Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control

http://www.aricjournal.com/

List of Papers (Total 1,119)

Transcriptional analysis of bla NDM-1 and copy number alteration under carbapenem stress

Background New Delhi metallo beta-lactamase is known to compromise carbapenem therapy and leading to treatment failure. However, their response to carbapenem stress is not clearly known. Here, we have investigated the transcriptional response of bla NDM-1 and plasmid copy number alteration under carbapenem exposure. Methods Three bla NDM-1 harboring plasmids representing three ...

Intervening with healthcare workers’ hand hygiene compliance, knowledge, and perception in a limited-resource hospital in Indonesia: a randomized controlled trial study

Background Hand hygiene is recognized as an important measure to prevent healthcare-associated infections. Hand hygiene adherence among healthcare workers is associated with their knowledge and perception. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of three different educational programs on improving hand hygiene compliance, knowledge, and perception among healthcare workers in a ...

The sink as a potential source of transmission of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the intensive care unit

Background Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are emerging pathogens that represent a major public health threat. In the University Hospital of Brussels, the incidence of new patients with CPE rose from 1 case in 2010 to 35 cases in 2015. Between January and August 2015, five patients became infected/colonized with CPE during their stay in the same room in the ...

Management of a cluster of Clostridium difficile infections among patients with osteoarticular infections

Background Here we describe a cluster of hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) among 26 patients with osteoarticular infections. The aim of the study was to define the source of C. difficile and to evaluate the impact of general infection control measures and antibiotic stewardship on the incidence of CDI. Methods Epidemiological analysis included typing of C. ...

Detection of diverse genotypes of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from hospital personnel and the environment in Armenia

Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a public health concern internationally. Studies examining a range of cohorts have been reported from various regions of the world, but little is known about the molecular epidemiology of MRSA in Armenia. Methods Between May and September 2013, twenty isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; mecA ...

Ralstonia mannitolilytica infections in an oncologic day ward: description of a cluster among high-risk patients

Background Ralstonia spp, an environmental microorganism, has been occasionally associated with healthcare infections. The aim of this study was to investigate an outbreak caused by Ralstonia mannitolilytica in oncology patients. Methods Case definition: Oncology outpatients attending a day ward, with positive blood and/or central venous catheter (CVC) culture for Ralstonia spp ...

Co-existence of bla OXA-23 and bla NDM-1 genes of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from Nepal: antimicrobial resistance and clinical significance

Background Molecular analysis of carbapenem-resistant genes in Acinetobacter baumannii, an emerging pathogen, is less commonly reported from Nepal. In this study we determined the antibiotic susceptibility profile and genetic mechanism of carbapenem resistance in clinical isolates of A. baumannii. Methods A. baumannii were isolated from various clinical specimens and identified ...

Complications with peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) used in hospitalized patients and outpatients: a prospective cohort study

Background Peripherally Inserted Central Catheters (PICCs) are widely used for hospitalized patients and among outpatients. Despite many advantages, PICC-related complications can occur such as infection, thrombosis or mechanical complications. We aimed to evaluate rates and nature of PICC-related complications from insertion to removal and analyze risk factors of complications at ...

Anti-bacterial efficacy of alcoholic hand rubs in the Kenyan market, 2015

Background Hand hygiene is known to be effective in preventing hospital and community-acquired infections. The increasing number of hand sanitizer brands in Kenyan hospitals and consumer outlets is of concern. Thus the main aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-bacterial efficacy and organoleptic properties of these hand sanitizers in Kenya. Methods This was an experimental, ...

Prospective surveillance of healthcare associated infections in a Cambodian pediatric hospital

Background Healthcare associated infections (HAI) are the most common preventable adverse events following admission to healthcare facilities. Data from low-income countries are scarce. We sought to prospectively define HAI incidence at Angkor Hospital for Children (AHC), a Cambodian pediatric referral hospital. Methods Prospective HAI surveillance was introduced for medical ...

Hospital clones of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are carried by medical students even before healthcare exposure

Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are prevalent in healthcare and the community. Few studies have examined MRSA carriage among medical students. The aim of this study is to examine Staphylococcus aureus (SA) carriage, and particular MRSA, over time in cohort medical students Methods Prospective collection of nasal swabs from medical students in ...

Risk factors for relapse or persistence of bacteraemia caused by Enterobacter spp.: a case–control study

Background Enterobacter spp. possess chromosomal AmpC beta-lactamases that may be expressed at high levels. Previous studies have demonstrated a risk of relapsed bacteraemia following therapy with third generation cephalosporins (3GCs). What additional factors predict microbiological failure in Enterobacter bacteraemia is unclear. We aimed to determine factors associated with ...

