Diabetologia

http://link.springer.com/journal/125

List of Papers (Total 7,109)

Serum magnesium and the risk of prediabetes: a population-based cohort study

Aims/hypothesis Previous studies have found an association between serum magnesium and incident diabetes; however, this association may be due to reverse causation, whereby diabetes may induce urinary magnesium loss. In contrast, in prediabetes (defined as impaired fasting glucose), serum glucose levels are below the threshold for urinary magnesium wasting and, hence, unlikely to ...

Germinal centre frequency is decreased in pancreatic lymph nodes from individuals with recent-onset type 1 diabetes

Aims/hypothesis Pancreatic lymph nodes (PLNs) are critical sites for the initial interaction between islet autoantigens and autoreactive lymphocytes, but the histology of PLNs in tissue from individuals with type 1 diabetes has not been analysed in detail. The aim of this study was to examine PLN tissue sections from healthy donors compared with those at risk of, or with ...

Gestational diabetes and adverse perinatal outcomes from 716,152 births in France in 2012

Aims/hypothesis The aim of this study was to assess the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a large national cohort. Methods All deliveries taking place after 22 weeks in France in 2012 were included by extracting data from the hospital discharge database and the national health insurance system. The diabetic status of mothers was determined ...

Perturbations of the anti-ageing hormone Klotho in patients with type 1 diabetes and microalbuminuria

Aims/hypothesis Patients with type 1 diabetes and microalbuminuria are at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and end-stage renal disease. Soluble Klotho is an anti-ageing circulating hormone involved in phosphate metabolism and vascular homeostasis through protective effects on the endothelium and antioxidant actions. The role of soluble Klotho in patients with type 1 ...

AICAR ameliorates high-fat diet-associated pathophysiology in mouse and ex vivo models, independent of adiponectin

Aims/hypothesis In this study, we aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR), an activator of AMP-activated protein kinase, for ameliorating high-fat diet (HFD)-induced pathophysiology in mice. We also aimed to determine whether the beneficial effects of AICAR were dependent on adiponectin. Furthermore, human adipose tissue ...

Painting a new picture of personalised medicine for diabetes

The current focus on delivery of personalised (or precision) medicine reflects the expectation that developments in genomics, imaging and other domains will extend our diagnostic and prognostic capabilities, and enable more effective targeting of current and future preventative and therapeutic options. The clinical benefits of this approach are already being realised in rare ...

Peripheral insulin resistance rather than beta cell dysfunction accounts for geographical differences in impaired fasting blood glucose among sub-Saharan African individuals: findings from the RODAM study

Aims/hypothesis The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction account for differences in impaired fasting blood glucose (IFBG) levels in sub-Saharan African individuals living in different locations in Europe and Africa. We also aimed to identify determinants associated with insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction among ...

Towards a systematic nationwide screening strategy for MODY

MODY is an early-onset monogenic form of diabetes. Correctly identifying MODY is of considerable importance as diagnosing the specific genetic subtype can inform the optimal treatment, with many patients being able to discontinue unnecessary insulin treatment. Diagnostic molecular genetic testing to confirm MODY is expensive, so screening strategies are required to identify the ...

Lifestyle and precision diabetes medicine: will genomics help optimise the prediction, prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes through lifestyle therapy?

Precision diabetes medicine, the optimisation of therapy using patient-level biomarker data, has stimulated enormous interest throughout society as it provides hope of more effective, less costly and safer ways of preventing, treating, and perhaps even curing the disease. While precision diabetes medicine is often framed in the context of pharmacotherapy, using biomarkers to ...

Associations between hepatic miRNA expression, liver triacylglycerols and gut microbiota during metabolic adaptation to high-fat diet in mice

Aims/hypothesis Despite the current pandemic of metabolic diseases, our understanding of the diverse nature of the development of metabolic alterations in people who eat a high-fat diet (HFD) is still poor. We recently demonstrated a cardio-metabolic adaptation in mice fed an HFD, which was characterised by a specific gut and periodontal microbiota profile. Since the severity of ...

Translating HbA1c measurements into estimated average glucose values in pregnant women with diabetes

Aims/hypothesis This study aimed to examine the relationship between average glucose levels, assessed by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), and HbA1c levels in pregnant women with diabetes to determine whether calculations of standard estimated average glucose (eAG) levels from HbA1c measurements are applicable to pregnant women with diabetes. Methods CGM data from 117 pregnant ...

