Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control

http://www.aricjournal.com/

List of Papers (Total 1,122)

Prevalence, risk factors and molecular epidemiology of highly resistant gram negative rods in hospitalized patients in the Dutch region Kennemerland

Background This paper describes (1) the Highly Resistant Gram Negative Rod (HR-GNR) prevalence rate, (2) their genotypes, acquired resistance genes and (3) associated risk factors of HR-GNR colonization among the hospitalized population in the Dutch region Kennemerland. Methods Between 1 October 2013 and 31 March 2014, cross-sectional prevalence measurements were performed in three ...

Antimicrobial stewardship in long-term care facilities in Belgium: a questionnaire-based survey of nursing homes to evaluate initiatives and future developments

Background The use of antimicrobials is intense and often inappropriate in long-term care facilities. Antimicrobial resistance has increased in acute and chronic care facilities, including those in Belgium. Evidence is lacking concerning antimicrobial stewardship programmes in chronic care settings. The medical coordinator practicing in Belgian nursing homes is a general ...

New dominant spa type t2741 in livestock-associated MRSA (CC398-MRSA-V) in Finnish fattening pigs at slaughter

Background The emergence of livestock-associated MRSA has become a growing public health concern worldwide. Studies elucidating the population structure, as well as resistance phenotypes and virulence gene profiles of livestock-associated MRSA strains are needed to improve risk assessment and to develop effective control measures. The objective of this study therefore was to ...

Correlation between biofilm formation and resistance toward different commonly used antibiotics along with extended spectrum beta lactamase production in uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from the patients suspected of urinary tract infections visiting Shree Birendra Hospital, Chhauni, Kathmandu, Nepal

Background Escherichia coli is the most predominant causative agent of urinary tract infection (UTI). Recently, increase in drug resistance among the uropathogenic bacteria has caused great problem in treatment of UTI. The main objective of this research is to determine the correlation between biofilm formation and resistance toward different commonly used antibiotics along with ...

Antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular epidemiology of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae from intensive care units at Hamad Medical Corporation, Qatar

Background The emergence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates has important clinical and therapeutic implications. High prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae has been reported in the literature for clinical samples from a variety of infection sites. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, ...

Disinfectant-susceptibility of multi-drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated in Japan

Background Multi-drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been an important problem in public health around the world. However, limited information about disinfectant-susceptibility of multi-drug-resistant strain of M. tuberculosis was available. Findings We studied susceptibility of several Japanese isolates of multi-drug-resistant M. tuberculosis against disinfectants, which ...

Exploration of over the counter sales of antibiotics in community pharmacies of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: pharmacy professionals’ perspective

Background Over the counter sale of antibiotics is a global problem and it is increasingly recognized as a source of antibiotic misuse and is believed to increase treatment costs, adverse effects of treatment and emergence of resistance. The increasing trend of over the counter sale of antibiotics in Ethiopia calls for exploration of why such dispensing is practiced. This study ...

Antimicrobial resistance profiles of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 and Non-O157 recovered from domestic farm animals in rural communities in Northwestern Mexico

Background Antimicrobial resistance in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 and non-O157 is a matter of increasing concern. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance profiles of STEC O157 and non-O157 recovered from feces of domestic farm animals in the agricultural Culiacan Valley in Northwestern Mexico. Findings All of the examined ...

Mortality related to hospital-associated infections in a tertiary hospital; repeated cross-sectional studies between 2004-2011

Background Hospital-associated infections (HAIs) are reported to increase patient mortality and incur longer hospital stays. Most studies to date have focused on specific groups of hospitalised patients with a rather short follow-up period. In this repeated cross-sectional study, with prospective follow-up of 19,468 hospitalized patients, we aimed to analyze the impact of HAIs on ...

APSIC Guidelines for environmental cleaning and decontamination

This document is an executive summary of APSIC Guidelines for Environmental Cleaning and Decontamination. It describes best practices in routine cleaning and decontamination in healthcare facilities as well as in specific settings e.g. management of patients with isolation precautions, food preparation areas, construction and renovation, and following a flood. It recommends the ...

