Diabetologia

http://link.springer.com/journal/125

List of Papers (Total 6,384)

Detection of enteroviruses in stools precedes islet autoimmunity by several months: possible evidence for slowly operating mechanisms in virus-induced autoimmunity

Aims/hypothesis This case–control study was nested in a prospective birth cohort to evaluate whether the presence of enteroviruses in stools was associated with the appearance of islet autoimmunity in the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention study in Finland. Methods Altogether, 1673 longitudinal stool samples from 129 case children who turned positive for multiple islet ...

Season of birth and the risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood: a prospective cohort study of 0.5 million Chinese adults

Aims/hypothesis Season of birth as a surrogate for potential environmental exposure during fetal development and early postnatal life has shown an inconsistent association with adult type 2 diabetes in white populations living in high-latitude regions. The present study aimed to examine the association between birth seasonality and risk of adult type 2 diabetes in Chinese ...

Interferon-α mediates human beta cell HLA class I overexpression, endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis, three hallmarks of early human type 1 diabetes

Aims/hypothesis Three hallmarks of the pancreatic islets in early human type 1 diabetes are overexpression of HLA class I, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and beta cell apoptosis. The mediators of these phenomena remain to be defined. The type I interferon IFNα is expressed in human islets from type 1 diabetes patients and mediates HLA class I overexpression. We presently ...

The heritable basis of gene–environment interactions in cardiometabolic traits

Aims/hypothesis Little is known about the heritable basis of gene–environment interactions in humans. We therefore screened multiple cardiometabolic traits to assess the probability that they are influenced by genotype–environment interactions. Methods Fourteen established environmental risk exposures and 11 cardiometabolic traits were analysed in the VIKING study, a cohort of ...

An enzymatically stable GIP/xenin hybrid peptide restores GIP sensitivity, enhances beta cell function and improves glucose homeostasis in high-fat-fed mice

Aims/hypothesis Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and xenin, regulatory gut hormones secreted from enteroendocrine K cells, exert important effects on metabolism. In addition, xenin potentiates the biological actions of GIP. The present study assessed the actions and therapeutic utility of a (DAla2)GIP/xenin-8-Gln hybrid peptide, in comparison with the parent ...

Emerging role of intestinal microbiota and microbial metabolites in metabolic control

The role of the intestinal microbiota and microbial metabolites in the maintenance of host health and development of metabolic disease has gained significant attention over the past decade. Mechanistic insight revealing causality, however, is scarce. Work by Ussar and co-workers demonstrates that a complex interaction between microbiota, host genetics and environmental factors is ...

Genetics of obesity: can an old dog teach us new tricks?

At one level, obesity is clearly a problem of simple physics, a result of eating too much and not expending enough energy. The more complex question, however, is why do some people eat more than others? Studies of human and mouse genetics over the past two decades have uncovered a number of pathways within the brain that play a key role in the control of food intake. A prime ...

PCSK9 inhibition: the dawn of a new age in cholesterol lowering?

Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a circulating enzyme of hepatic origin that plays a key role in LDL receptor turnover. Genetic studies have confirmed that individuals with gain-of-function PCSK9 mutations have increased PCSK9 activity, elevated LDL-cholesterol levels and a severe form of familial hypercholesterolaemia. Those with variants leading to reduced ...

Glia: silent partners in energy homeostasis and obesity pathogenesis

Body weight stability requires homeostatic regulation to balance energy intake and energy expenditure. Research on this system and how it is affected by obesity has largely focused on the role of hypothalamic neurons as integrators of information about long-term fuel storage, short-term nutrient availability and metabolic demand. Recent studies have uncovered glial cells as ...

Overexpression of protein kinase STK25 in mice exacerbates ectopic lipid accumulation, mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle

Aims/hypothesis Understanding the molecular networks controlling ectopic lipid deposition and insulin responsiveness in skeletal muscle is essential for developing new strategies to treat type 2 diabetes. We recently identified serine/threonine protein kinase 25 (STK25) as a critical regulator of liver steatosis, hepatic lipid metabolism and whole body glucose and insulin ...

SHP-1 activation inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and intimal hyperplasia in a rodent model of insulin resistance and diabetes

Aims/hypothesis Accelerated migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) enhances arterial restenosis after angioplasty in insulin resistance and diabetes. Elevation of Src homology 2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) induces apoptosis in the microvasculature. However, the role of SHP-1 in intimal hyperplasia and restenosis has not been ...

