Diabetologia

http://link.springer.com/journal/125

List of Papers (Total 6,384)

Early prediction of autoimmune (type 1) diabetes

Underlying type 1 diabetes is a genetic aetiology dominated by the influence of specific HLA haplotypes involving primarily the class II DR-DQ region. In genetically predisposed children with the DR4-DQ8 haplotype, exogenous factors, yet to be identified, are thought to trigger an autoimmune reaction against insulin, signalled by insulin autoantibodies as the first autoantibody to ...

The role of somatostatin in GLP-1-induced inhibition of glucagon secretion in mice

Aims/hypothesis Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are currently used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Their main mechanism of action is enhancement of glucose-induced insulin secretion (from increased beta cell glucose sensitivity) and inhibition of glucagon secretion. The latter has been demonstrated to account for about half of their blood glucose-lowering ...

Retinal oxygen extraction in individuals with type 1 diabetes with no or mild diabetic retinopathy

Aims/hypothesis The aim of this study was to compare retinal oxygen extraction in individuals with diabetes with no or mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy and healthy age- and sex-matched volunteers. Methods A total of 24 participants with type 1 diabetes and 24 healthy age- and sex-matched volunteers were included in this cross-sectional study. Retinal oxygen extraction ...

Effects of semaglutide on beta cell function and glycaemic control in participants with type 2 diabetes: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

Aims/hypothesis Semaglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue in development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Its effects on first- and second-phase insulin secretion and other measures of beta cell function and glycaemic control were assessed. Methods In this single-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial, conducted at the Profil Institut für ...

Impact of brown rice-specific γ-oryzanol on epigenetic modulation of dopamine D2 receptors in brain striatum in high-fat-diet-induced obesity in mice

Aims/hypothesis Overeating of dietary fats causes obesity in humans and rodents. Recent studies in humans and rodents have demonstrated that addiction to fats shares a common mechanism with addiction to alcohol, nicotine and narcotics in terms of a dysfunction of brain reward systems. It has been highlighted that a high-fat diet (HFD) attenuates dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) ...

Cardiovascular disease biomarkers are associated with declining renal function in type 2 diabetes

Aims/hypothesis We investigated whether biochemical cardiovascular risk factors and/or markers of subclinical cardiovascular disease were associated with the development of reduced renal function in people with type 2 diabetes. Methods A cohort of 1066 Scottish men and women aged 60–74 years with type 2 diabetes from the Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study were followed up for a median ...

Antibodies to post-translationally modified insulin as a novel biomarker for prediction of type 1 diabetes in children

Aims/hypothesis We have shown that autoimmunity to insulin in type 1 diabetes may result from neoepitopes induced by oxidative post-translational modifications (oxPTM). Antibodies specific to oxPTM-insulin (oxPTM-INS-Ab) are present in most newly diagnosed individuals with type 1 diabetes and are more common than autoantibodies to native insulin. In this study, we investigated ...

Medication use for the treatment of diabetes in obese individuals

Obesity is a major cause of type 2 diabetes and may complicate type 1 diabetes. Weight loss for obese individuals with diabetes has many health benefits, often leads to improvement in glucose control and sometimes, in type 2 diabetes, near normalisation of abnormal glucose metabolism. Weight loss is difficult to maintain and attempts to lose weight may be undermined by some ...

The human serum protein C4b-binding protein inhibits pancreatic IAPP-induced inflammasome activation

Aims/hypothesis Inflammasome activation and subsequent IL-1β production is a driver of islet pathology in type 2 diabetes. Oligomers, but not mature amyloid fibrils, of human islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), which is co-secreted with insulin, trigger NOD-like receptor pyrin domain containing-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation. C4b-binding protein (C4BP), present in serum, binds to ...

Human genetics as a model for target validation: finding new therapies for diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a global epidemic with major effects on healthcare expenditure and quality of life. Currently available treatments are inadequate for the prevention of comorbidities, yet progress towards new therapies remains slow. A major barrier is the insufficiency of traditional preclinical models for predicting drug efficacy and safety. Human genetics offers a complementary ...

The elusive role of B lymphocytes and islet autoantibodies in (human) type 1 diabetes

The role of B lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes in humans is not entirely evident. These cells are presumed to be important, but this assumption is largely based on animal models of autoimmune diabetes, where compelling evidence for the contribution of both B lymphocytes and insulin-specific autoantibodies to this disease is in place. For humans, this is much less ...