Genetic markers associated with resistance to beta-lactam and quinolone antimicrobials in non-typhoidal Salmonella isolates from humans and animals in central Ethiopia

Background Beta-lactam and quinolone antimicrobials are commonly used for treatment of infections caused by non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) and other pathogens. Resistance to these classes of antimicrobials has increased significantly in the recent years. However, little is known on the genetic basis of resistance to these drugs in Salmonella isolates from Ethiopia. Methods ...

Implementation of short incubation MALDI-TOF MS identification from positive blood cultures in routine diagnostics and effects on empiric antimicrobial therapy

Background Results of blood culture (BC) diagnostics should be swiftly available to guide treatment of critically ill patients. Conventional BC diagnostics usually performs species identification of microorganisms from mature solid medium colonies. Species identification might be speed up by using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass ...

Behaviour change interventions to influence antimicrobial prescribing: a cross-sectional analysis of reports from UK state-of-the-art scientific conferences

Background To improve the quality of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) interventions the application of behavioural sciences supported by multidisciplinary collaboration has been recommended. We analysed major UK scientific research conferences to investigate AMS behaviour change intervention reporting. Methods Leading UK 2015 scientific conference abstracts for 30 clinical ...

Carriage of antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in hospitalised children in tertiary hospitals in Harare, Zimbabwe

Background Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing and gentamicin resistant Enterobacteriaceae are increasingly recognised as a major cause of infection in low-income countries. We assessed the prevalence of gastrointestinal carriage of these bacteria in hospitalised children in Harare, Zimbabwe. Methods We conducted a cohort study in paediatric inpatients at two tertiary-referral ...

Effect of handrubbing using locally-manufactured alcohol-based handrubs in paediatric wards in Harare, Zimbabwe

We assessed bacterial contamination of hands of adults present in paediatric wards in two tertiary-care hospitals in Harare, Zimbabwe and the microbiologic efficacy of locally-manufactured alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR). During unannounced visits, samples were collected using hand-print and hand-rinse methods. Samples were collected from 152 individuals (16 nurses, 10 doctors, 28 ...

A prospective survey of Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization and infection in the intensive care unit

Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) surveillance may improve empiric antimicrobial therapy, since colonizing strains frequently cause infections. This colonization may be ‘endogenous’ or ‘exogenous’, and the source determines infection control measures. We prospectively investigated the sources of PA, the clinical impact of PA colonization upon admission and the dynamics of ...

High rates of multidrug resistance among uropathogenic Escherichia coli in children and analyses of ESBL producers from Nepal

Background Emergence of Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infections (UTI) among pediatric patients is an increasing problem worldwide. However, very little is known about pediatric urinary tract infections and antimicrobial resistance trend from Nepal. This study was conducted to assess the current antibiotic resistance rate and ESBL ...

Core components for effective infection prevention and control programmes: new WHO evidence-based recommendations

Health care-associated infections (HAI) are a major public health problem with a significant impact on morbidity, mortality and quality of life. They represent also an important economic burden to health systems worldwide. However, a large proportion of HAI are preventable through effective infection prevention and control (IPC) measures. Improvements in IPC at the national and ...

Shiga (Vero)-toxin producing Escherichia coli isolated from the hospital foods; virulence factors, o-serogroups and antimicrobial resistance properties

Background According to the presence of the weak, diabetic and immunosuppressive patients in hospitals, hospital foods should have a high quality and safety. Cooking a lot of foods higher than daily requirement, storage of cooked foods in an inappropriate condition and presence of nurses and servants in distribution of food to patients are the main reasons caused contamination of ...

The emergence of carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in Malaysia: correlation between microbiological trends with host characteristics and clinical factors

Background Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae is a growing concern worldwide including Malaysia. The emergence of this pathogen is worrying because carbapenem is one of the 'last-line' antibiotics. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of genetic mechanisms and clinical risk factors of carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) in ...

Bacterial etiology of bloodstream infections and antimicrobial resistance in Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2005–2014

Background Bloodstream infections due to bacterial pathogens are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh and other developing countries. In these countries, most patients are treated empirically based on their clinical symptoms. Therefore, up to date etiological data for major pathogens causing bloodstream infections may play a positive role in better healthcare ...

Implementation of the WHO multimodal Hand Hygiene Improvement Strategy in a University Hospital in Central Ethiopia

Background The burden of health-care associated infections in low-income countries is high. Adequate hand hygiene is considered the most effective measure to reduce the transmission of nosocomial pathogens. We aimed to assess compliance with hand hygiene and perception and knowledge about hand hygiene before and after the implementation of a multimodal hand hygiene campaign ...

“If it’s a broad spectrum, it can shoot better”: inappropriate antibiotic prescribing in Cambodia

Background Cambodia is affected by antibiotic resistance but interventions to reduce the level of resistance require knowledge of the phenomena that lead to inappropriate prescribing. We interviewed physicians working in public hospitals to explore the drivers of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing. Methods Hospitals participating in a knowledge, attitudes and practices survey ...