratogenic effect of diabetic serum is prevented by supplementation of superoxide dismutase and N-acetylcysteine in rat embryo culture

Congenital malformations are more common in offspring of diabetic mothers than offspring of non-diabetic mothers. The precise cell biological mechanism leading to the increased incidence of congenital malformations in diabetic pregnancy is not known. In previous studies increased glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were found to cause embryonic dysmorphogenesis. We have ...

Relationship of insulin resistance to microvascular dysfunction in subjects with fasting hyperglycaemia

Microvascular hyperaemia is decreased in subjects at risk of developing non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) who have fasting hyperglycaemia. Such microvascular abnormalities may be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic microangiopathy. To investigate the relationship of reduced microvascular hyperaemia to metabolic and blood pressure abnormalities associated with the ...

Islet transplantation in IDDM patients

This single-centre study investigated parameters that positively correlated with the success rate after islet allotransplantation in insulin-dependent diabetic (IDDM) patients. Twenty-one intrahepatic, fresh islet transplantations were performed in 20 IDDM patients (one patient had two transplants), after or simultaneous with kidney transplantation. The correlation between number ...

Geographic variation in mortality among individuals with youth-onset diabetes mellitus across the world

The aim of this study was to evaluate the geographic variation in mortality among individuals with youth-onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) across the world. The study was based on the currently available IDDM incidence and mortality data. Mortality data for diabetes in the 0–24 year age group were obtained from World Health Organization (WHO) statistics. The ...

b3-adrenergic-receptor polymorphism: a genetic marker for visceral fat obesity and the insulin resistance syndrome

We investigated whether the polymorphism of the β 3-adrenergic receptor (β 3-AR) gene, which is associated with insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjects and an earlier onset of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Pima Indians, was associated with visceral fat obesity and features of the insulin resistance syndrome in Japanese premenopausal obese women. There was no ...

Changes in the immunoreactivity of protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 in the cochlea of spontaneously diabetic WBN/Kob rats

The mechanism of hearing impairment due to diabetes mellitus was examined in relation to changes in the level of the immunoreaction for the protein gene product 9.5 in the cochlea of spontaneously diabetic WBN/Kob rats. At 7 months (33 weeks) of age, when half of the males of this strain manifest diabetes, male WBN/Kob rats were divided into two groups as follows: one group ...

Incidence trends in childhood onset IDDM in four countries around the Baltic sea during 1983–1992

We present secular trends of childhood onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania during the period of 1983–1992. Incidence data were obtained from the national IDDM registries. The average age-standardized incidence per 100 000/year was 35.0 in Finland, followed by 10.2 in Estonia, 7.1 in Lithuania and 6.5 in Latvia. A male excess in ...

Toxic action of advanced glycation end products on cultured retinal capillary pericytes and endothelial cells: relevance to diabetic retinopathy

The toxic effects of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on bovine retinal capillary pericytes (BRP) and endothelial cells (BREC) were studied. AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA) was toxic to BRP. At a concentration of 500 μg/ml it reduced the BRP number to 48 ± 3 % (p < 0.05) of untreated controls, as determined by cell counting with haemocytometer. AGE-BSA was also ...

Effects of tungstate in neonatally streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: mechanism leading to normalization of glycaemia

The effects of oral administration of tungstate to an animal model of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), the neonatally streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat was studied. Islet insulin content and beta-cell mass were lowered in these animals. Furthermore, the islets lost their ability to release insulin in response to an increase in glucose concentration. However, the ...

Elevated plasma endothelin-1 levels as an additional risk factor in non-obese essential hypertensive patients with metabolic abnormalities

Circulating endothelin-1 concentration was evaluated in 93 lean patients with essential hypertension, of whom 16 had impaired glucose tolerance and hyperlipidaemia, 25 had impaired glucose tolerance, 28 had hyperlipidaemia and 24 had no metabolic abnormalities; we also studied 22 control subjects. All groups were age- and sex-matched. Plasma endothelin-1 levels were higher (p < ...

Physiological and genetic characterization of the Gly40Ser mutation in the glucagon receptor gene in the Sardinian population

A Gly40Ser amino acid substitution in the glucagon receptor gene has been associated with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), but the questions raised about its physiological implications have not been resolved. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of the Gly40Ser mutation in different regions of Sardinia and to investigate the physiological ...

UDP-N-acetylglucosamine transferase and glutamine: fructose 6-phosphate amidotransferase activities in insulin-sensitive tissues

Glutamine:fructose 6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFA) is rate-limiting for hexosamine biosynthesis, while a UDP-GlcNAc β-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (O-GlcNAc transferase) catalyses final O-linked attachment of GlcNAc to serine and threonine residues on intracellular proteins. Increased activity of the hexosamine pathway is a putative mediator of glucose-induced insulin ...

Are risk factors for conversion to NIDDM similar in high and low risk populations?

Mexican Americans have an increased risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) relative to non-Hispanic whites which is only partially explained by their excess overall obesity and unfavourable body fat distribution. Non-diabetic Mexican Americans have hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance relative to non-Hispanic whites. We therefore hypothesized that the insulin ...

Substrate autoregulation of glucose transport: hexose 6-phosphate mediates the cellular distribution of glucose transporters

Exposure of rat skeletal muscle and skeletal muscle cell lines to high glucose levels results in a time- and dose-dependent reduction of the rate of hexose uptake, paralleled by a reduction in the plasma membrane density of glucose transporters. The mechanism of this process was investigated in cultured L8 myocytes. Low concentrations (0.5–2.0 mmol/l) of deoxyglucose mimicked the ...

Effect of w3 fatty acid on plasma lipids, cholesterol and lipoprotein fatty acid content in NIDDM patients

This study was conducted to examine the effect of ω3 fatty acid supplementation on plasma lipid, cholesterol and lipoprotein fatty acid content of non-insulin-dependent diabetic individuals consuming a higher (0.65, n = 10) or lower (0.44, n = 18) ratio of dietary polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid (P/S). The participants were initially given an olive oil supplement (placebo) ...

Alterations in the expression of the a3b1 integrin in certain membrane domains of the glomerular epithelial cells (podocytes) in diabetes mellitus

In view of the major alterations which take place at the level of the extracellular matrix of the glomerular wall in diabetes mellitus and the key roles played by β 1 integrins in cell-to-matrix interactions, it is imperative to understand the role played by integrins in the development of diabetic glomerulosclerosis. In the present study, we revealed by immunocytochemistry the ...