The gut microbiome as a target for prevention and treatment of hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes: from current human evidence to future possibilities

The totality of microbial genomes in the gut exceeds the size of the human genome, having around 500-fold more genes that importantly complement our coding potential. Microbial genes are essential for key metabolic processes, such as the breakdown of indigestible dietary fibres to short-chain fatty acids, biosynthesis of amino acids and vitamins, and production of neurotransmitters ...

Diabetes, bone and glucose-lowering agents: basic biology

Skeletal fragility often accompanies diabetes and does not appear to correlate with low bone mass or trauma severity in individuals with diabetes. Instead (and in contrast to those with osteoporotic bone disease), bone remodelling and bone turnover are compromised in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, contributing to defective bone material quality. This review is one of a pair ...

Trajectories of glycaemia, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in South Asian and white individuals before diagnosis of type 2 diabetes: a longitudinal analysis from the Whitehall II cohort study

Aims/hypothesis South Asian individuals have reduced insulin sensitivity and increased risk of type 2 diabetes compared with white individuals. Temporal changes in glycaemic traits during middle age suggest that impaired insulin secretion is a particular feature of diabetes development among South Asians. We therefore aimed to examine ethnic differences in early changes in glucose ...

Risks of asphyxia-related neonatal complications in offspring of mothers with type 1 or type 2 diabetes: the impact of maternal overweight and obesity

Aims/hypothesis We aimed to compare the risks of severe asphyxia-related neonatal complications in the offspring of mothers with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, and to assess the impact of maternal overweight/obesity on these risks. Methods This was a population-based study of 1,343,751 live-born singleton infants in Sweden between 1997 and 2011, including 5941 and 711 infants of ...

A core outcome set for studies evaluating the effectiveness of prepregnancy care for women with pregestational diabetes

Aims/hypothesis The aim of this study was to develop a core outcome set (COS) for trials and other studies evaluating the effectiveness of prepregnancy care for women with pregestational (pre-existing) diabetes mellitus. Methods A systematic literature review was completed to identify all outcomes reported in prior studies in this area. Key stakeholders then prioritised these ...

How common are foot problems among individuals with diabetes? Diabetic foot ulcers in the Dutch population

Aims/hypothesis Contemporary data on diabetic foot ulcer prevalence are scarce. Most studies were conducted in the 1990s, reporting incidence rates of 1.9–2.6%. Since then the prevalence of diabetes has doubled and the organisation of diabetes care has undergone major changes. Up-to-date data that quantify the occurrence of diabetic foot ulcers are required and could serve as ...

Metabolic effects of insulin in a human model of ketoacidosis combining exposure to lipopolysaccharide and insulin deficiency: a randomised, controlled, crossover study in individuals with type 1 diabetes

Aims/hypothesis Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is often caused by concomitant systemic inflammation and lack of insulin. Here we used an experimental human model to test whether and how metabolic responses to insulin are impaired in the early phases of DKA with a specific focus on skeletal muscle metabolism. Methods Nine individuals with type 1 diabetes from a previously published ...

Light at night acutely impairs glucose tolerance in a time-, intensity- and wavelength-dependent manner in rats

Aims/hypothesis Exposure to light at night (LAN) has increased dramatically in recent decades. Animal studies have shown that chronic dim LAN induced obesity and glucose intolerance. Furthermore, several studies in humans have demonstrated that chronic exposure to artificial LAN may have adverse health effects with an increased risk of metabolic disorders, including type 2 ...

SUCNR1-mediated chemotaxis of macrophages aggravates obesity-induced inflammation and diabetes

Aims/hypothesis Obesity induces macrophages to drive inflammation in adipose tissue, a crucial step towards the development of type 2 diabetes. The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate succinate is released from cells under metabolic stress and has recently emerged as a metabolic signal induced by proinflammatory stimuli. We therefore investigated whether succinate receptor ...

Effect of diet-induced weight loss on lipoprotein(a) levels in obese individuals with and without type 2 diabetes

Aims/hypothesis Elevated levels of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] are an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), particularly in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Although weight loss improves conventional risk factors for CVD in type 2 diabetes, the effects on Lp(a) are unknown and may influence the long-term outcome of CVD after diet-induced weight loss. The aim of this ...