Diabetologia

http://link.springer.com/journal/125

List of Papers (Total 8,037)

Screening for neonatal diabetes at day 5 of life using dried blood spot glucose measurement

Aims/hypothesis The majority of infants with neonatal diabetes mellitus present with severe ketoacidosis at a median of 6 weeks. The treatment is very challenging and can result in severe neurological sequelae or death. The genetic defects that cause neonatal diabetes are present from birth. We aimed to assess if neonatal diabetes could be diagnosed earlier by measuring glucose...

The effect of interleukin-22 treatment on autoimmune diabetes in the NOD mouse

Aims/hypothesis The aim of this study was to determine whether therapy with the cytokine IL-22 could be used to prevent the development of, or treat, autoimmune diabetes in the NOD mouse. Methods Six-week-old NOD mice were administered bi-weekly either recombinant mouse IL-22 (200 ng/g) or PBS (vehicle control) intraperitoneally until overt diabetes was diagnosed as two...

FGF21 improves glucose homeostasis in an obese diabetes-prone mouse model independent of body fat changes

Aims/hypothesis Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is considered to be a promising therapeutic candidate for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, as FGF21 levels are elevated in obese and diabetic conditions we aimed to test if exogenous FGF21 is sufficient to prevent diabetes and beta cell loss in New Zealand obese (NZO) mice, a model for polygenetic obesity and type 2...

Metformin for diabetes prevention: insights gained from the Diabetes Prevention Program/Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study

The largest and longest clinical trial of metformin for the prevention of diabetes is the Diabetes Prevention Program/Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPP/DPPOS). In this review, we summarise data from the DPP/DPPOS, focusing on metformin for diabetes prevention, as well as its long-term glycaemic and cardiometabolic effects and safety in people at high-risk of...

The mechanisms of action of metformin

Metformin is a widely-used drug that results in clear benefits in relation to glucose metabolism and diabetes-related complications. The mechanisms underlying these benefits are complex and still not fully understood. Physiologically, metformin has been shown to reduce hepatic glucose production, yet not all of its effects can be explained by this mechanism and there is...

The association of depressive symptoms and diabetes distress with glycaemic control and diabetes complications over 2 years in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study

Aims/hypothesis We examined the associations between depressive symptoms and diabetes distress with glycaemic control and diabetes complications over 2 years, after diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Methods In a multi-ethnic, primary care cohort (n = 1735) of adults, all with recent (<6 months) diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, we measured the associations between depressive symptoms...

Diabetic cardiomyopathy: a hyperglycaemia- and insulin-resistance-induced heart disease

Diabetic cardiomyopathy is characterised in its early stages by diastolic relaxation abnormalities and later by clinical heart failure in the absence of dyslipidaemia, hypertension and coronary artery disease. Insulin resistance, hyperinsulinaemia and hyperglycaemia are each independent risk factors for the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy. The pathophysiological factors in...

Metformin: historical overview

Metformin (dimethylbiguanide) has become the preferred first-line oral blood glucose-lowering agent to manage type 2 diabetes. Its history is linked to Galega officinalis (also known as goat’s rue), a traditional herbal medicine in Europe, found to be rich in guanidine, which, in 1918, was shown to lower blood glucose. Guanidine derivatives, including metformin, were synthesised...

The pharmacogenetics of metformin

Despite its widespread use as the first-line agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, it has become clear that metformin does not work optimally for everyone. Elucidating who are the likely metformin responders and non-responders is hampered by our limited knowledge of its precise molecular mechanism of action. One approach to achieve the related goals of stratifying patients...

Metformin therapy for the reproductive and metabolic consequences of polycystic ovary syndrome

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common hormonal disorder among women of reproductive age, has various metabolic and reproductive consequences. Metformin was originally shown to lower testosterone levels in women with PCOS in the 1990s, an effect presumably related to its insulin sensitising actions. However, the precise mechanisms of metformin action in PCOS remain...

Impact of metformin on cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis of randomised trials among people with type 2 diabetes

Aims/hypothesis Metformin is the most-prescribed oral medication to lower blood glucose worldwide. Yet previous systematic reviews have raised doubts about its effectiveness in reducing risk of cardiovascular disease, the most costly complication of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to systematically identify and pool randomised trials reporting cardiovascular outcomes in which the...

