Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control

http://www.aricjournal.com/

List of Papers (Total 1,132)

Impact of single room design on the spread of multi-drug resistant bacteria in an intensive care unit

Cross-transmission of nosocomial pathogens occurs frequently in intensive care units (ICU). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the introduction of a single room policy resulted in a decrease in transmission of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria in an ICU. We performed a retrospective study covering two periods: between January 2002 and April 2009 (old-ICU) and...

Inappropriate use of antibiotics among communities of Gondar town, Ethiopia: a threat to the development of antimicrobial resistance

The emergence of antimicrobial resistance, the main cause of morbidity and mortality from otherwise treatable infections, is largely attributed to the inappropriate use of antimicrobials. However, data on the extent of inappropriate use of antibiotics in the community is scarce in Ethiopia. The aim of present study is to document the extent of inappropriate use of antibiotics and...

“First-person view” of pathogen transmission and hand hygiene – use of a new head-mounted video capture and coding tool

Healthcare workers’ hands are the foremost means of pathogen transmission in healthcare, but detailed hand trajectories have been insufficiently researched so far. We developed and applied a new method to systematically document hand-to-surface exposures (HSE) to delineate true hand transmission pathways in real-life healthcare settings. A head-mounted camera and commercial...

A twenty-four-hour observational study of hand hygiene compliance among health-care workers in Debre Berhan referral hospital, Ethiopia

Hand hygiene (HH) is recognized as the single most effective strategy for preventing health care–associated infections. In developing countries, data on hand hygiene compliance is available only for few health-care facilities. This study aimed to assess hand hygiene compliance among health-care workers in Debre Berhan referral hospital, Ethiopia. This study employed the WHO hand...

Cost-effectiveness of ceftolozane/tazobactam plus metronidazole versus piperacillin/tazobactam as initial empiric therapy for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections based on pathogen distributions drawn from national surveillance data in the United States

The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among gram-negative pathogens in complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) has increased. In the absence of timely information on the infecting pathogens and their susceptibilities, local or regional epidemiology may guide initial empirical therapy and reduce treatment failure, length of stay and mortality. The objective of this...

Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of ESBL and AmpC producing organisms associated with bacteraemia in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Broad-spectrum antimicrobials are commonly used as empirical therapy for infections of presumed bacterial origin. Increasing resistance to these antimicrobial agents has prompted the need for alternative therapies and more effective surveillance. Better surveillance leads to more informed and improved delivery of therapeutic interventions, potentially leading to better treatment...

Implementation of central line-associated bloodstream infection prevention bundles in a surgical intensive care unit using peer tutoring

Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) can be prevented through well-coordinated, multifaceted programs. However, implementation of CLABSI prevention programs requires individualized strategies for different institutional situations, and the best strategy in resource-limited settings is uncertain. Peer tutoring may be an efficient and effective method that is...

Readiness for antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance in Pakistan; a model for laboratory strengthening

Limited capacity of laboratories for antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) presents a critical diagnostic bottleneck in resource limited countries. This paper aims to identify such gaps and to explore whether laboratory networks could contribute towards improving AST in low resource settings. A self-assessment tool to assess antimicrobial susceptibility testing capacity was...

Implementation of WHO multimodal strategy for improvement of hand hygiene: a quasi-experimental study in a Traditional Chinese Medicine hospital in Xi’an, China

Hand hygiene (HH) is an essential component for preventing and controlling of healthcare-associated infection (HAI), whereas compliance with HH among health care workers (HCWs) is frequently poor. This study aimed to assess compliance and correctness with HH before and after the implementation of a multimodal HH improvement strategy launched by the World Health Organization (WHO...

Chlorhexidine is not an essential component in alcohol-based surgical hand preparation: a comparative study of two handrubs based on a modified EN 12791 test protocol

Surgical hand preparation is an essential part of modern surgery. Both alcohol-based and antiseptic detergent-based hand preparation are recommended practices, with a trend towards use of alcohol based handrubs. However, discussion has arisen whether chlorhexidine is a required ingredient in highly efficacious alcohol-based formulations, in view of providing sustained...

The effect of antibiotic use on prevalence of nosocomial vancomycin-resistant enterococci- an ecologic study

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are among the most common antimicrobial-resistant pathogens causing nosocomial infections. Although antibiotic use has been identified as a risk factor for VRE, it remains unclear which antimicrobial agents particularly facilitate VRE selection. Here, we assessed whether use of specific antimicrobial agents is independently associated with...

Infection control at an urban hospital in Manila, Philippines: a systems engineering assessment of barriers and facilitators

Healthcare facilities in low- and middle-income countries, including the Philippines, face substantial challenges in achieving effective infection control. Early stages of interventions should include efforts to understand perceptions held by healthcare workers who participate in infection control programs. We performed a qualitative study to examine facilitators and barriers to...

Transcriptional analysis of bla NDM-1 and copy number alteration under carbapenem stress

Background New Delhi metallo beta-lactamase is known to compromise carbapenem therapy and leading to treatment failure. However, their response to carbapenem stress is not clearly known. Here, we have investigated the transcriptional response of bla NDM-1 and plasmid copy number alteration under carbapenem exposure. Methods Three bla NDM-1 harboring plasmids representing three...

Intervening with healthcare workers’ hand hygiene compliance, knowledge, and perception in a limited-resource hospital in Indonesia: a randomized controlled trial study

Background Hand hygiene is recognized as an important measure to prevent healthcare-associated infections. Hand hygiene adherence among healthcare workers is associated with their knowledge and perception. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of three different educational programs on improving hand hygiene compliance, knowledge, and perception among healthcare workers in a...

The sink as a potential source of transmission of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the intensive care unit

Background Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are emerging pathogens that represent a major public health threat. In the University Hospital of Brussels, the incidence of new patients with CPE rose from 1 case in 2010 to 35 cases in 2015. Between January and August 2015, five patients became infected/colonized with CPE during their stay in the same room in the...

Management of a cluster of Clostridium difficile infections among patients with osteoarticular infections

Background Here we describe a cluster of hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) among 26 patients with osteoarticular infections. The aim of the study was to define the source of C. difficile and to evaluate the impact of general infection control measures and antibiotic stewardship on the incidence of CDI. Methods Epidemiological analysis included typing of C...

Detection of diverse genotypes of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from hospital personnel and the environment in Armenia

Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a public health concern internationally. Studies examining a range of cohorts have been reported from various regions of the world, but little is known about the molecular epidemiology of MRSA in Armenia. Methods Between May and September 2013, twenty isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA...

Ralstonia mannitolilytica infections in an oncologic day ward: description of a cluster among high-risk patients

Background Ralstonia spp, an environmental microorganism, has been occasionally associated with healthcare infections. The aim of this study was to investigate an outbreak caused by Ralstonia mannitolilytica in oncology patients. Methods Case definition: Oncology outpatients attending a day ward, with positive blood and/or central venous catheter (CVC) culture for Ralstonia spp...

Co-existence of bla OXA-23 and bla NDM-1 genes of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from Nepal: antimicrobial resistance and clinical significance

Background Molecular analysis of carbapenem-resistant genes in Acinetobacter baumannii, an emerging pathogen, is less commonly reported from Nepal. In this study we determined the antibiotic susceptibility profile and genetic mechanism of carbapenem resistance in clinical isolates of A. baumannii. Methods A. baumannii were isolated from various clinical specimens and identified...