Diabetologia

http://link.springer.com/journal/125

List of Papers (Total 6,571)

The kynurenine:tryptophan ratio as a predictor of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus in individuals with coronary artery disease

Aims/hypothesis The tryptophan metabolite kynurenine has potent immune modulatory and vasoactive properties. Experimental data implicate kynurenine in obesity-related morbidities. Epidemiological studies are, however, sparse. We evaluated associations of the plasma and urine kynurenine:tryptophan ratio (KTR) to incident type 2 diabetes. Methods We followed 2519 individuals with ...

Early metabolic markers identify potential targets for the prevention of type 2 diabetes

Aims/hypothesis The aims of this study were to evaluate systematically the predictive power of comprehensive metabolomics profiles in predicting the future risk of type 2 diabetes, and to identify a panel of the most predictive metabolic markers. Methods We applied an unbiased systems medicine approach to mine metabolite combinations that provide added value in predicting the ...

Beta cell heterogeneity: an evolving concept

Beta cells are primarily defined by their ability to produce insulin and secrete it in response to appropriate stimuli. It has been known for some time, however, that beta cells are not functionally identical to each other and that the rates of insulin synthesis and release differ from cell to cell, although the functional significance of this variability remains unclear. Recent ...

Improved pregnancy outcomes in women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes but substantial clinic-to-clinic variations: a prospective nationwide study

Aims/hypothesis The aim of this prospective nationwide study was to examine antenatal pregnancy care and pregnancy outcomes in women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and to describe changes since 2002/2003. Methods This national population-based cohort included 3036 pregnant women with diabetes from 155 maternity clinics in England and Wales who delivered during 2015. The main ...

Metabolically inactive insulin: friend or foe in the prevention of autoimmune diabetes?

About 20 years ago an American study suggested that daily subcutaneous injections of a metabolically inactive insulin analogue with a single amino acid substitution (aspartic acid instead of phenylalanine) at position 25 of the B chain was as effective as intact insulin in preventing autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. In this issue of Diabetologia Grönholm et al (DOI: ...

Cancer risk among insulin users: comparing analogues with human insulin in the CARING five-country cohort study

Aims/hypothesis The aim of this work was to investigate the relationship between use of certain insulins and risk for cancer, when addressing the limitations and biases involved in previous studies. Methods National Health Registries from Denmark (1996–2010), Finland (1996–2011), Norway (2005–2010) and Sweden (2007–2012) and the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink database ...

Early prediction of autoimmune (type 1) diabetes

Underlying type 1 diabetes is a genetic aetiology dominated by the influence of specific HLA haplotypes involving primarily the class II DR-DQ region. In genetically predisposed children with the DR4-DQ8 haplotype, exogenous factors, yet to be identified, are thought to trigger an autoimmune reaction against insulin, signalled by insulin autoantibodies as the first autoantibody to ...

The role of somatostatin in GLP-1-induced inhibition of glucagon secretion in mice

Aims/hypothesis Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are currently used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Their main mechanism of action is enhancement of glucose-induced insulin secretion (from increased beta cell glucose sensitivity) and inhibition of glucagon secretion. The latter has been demonstrated to account for about half of their blood glucose-lowering ...

Retinal oxygen extraction in individuals with type 1 diabetes with no or mild diabetic retinopathy

Aims/hypothesis The aim of this study was to compare retinal oxygen extraction in individuals with diabetes with no or mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy and healthy age- and sex-matched volunteers. Methods A total of 24 participants with type 1 diabetes and 24 healthy age- and sex-matched volunteers were included in this cross-sectional study. Retinal oxygen extraction ...

Effects of semaglutide on beta cell function and glycaemic control in participants with type 2 diabetes: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

Aims/hypothesis Semaglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue in development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Its effects on first- and second-phase insulin secretion and other measures of beta cell function and glycaemic control were assessed. Methods In this single-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial, conducted at the Profil Institut für ...

Impact of brown rice-specific γ-oryzanol on epigenetic modulation of dopamine D2 receptors in brain striatum in high-fat-diet-induced obesity in mice

Aims/hypothesis Overeating of dietary fats causes obesity in humans and rodents. Recent studies in humans and rodents have demonstrated that addiction to fats shares a common mechanism with addiction to alcohol, nicotine and narcotics in terms of a dysfunction of brain reward systems. It has been highlighted that a high-fat diet (HFD) attenuates dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) ...

