Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control

http://www.aricjournal.com/

List of Papers (Total 1,122)

The emergence of carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in Malaysia: correlation between microbiological trends with host characteristics and clinical factors

Background Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae is a growing concern worldwide including Malaysia. The emergence of this pathogen is worrying because carbapenem is one of the 'last-line' antibiotics. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of genetic mechanisms and clinical risk factors of carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) in ...

Bacterial etiology of bloodstream infections and antimicrobial resistance in Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2005–2014

Background Bloodstream infections due to bacterial pathogens are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh and other developing countries. In these countries, most patients are treated empirically based on their clinical symptoms. Therefore, up to date etiological data for major pathogens causing bloodstream infections may play a positive role in better healthcare ...

Implementation of the WHO multimodal Hand Hygiene Improvement Strategy in a University Hospital in Central Ethiopia

Background The burden of health-care associated infections in low-income countries is high. Adequate hand hygiene is considered the most effective measure to reduce the transmission of nosocomial pathogens. We aimed to assess compliance with hand hygiene and perception and knowledge about hand hygiene before and after the implementation of a multimodal hand hygiene campaign ...

“If it’s a broad spectrum, it can shoot better”: inappropriate antibiotic prescribing in Cambodia

Background Cambodia is affected by antibiotic resistance but interventions to reduce the level of resistance require knowledge of the phenomena that lead to inappropriate prescribing. We interviewed physicians working in public hospitals to explore the drivers of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing. Methods Hospitals participating in a knowledge, attitudes and practices survey ...

Carriage of ESBL/AmpC-producing or ciprofloxacin non-susceptible Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. in healthy people in Norway

Background Asymptomatic carriage has been recognised as an important risk factor for infection caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria. A 14% global prevalence of Extended-Spectrum Beta-lactamase (ESBL) carriage was recently reported, but large intra-and interregional variations were observed. We investigated the faecal carriage rates of ESBL-, AmpC-producing and ciprofloxacin ...

Estimating the morbidity and mortality associated with infections due to multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDRB), France, 2012

Background A study based on 2007 data estimated that 386,000 infections due to multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDRB) occurred in Europe that year and 25,000 patients died from these infections. Our objective was to estimate the morbidity and mortality associated with these infections in France. Methods The MDRB considered were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), ...

Daptomycin-induced eosinophilic pneumonia - a systematic review

Purpose Eosinophilic pneumonia comprises a group of lung diseases in which eosinophils appear in increased numbers in the lungs and sometimes in the bloodstream. Several case reports link daptomycin use to this phenomenon. Summary We performed a systematic literature review to identify cases of eosinophilic pneumonia associated with daptomycin use. Relevant studies were identified ...

Role of quality control circle in sustained improvement of hand hygiene compliance: an observational study in a stomatology hospital in Shandong, China

Background Hand hygiene is an important element of the WHO multimodal strategy for healthcare-associated infection control, whereas compliance of hand hygiene among healthcare workers (HCWs) remains a challenge to sustain. In order to increase the hand hygiene compliance of HCWs, a quality control circle (QCC) program was carried out in our hospital, and the plan-do-check-act ...

Prolonged outbreak of clonal MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa on an intensive care unit: contaminated sinks and contamination of ultra-filtrate bags as possible route of transmission?

Background We report on an outbreak in a surgical, interdisciplinary intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary care hospital. We detected a cluster of ICU patients colonized or infected with multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We established an outbreak investigation team, performed an exploratory epidemiological analysis and initiated an epidemiology-based intervention. ...

Assessment of extended-spectrum β-lactamases and integrons among Enterobacteriaceae in device-associated infections: multicenter study in north of Iran

Background Device-associated nosocomial infections (DA-NIs), due to MDR Enterobacteriaceae, are a major threat to patient safety in ICUs. We investigated on Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae and incidence of integrons in these bacteria isolated from ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) in 18 ...

Relationship between hospital ward design and healthcare-associated infection rates: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Background The influence of the hospital’s infrastructure on healthcare-associated colonization and infection rates has thus far infrequently been examined. In this review we examine whether healthcare facility design is a contributing factor to multifaceted infection control strategies. Methods We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials ...

Emergence of serotype K1 Klebsiella pneumoniae ST23 strains co-producing the plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase DHA-1 and an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase in Korea

Background Serotype K1 Klebsiella pneumoniae has emerged as an important community pathogen causing various infections, including liver abscesses. Although serotype K1 K. pneumoniae community isolates have been reported as susceptible to most classes of antimicrobial agents, a few cases of infection caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing serotype K1 K. ...

Comparing the disk-diffusion and agar dilution tests for Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibility testing

Background We assessed the validity of testing for antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical and mutant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) isolates by disk diffusion in comparison to agar dilution, and Etest® (bioMerieux, France), respectively, for three third generation extended spectrum cephalosporins (ESC): ceftriaxone (CRO), cefixime (CFX), and cefpodoxime (CPD). Methods One hundred and ...