Understanding and preventing type 1 diabetes through the unique working model of TrialNet

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease arising from the destruction of pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells. The disease represents a continuum, progressing sequentially at variable rates through identifiable stages prior to the onset of symptoms, through diagnosis and into the critical periods that follow, culminating in a variable depth of beta cell depletion. The ability...

Regulatory T cell dysfunction in type 1 diabetes: what’s broken and how can we fix it?

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease characterised by the destruction of insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas. Whilst it remains unclear what the original triggering factors for this destruction are, observations from the natural history of human type 1 diabetes, including incidence rates in twins, suggest that the disease results from a combination of genetic and...

Metformin use in pregnancy: promises and uncertainties

Metformin has been prescribed in pregnancy for over 40 years; for much of this time, use has been limited both in numbers and geographically, and the evidence base has been confined to observational studies. In early years, perceived safety concerns and lack of availability of the drug in many countries acted as a barrier to use. More recently, RCTs have begun to examine the role...

A new perspective on metformin therapy in type 1 diabetes

Metformin is quite frequently used off-label in type 1 diabetes to limit insulin dose requirement. Guidelines recommend that it can improve glucose control in those who are overweight and obese but evidence in support of this is limited. Recently-published findings from the REducing with MetfOrmin Vascular Adverse Lesions (REMOVAL) trial suggest that metformin therapy in type 1...

Metabolic profiling of gestational diabetes in obese women during pregnancy

Aims/hypothesis Antenatal obesity and associated gestational diabetes (GDM) are increasing worldwide. While pre-existing insulin resistance is implicated in GDM in obese women, the responsible metabolic pathways remain poorly described. Our aim was to compare metabolic profiles in blood of obese pregnant women with and without GDM 10 weeks prior to and at the time of diagnosis by...

The relationship of blood glucose with cardiovascular disease is mediated over time by traditional risk factors in type 1 diabetes: the DCCT/EDIC study

Aims/hypothesis Chronic hyperglycaemia, as measured by HbA1c levels, is a major risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in type 1 diabetes. Our aim was to describe the degree to which the effect of HbA1c on the risk of CVD is mediated by its effect on traditional risk factors over time, and how these mediation pathways change over time. Methods The DCCT...

Age at natural menopause and risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study

Aims/hypothesis In this study, we aimed to examine the association between age at natural menopause and risk of type 2 diabetes, and to assess whether this association is independent of potential mediators. Methods We included 3639 postmenopausal women from the prospective, population-based Rotterdam Study. Age at natural menopause was self-reported retrospectively and was...

Vascular complications in diabetes: old messages, new thoughts

In parallel with the growing diabetes pandemic, there is an increasing burden of micro- and macrovascular complications, occurring in the majority of patients. The identification of a number of synergistic accelerators of disease, providing therapeutic pathways, has stabilised the incidence of complications in most western nations. However, the primary instigators of diabetic...

Transplantation sites for human and murine islets

Aims/hypothesis Beta cell replacement is a potential cure for type 1 diabetes. In humans, islet transplants are currently infused into the liver via the portal vein, although this site has disadvantages. Here, we investigated alternative transplantation sites for human and murine islets in recipient mice, comparing the portal vein with quadriceps muscle and kidney, liver and...

GLP-1/glucagon receptor co-agonism for treatment of obesity

Over a relatively short period, obesity and type 2 diabetes have come to represent a large medical and economic burden to global societies. The epidemic rise in the prevalence of obesity has metabolic consequences and is paralleled by an increased occurrence of other diseases, such as diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular complications. Together, obesity and type 2 diabetes...

Transplantation sites for porcine islets

Aims/hypothesis Xenotransplantation has great potential to provide beta cell replacement and thereby provide a cure for large numbers of people with type 1 diabetes. Crucial to the success of xenotransplantation is establishment of the most viable sites for transplantation. Methods We compared porcine islet tissue transplanted into kidney, liver and spleen in pig recipients as...

Epidemiology of gestational diabetes mellitus according to IADPSG/WHO 2013 criteria among obese pregnant women in Europe

Aims/hypothesisAccurate prevalence estimates for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among pregnant women in Europe are lacking owing to the use of a multitude of diagnostic criteria and screening strategies in both high-risk women and the general pregnant population. Our aims were to report important risk factors for GDM development and calculate the prevalence of GDM in a...