Cardiovascular disease biomarkers are associated with declining renal function in type 2 diabetes

Aims/hypothesis We investigated whether biochemical cardiovascular risk factors and/or markers of subclinical cardiovascular disease were associated with the development of reduced renal function in people with type 2 diabetes. Methods A cohort of 1066 Scottish men and women aged 60–74 years with type 2 diabetes from the Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study were followed up for a median ...

Antibodies to post-translationally modified insulin as a novel biomarker for prediction of type 1 diabetes in children

Aims/hypothesis We have shown that autoimmunity to insulin in type 1 diabetes may result from neoepitopes induced by oxidative post-translational modifications (oxPTM). Antibodies specific to oxPTM-insulin (oxPTM-INS-Ab) are present in most newly diagnosed individuals with type 1 diabetes and are more common than autoantibodies to native insulin. In this study, we investigated ...

Medication use for the treatment of diabetes in obese individuals

Obesity is a major cause of type 2 diabetes and may complicate type 1 diabetes. Weight loss for obese individuals with diabetes has many health benefits, often leads to improvement in glucose control and sometimes, in type 2 diabetes, near normalisation of abnormal glucose metabolism. Weight loss is difficult to maintain and attempts to lose weight may be undermined by some ...

The human serum protein C4b-binding protein inhibits pancreatic IAPP-induced inflammasome activation

Aims/hypothesis Inflammasome activation and subsequent IL-1β production is a driver of islet pathology in type 2 diabetes. Oligomers, but not mature amyloid fibrils, of human islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), which is co-secreted with insulin, trigger NOD-like receptor pyrin domain containing-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation. C4b-binding protein (C4BP), present in serum, binds to ...

Human genetics as a model for target validation: finding new therapies for diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a global epidemic with major effects on healthcare expenditure and quality of life. Currently available treatments are inadequate for the prevention of comorbidities, yet progress towards new therapies remains slow. A major barrier is the insufficiency of traditional preclinical models for predicting drug efficacy and safety. Human genetics offers a complementary ...

The elusive role of B lymphocytes and islet autoantibodies in (human) type 1 diabetes

The role of B lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes in humans is not entirely evident. These cells are presumed to be important, but this assumption is largely based on animal models of autoimmune diabetes, where compelling evidence for the contribution of both B lymphocytes and insulin-specific autoantibodies to this disease is in place. For humans, this is much less ...

The gut microbiome as a target for prevention and treatment of hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes: from current human evidence to future possibilities

The totality of microbial genomes in the gut exceeds the size of the human genome, having around 500-fold more genes that importantly complement our coding potential. Microbial genes are essential for key metabolic processes, such as the breakdown of indigestible dietary fibres to short-chain fatty acids, biosynthesis of amino acids and vitamins, and production of neurotransmitters ...

Diabetes, bone and glucose-lowering agents: basic biology

Skeletal fragility often accompanies diabetes and does not appear to correlate with low bone mass or trauma severity in individuals with diabetes. Instead (and in contrast to those with osteoporotic bone disease), bone remodelling and bone turnover are compromised in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, contributing to defective bone material quality. This review is one of a pair ...

Trajectories of glycaemia, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in South Asian and white individuals before diagnosis of type 2 diabetes: a longitudinal analysis from the Whitehall II cohort study

Aims/hypothesis South Asian individuals have reduced insulin sensitivity and increased risk of type 2 diabetes compared with white individuals. Temporal changes in glycaemic traits during middle age suggest that impaired insulin secretion is a particular feature of diabetes development among South Asians. We therefore aimed to examine ethnic differences in early changes in glucose ...

Risks of asphyxia-related neonatal complications in offspring of mothers with type 1 or type 2 diabetes: the impact of maternal overweight and obesity

Aims/hypothesis We aimed to compare the risks of severe asphyxia-related neonatal complications in the offspring of mothers with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, and to assess the impact of maternal overweight/obesity on these risks. Methods This was a population-based study of 1,343,751 live-born singleton infants in Sweden between 1997 and 2011, including 5941 and 711 infants of ...

A core outcome set for studies evaluating the effectiveness of prepregnancy care for women with pregestational diabetes

Aims/hypothesis The aim of this study was to develop a core outcome set (COS) for trials and other studies evaluating the effectiveness of prepregnancy care for women with pregestational (pre-existing) diabetes mellitus. Methods A systematic literature review was completed to identify all outcomes reported in prior studies in this area. Key stakeholders then prioritised these ...