Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control

http://www.aricjournal.com/

List of Papers (Total 1,134)

Assessment of extended-spectrum β-lactamases and integrons among Enterobacteriaceae in device-associated infections: multicenter study in north of Iran

Background Device-associated nosocomial infections (DA-NIs), due to MDR Enterobacteriaceae, are a major threat to patient safety in ICUs. We investigated on Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae and incidence of integrons in these bacteria isolated from ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) in...

Relationship between hospital ward design and healthcare-associated infection rates: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Background The influence of the hospital’s infrastructure on healthcare-associated colonization and infection rates has thus far infrequently been examined. In this review we examine whether healthcare facility design is a contributing factor to multifaceted infection control strategies. Methods We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials...

Emergence of serotype K1 Klebsiella pneumoniae ST23 strains co-producing the plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase DHA-1 and an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase in Korea

Background Serotype K1 Klebsiella pneumoniae has emerged as an important community pathogen causing various infections, including liver abscesses. Although serotype K1 K. pneumoniae community isolates have been reported as susceptible to most classes of antimicrobial agents, a few cases of infection caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing serotype K1 K...

Comparing the disk-diffusion and agar dilution tests for Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibility testing

Background We assessed the validity of testing for antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical and mutant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) isolates by disk diffusion in comparison to agar dilution, and Etest® (bioMerieux, France), respectively, for three third generation extended spectrum cephalosporins (ESC): ceftriaxone (CRO), cefixime (CFX), and cefpodoxime (CPD). Methods One hundred...

Patterns of medication use and factors associated with antibiotic use among adult fever patients at Singapore primary care clinics

Background Antimicrobial resistance is a public health problem of global importance. In Singapore, much focus has been given to antibiotic usage patterns in hospital settings. Data on antibiotic use in primary care is lacking. We describe antibiotic usage patterns and assess factors contributing to antibiotic usage among adults presenting with acute febrile illness (AFI) in...

Poor adherence to guidelines for preventing central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI): results of a worldwide survey

Background Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) are a cause of increased morbidity and mortality, and are largely preventable. We documented attitudes and practices in intensive care units (ICUs) in 2015 in order to assess compliance with CLABSI prevention guidelines. Methods Between June and October 2015, an online questionnaire was made available to medical...

Epidemiology of Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections in a teaching hospital: factors related to the carbapenem resistance and patient mortality

Background Although Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections (KP-BSIs) have recently attracted attention due to an alarming raise in morbidity and mortality, there have been few reports on the epidemiology of KP-BSIs in mainland China. We sought to describe the epidemiological, microbiological, and clinical characteristics of KP-BSIs, focusing on the risk factors of...

Effect of β-Lactamase inhibitors on in vitro activity of β-Lactam antibiotics against Burkholderia cepacia complex species

Background Bacteria belonging to the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are an important cause of chronic respiratory tract infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Intrinsic resistance to a wide range of antimicrobial agents, including a variety of β-lactam antibiotics, is frequently observed in Bcc strains. Resistance to β-lactams is most commonly mediated by efflux pumps...

Deliberate exposure of humans to chlorine-the aftermath of Ebola in West Africa

Background During the recent Ebola outbreak, spraying of the environment and humans, including healthcare workers, with chlorine was wide spread in affected African countries; adverse clinical effects are reported here. Methods A cross sectional survey by interview of 1550 volunteers consisting of 500 healthcare workers (HCW), 550 Ebola survivors (EVD) and 500 quarantined...

Prevention of hospital-acquired pneumonia in non-ventilated adult patients: a narrative review

Background Pneumonia is one of the leading hospital-acquired infections worldwide and has an important impact. Although preventive measures for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are well known, less is known about appropriate measures for prevention of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP). Aim The purpose of this narrative review is to provide an overview of the current...

Antibiotics: practice and opinions of Cambodian commercial farmers, animal feed retailers and veterinarians

Background Cambodia has reported multidrug resistant bacteria in poultry, similar to other countries in the region. We visited commercial food animal farms to explore opinions and antibiotic practices on the farms. Methods We used individual in-depth qualitative interviews with 16 commercial farmers, four feed retailers and nine veterinarians from food animal industry and...

Global variances in infection control practices for vancomycin resistant Enterococcus – results of an electronic survey

An electronic survey was disseminated amongst infection control practitioners to investigate the variation in practices toward vancomycin resistant enterococci. There were 235 analysable responses, mostly from doctors, in 48 countries. The survey considered active surveillance, in-hospital precautions and tagging and untagging processes. There was a great variation in responses...