Detection of enteroviruses in stools precedes islet autoimmunity by several months: possible evidence for slowly operating mechanisms in virus-induced autoimmunity

Aims/hypothesis This case–control study was nested in a prospective birth cohort to evaluate whether the presence of enteroviruses in stools was associated with the appearance of islet autoimmunity in the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention study in Finland. Methods Altogether, 1673 longitudinal stool samples from 129 case children who turned positive for multiple islet ...

Season of birth and the risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood: a prospective cohort study of 0.5 million Chinese adults

Aims/hypothesis Season of birth as a surrogate for potential environmental exposure during fetal development and early postnatal life has shown an inconsistent association with adult type 2 diabetes in white populations living in high-latitude regions. The present study aimed to examine the association between birth seasonality and risk of adult type 2 diabetes in Chinese ...

Interferon-α mediates human beta cell HLA class I overexpression, endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis, three hallmarks of early human type 1 diabetes

Aims/hypothesis Three hallmarks of the pancreatic islets in early human type 1 diabetes are overexpression of HLA class I, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and beta cell apoptosis. The mediators of these phenomena remain to be defined. The type I interferon IFNα is expressed in human islets from type 1 diabetes patients and mediates HLA class I overexpression. We presently ...

The heritable basis of gene–environment interactions in cardiometabolic traits

Aims/hypothesis Little is known about the heritable basis of gene–environment interactions in humans. We therefore screened multiple cardiometabolic traits to assess the probability that they are influenced by genotype–environment interactions. Methods Fourteen established environmental risk exposures and 11 cardiometabolic traits were analysed in the VIKING study, a cohort of ...

An enzymatically stable GIP/xenin hybrid peptide restores GIP sensitivity, enhances beta cell function and improves glucose homeostasis in high-fat-fed mice

Aims/hypothesis Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and xenin, regulatory gut hormones secreted from enteroendocrine K cells, exert important effects on metabolism. In addition, xenin potentiates the biological actions of GIP. The present study assessed the actions and therapeutic utility of a (DAla2)GIP/xenin-8-Gln hybrid peptide, in comparison with the parent ...

Emerging role of intestinal microbiota and microbial metabolites in metabolic control

The role of the intestinal microbiota and microbial metabolites in the maintenance of host health and development of metabolic disease has gained significant attention over the past decade. Mechanistic insight revealing causality, however, is scarce. Work by Ussar and co-workers demonstrates that a complex interaction between microbiota, host genetics and environmental factors is ...

Genetics of obesity: can an old dog teach us new tricks?

At one level, obesity is clearly a problem of simple physics, a result of eating too much and not expending enough energy. The more complex question, however, is why do some people eat more than others? Studies of human and mouse genetics over the past two decades have uncovered a number of pathways within the brain that play a key role in the control of food intake. A prime ...

PCSK9 inhibition: the dawn of a new age in cholesterol lowering?

Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a circulating enzyme of hepatic origin that plays a key role in LDL receptor turnover. Genetic studies have confirmed that individuals with gain-of-function PCSK9 mutations have increased PCSK9 activity, elevated LDL-cholesterol levels and a severe form of familial hypercholesterolaemia. Those with variants leading to reduced ...

Glia: silent partners in energy homeostasis and obesity pathogenesis

Body weight stability requires homeostatic regulation to balance energy intake and energy expenditure. Research on this system and how it is affected by obesity has largely focused on the role of hypothalamic neurons as integrators of information about long-term fuel storage, short-term nutrient availability and metabolic demand. Recent studies have uncovered glial cells as ...

Overexpression of protein kinase STK25 in mice exacerbates ectopic lipid accumulation, mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle

Aims/hypothesis Understanding the molecular networks controlling ectopic lipid deposition and insulin responsiveness in skeletal muscle is essential for developing new strategies to treat type 2 diabetes. We recently identified serine/threonine protein kinase 25 (STK25) as a critical regulator of liver steatosis, hepatic lipid metabolism and whole body glucose and insulin ...

Are the Institute of Medicine weight gain targets applicable in women with gestational diabetes mellitus?

Aims/hypothesis Our aim was to study the relationship between excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) according to Institute of Medicine (IOM) targets and perinatal outcomes, and examine whether modifying targets may improve outcomes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of all GDM pregnancies from 1992 to 2013. ORs were ...

SHP-1 activation inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and intimal hyperplasia in a rodent model of insulin resistance and diabetes

Aims/hypothesis Accelerated migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) enhances arterial restenosis after angioplasty in insulin resistance and diabetes. Elevation of Src homology 2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) induces apoptosis in the microvasculature. However, the role of SHP-1 in intimal hyperplasia and restenosis has not been ...