Patterns of medication use and factors associated with antibiotic use among adult fever patients at Singapore primary care clinics

Background Antimicrobial resistance is a public health problem of global importance. In Singapore, much focus has been given to antibiotic usage patterns in hospital settings. Data on antibiotic use in primary care is lacking. We describe antibiotic usage patterns and assess factors contributing to antibiotic usage among adults presenting with acute febrile illness (AFI) in primary ...

Poor adherence to guidelines for preventing central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI): results of a worldwide survey

Background Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) are a cause of increased morbidity and mortality, and are largely preventable. We documented attitudes and practices in intensive care units (ICUs) in 2015 in order to assess compliance with CLABSI prevention guidelines. Methods Between June and October 2015, an online questionnaire was made available to medical ...

Epidemiology of Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections in a teaching hospital: factors related to the carbapenem resistance and patient mortality

Background Although Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections (KP-BSIs) have recently attracted attention due to an alarming raise in morbidity and mortality, there have been few reports on the epidemiology of KP-BSIs in mainland China. We sought to describe the epidemiological, microbiological, and clinical characteristics of KP-BSIs, focusing on the risk factors of carbapenem ...

Effect of β-Lactamase inhibitors on in vitro activity of β-Lactam antibiotics against Burkholderia cepacia complex species

Background Bacteria belonging to the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are an important cause of chronic respiratory tract infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Intrinsic resistance to a wide range of antimicrobial agents, including a variety of β-lactam antibiotics, is frequently observed in Bcc strains. Resistance to β-lactams is most commonly mediated by efflux pumps, ...

Deliberate exposure of humans to chlorine-the aftermath of Ebola in West Africa

Background During the recent Ebola outbreak, spraying of the environment and humans, including healthcare workers, with chlorine was wide spread in affected African countries; adverse clinical effects are reported here. Methods A cross sectional survey by interview of 1550 volunteers consisting of 500 healthcare workers (HCW), 550 Ebola survivors (EVD) and 500 quarantined ...

Prevention of hospital-acquired pneumonia in non-ventilated adult patients: a narrative review

Background Pneumonia is one of the leading hospital-acquired infections worldwide and has an important impact. Although preventive measures for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are well known, less is known about appropriate measures for prevention of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP). Aim The purpose of this narrative review is to provide an overview of the current standards ...

Antibiotics: practice and opinions of Cambodian commercial farmers, animal feed retailers and veterinarians

Background Cambodia has reported multidrug resistant bacteria in poultry, similar to other countries in the region. We visited commercial food animal farms to explore opinions and antibiotic practices on the farms. Methods We used individual in-depth qualitative interviews with 16 commercial farmers, four feed retailers and nine veterinarians from food animal industry and ...

Global variances in infection control practices for vancomycin resistant Enterococcus – results of an electronic survey

An electronic survey was disseminated amongst infection control practitioners to investigate the variation in practices toward vancomycin resistant enterococci. There were 235 analysable responses, mostly from doctors, in 48 countries. The survey considered active surveillance, in-hospital precautions and tagging and untagging processes. There was a great variation in responses ...

A pilot study to assess use of fluorescent lotion in patient care simulations to illustrate pathogen dissemination and train personnel in correct use of personal protective equipment

Background Simulations using fluorescent tracers can be useful in understanding the spread of pathogens and in devising effective infection control strategies. Methods During simulated patient care interactions in which providers wore gloves and gowns, we evaluated environmental and personnel dissemination of fluorescent lotion and bacteriophage MS2 from a contaminated mannequin. ...

A mixed methods study to understand patient expectations for antibiotics for an upper respiratory tract infection

Background Antimicrobial resistance is a public health challenge supplemented by inappropriate prescribing, especially for an upper respiratory tract infection in primary care. Patient/carer expectations have been identified as one of the main drivers for inappropriate antibiotics prescribing by primary care physicians. The aim of this study was to understand who is more likely to ...

A quasi-experimental study to determine the effects of a multifaceted educational intervention on hand hygiene compliance in a radiography unit

Background Whilst numerous studies have investigated nurses’ compliance with hand hygiene and use of alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR), limited attention has been paid to these issues in allied health staff. Reports have linked infections to breaches in infection control in the radiography unit (RU). With advances in medical imaging, a higher proportion of patients come into contact ...

Regional variations in fluoroquinolone non-susceptibility among Escherichia coli bloodstream infections within the Veterans Healthcare Administration

Objectives We sought to define regional variations in fluoroquinolone non-susceptibility (FQ-NS) among bloodstream isolates of Escherichia coli across the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) in the United States. Methods We analyzed a retrospective cohort of patients managed at 136 VHA hospitals who had a blood culture positive for E.coli between 2003 and 2013. Hospitals were ...