A pilot study to assess use of fluorescent lotion in patient care simulations to illustrate pathogen dissemination and train personnel in correct use of personal protective equipment

Background Simulations using fluorescent tracers can be useful in understanding the spread of pathogens and in devising effective infection control strategies. Methods During simulated patient care interactions in which providers wore gloves and gowns, we evaluated environmental and personnel dissemination of fluorescent lotion and bacteriophage MS2 from a contaminated mannequin...

A mixed methods study to understand patient expectations for antibiotics for an upper respiratory tract infection

Background Antimicrobial resistance is a public health challenge supplemented by inappropriate prescribing, especially for an upper respiratory tract infection in primary care. Patient/carer expectations have been identified as one of the main drivers for inappropriate antibiotics prescribing by primary care physicians. The aim of this study was to understand who is more likely...

A quasi-experimental study to determine the effects of a multifaceted educational intervention on hand hygiene compliance in a radiography unit

Background Whilst numerous studies have investigated nurses’ compliance with hand hygiene and use of alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR), limited attention has been paid to these issues in allied health staff. Reports have linked infections to breaches in infection control in the radiography unit (RU). With advances in medical imaging, a higher proportion of patients come into contact...

Regional variations in fluoroquinolone non-susceptibility among Escherichia coli bloodstream infections within the Veterans Healthcare Administration

Objectives We sought to define regional variations in fluoroquinolone non-susceptibility (FQ-NS) among bloodstream isolates of Escherichia coli across the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) in the United States. Methods We analyzed a retrospective cohort of patients managed at 136 VHA hospitals who had a blood culture positive for E.coli between 2003 and 2013. Hospitals were...

E. coli bacteremia in comparison to K. pneumoniae bacteremia: influence of pathogen species and ESBL production on 7-day mortality

In a previous study, we demonstrated prolonged length of hospital stay in cases of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive K. pneumoniae bacteremia compared to bacteremia cases due to E. coli (ESBL-positive and –negative) and ESBL-negative K. pneumoniae. The overall mortality was significantly higher in bacteremia cases resulting from ESBL-positive pathogens but also in...

First hospital outbreak of the globally emerging Candida auris in a European hospital

Background Candida auris is a globally emerging multidrug resistant fungal pathogen causing nosocomial transmission. We report an ongoing outbreak of C. auris in a London cardio-thoracic center between April 2015 and July 2016. This is the first report of C. auris in Europe and the largest outbreak so far. We describe the identification, investigation and implementation of...

Serious electronic games as behavioural change interventions in healthcare-associated infections and infection prevention and control: a scoping review of the literature and future directions

Background The uptake of improvement initiatives in infection prevention and control (IPC) has often proven challenging. Innovative interventions such as ‘serious games’ have been proposed in other areas to educate and help clinicians adopt optimal behaviours. There is limited evidence about the application and evaluation of serious games in IPC. The purposes of the study were: a...

Review on colonization of residents and staff in Italian long-term care facilities by multidrug-resistant bacteria compared with other European countries

Background Rates of colonization and infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are increasing worldwide, in both acute care hospitals and long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Italy has one of the highest prevalence of MDR bacteria in European countries, especially with regard to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) or...

Identifying conditions for elimination and epidemic potential of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in nursing homes

Background Residents of nursing homes are commonly colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) but there is a limited understanding of the dynamics and determinants of spread in this setting. To address this gap, we sought to use mathematical modeling to assess the epidemic potential of MRSA in nursing homes and to determine conditions under which non-USA300...

Emergence of linezolid- and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in a department for hematologic stem cell transplantation

Background Prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci has increased in Germany. Here, we report the cluster of linezolid- and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (LVRE) in a German department for hematologic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Methods In this retrospective analysis we included all patients with LVRE in a university-based department for HSCT in 2014 and...

Drug susceptibility patterns of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from previously treated and new cases of pulmonary tuberculosis at German-Nepal tuberculosis project laboratory, Kathmandu, Nepal

Background Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a serious public health problem in Nepal. It is a major obstacle for the control of the tuberculosis. The main objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of the multidrug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis and to evaluate the drug susceptibility patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from previously...

Minimum inhibitory concentration of vancomycin to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from different clinical samples at a tertiary care hospital in Nepal

Background Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has evolved as a serious threat to public health. It has capability to cause infections not only in health care settings but also in community. Due to the multidrug resistance shown by MRSA, there are limited treatment options for the infections caused by this superbug. Vancomycin is used as the drug of choice for the...