Iron: how much is too much?

Gross iron overload has long been known to result in diabetes mellitus. However, it is now thought that milder levels of iron overload, possibly within the normal range, also increase the risk of diabetes mellitus. The article by Rawal et al in this issue (Diabetologia doi: 10.​1007/​s00125-016-4149-3) provides further support for the relationship between mild degrees of iron ...

Adding exercise or subtracting sitting time for glycaemic control: where do we stand?

While regular structured exercise is a well-established (though arguably under-utilised) cornerstone in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes, population adherence to recommended exercise guidelines remains stubbornly low. Indeed, most adults are exposed to environmental settings (at work, in automobile travel and in the domestic environment) that may not only limit ...

Discriminatory ability of simple OGTT-based beta cell function indices for prediction of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes: the CODAM study

Aims/hypothesis The hyperglycaemic clamp technique and the frequently sampled IVGTT are unsuitable techniques to assess beta cell function (BCF) in large cohorts. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the discriminatory ability of simple OGTT-based BCF indices for prediction of prediabetes (meaning impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance) and type 2 ...

Nonlinear association of BMI with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 414,587 participants in prospective studies

Aims/hypothesis The relationship between BMI and mortality has been extensively investigated in the general population; however, it is less clear in people with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to assess the association of BMI with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods We searched electronic databases up to 1 March 2016 for ...

Reversal of type 2 diabetes in youth who adhere to a very-low-energy diet: a pilot study

Aims/hypothesis The aim of the study was to investigate whether a very-low-energy diet (VLED) is a feasible and acceptable treatment option for type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents, and whether adherence can lead to rapid weight loss, reversal of type 2 diabetes and reduced liver fat as seen in adult studies. Methods Eight participants with type 2 diabetes and obesity, aged ...

Breaking sitting with light activities vs structured exercise: a randomised crossover study demonstrating benefits for glycaemic control and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes

Aims/hypothesis We aimed to examine the effects of breaking sitting with standing and light-intensity walking vs an energy-matched bout of structured exercise on 24 h glucose levels and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods In a randomised crossover study, 19 patients with type 2 diabetes (13 men/6 women, 63 ± 9 years old) who were not using insulin each ...

Increased fetal adiposity prior to diagnosis of gestational diabetes in South Asians: more evidence for the ‘thin–fat’ baby

Aims/hypothesis Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with an increased future risk of obesity in the offspring. Increased adiposity has been observed in the newborns of women with GDM. Our aim was to examine early fetal adiposity in women with GDM. Methods Obstetric and sonographic data was collated for 153 women with GDM and 178 controls from a single centre in ...

Targeting renal glucose reabsorption to treat hyperglycaemia: the pleiotropic effects of SGLT2 inhibition

Healthy kidneys filter ∼160 g/day of glucose (∼30% of daily energy intake) under euglycaemic conditions. To prevent valuable energy from being lost in the urine, the proximal tubule avidly reabsorbs filtered glucose up to a limit of ∼450 g/day. When blood glucose levels increase to the point that the filtered load exceeds this limit, the surplus is excreted in the urine. Thus, the ...

Diet-dependent acid load and type 2 diabetes: pooled results from three prospective cohort studies

Aims/hypothesis Studies suggest a potential link between low-grade metabolic acidosis and type 2 diabetes. A western dietary pattern increases daily acid load but the association between diet-dependent acid load and type 2 diabetes is still unclear. This study aimed to assess whether diet-dependent acid load is associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. Methods We examined the ...

Adipocyte STAT5 deficiency promotes adiposity and impairs lipid mobilisation in mice

Aims/hypothesis Dysfunction of lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue can substantially interfere with health and quality of life, for example in obesity and associated metabolic diseases. Therefore, it is important to characterise pathways that regulate lipid handling in adipocytes and determine how they affect metabolic homeostasis. Components of the Janus kinase (JAK)–signal ...

Depression: a common and burdensome complication of diabetes that warrants the continued attention of clinicians, researchers and healthcare policy makers

There is ample evidence that depression is a common comorbid health issue in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Reviews have also concluded that depression in diabetes is associated with higher HbA1c levels, less optimal self-care behaviours, lower quality of life, incident vascular complications and higher mortality rates. However, longitudinal studies into the course of ...