Efficacy of the decolonization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriers in clinical practice

Background Nasal and extra nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a pre-existing condition that often leads to invasive MRSA infection, as MRSA colonization is associated with a high risk of acquiring MRSA infection during hospital stays. Decolonization may reduce the risk of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in individual carriers and ...

Association between microbial characteristics and poor outcomes among patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia: a retrospective cohort study

Background Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) pneumonia is associated with poor clinical outcomes. This study examined the association between microbial characteristics and poor outcomes among patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia. Findings This retrospective cohort study included 75 patients with MRSA pneumonia who were admitted to two large ...

Pharmacy-based dispensing of antimicrobial agents without prescription in India: appropriateness and cost burden in the private sector

Background Inappropriate antibiotic use for treatment of common self-limiting infections is a major problem worldwide. We conducted this study to determine prevalence of non-prescription sale of antimicrobial drugs by pharmacies in Bangalore, India, and to assess their associated avoidable cost within the Indian private healthcare sector. Methods Between 2013 and 2014, two ...

Impact of different diagnostic technologies for MRSA admission screening in hospitals – a decision tree analysis

Background Hospital infections with multiresistant bacteria, e.g., Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), cause heavy financial burden worldwide. Rapid and precise identification of MRSA carriage in combination with targeted hygienic management are proven to be effective but incur relevant extra costs. Therefore, health care providers have to decide which MRSA ...

Implementation of an antimicrobial stewardship program targeting residents with urinary tract infections in three community long-term care facilities: a quasi-experimental study using time-series analysis

Background Asymptomatic bacteriuria in the elderly commonly results in antibiotic administration and, in turn, contributes to antimicrobial resistance, adverse drug events, and increased costs. This is a major problem in the long-term care facility (LTCF) setting, where residents frequently transition to and from the acute-care setting, often transporting drug-resistant organisms ...

A cross-sectional observational study about media and infection control practices: are photographic portrayals of healthcare workers setting a bad example?

Background Attempts to increase compliance with infection control practices are complex and are - in part - based on attempts to change behaviour. In particular, the behaviour of significant peers (role models) has been shown to be a strong motivator. While role models within the working environment are obviously the most important, some experts suggest that media and public ...

National observational study to evaluate the “cleanyourhands” campaign (NOSEC): a questionnaire based study of national implementation

Introduction The number of national hand-hygiene campaigns has increased recently, following the World Health Organisation’s (WHO) “Save Lives: clean your hands” initiative (2009), which offers hospitals a multi-component hand-hygiene intervention. The number of campaigns to be evaluated remains small. Most evaluations focus on consumption of alcohol hand rub (AHR). We are not ...

Antimicrobial resistance: one world, one fight!

The lack of new antibiotic classes calls for a cautious use of existing agents. Yet, every 10 min, almost two tons of antibiotics are used around the world, all too often without any prescription or control. The use, overuse and misuse of antibiotics select for resistance in numerous species of bacteria which then renders antimicrobial treatment ineffective. Almost all countries ...

Respiratory consequences of N95-type Mask usage in pregnant healthcare workers—a controlled clinical study

Background Outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases have led to guidelines recommending the routine use of N95 respirators for healthcare workers, many of whom are women of childbearing age. The respiratory effects of prolonged respirator use on pregnant women are unclear although there has been no definite evidence of harm from past use. Methods We conducted a two-phase ...

Perspectives of clinical microbiologists on antimicrobial stewardship programmes within NHS trusts in England

Background The Antimicrobial Self-Assessment Toolkit for NHS Trusts (ASAT) was developed in England by a National Pharmacist Reference Group of an Advisory Non-Departmental Public Body on Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare Associated Infections (ARHAI), in conjunction with the Department of Health. It is intended to identify and evaluate interventions for the promotion and ...

Risk factors for Candida colonization and Co-colonization with multi-drug resistant organisms at admission

Introduction Candida species are major causes of healthcare-associated infections with colonization preceding infection. Understanding risk factors for colonization by Candida species is important in prevention. However, data on risk factors for colonization by Candida species alone or with other healthcare-associated pathogens is limited. Methods From 2002 to 2006, 498 patients ...

In vitro antimicrobial activity of a novel compound, Mul-1867, against clinically important bacteria

Background The antimicrobial activity of Mul-1867, a novel synthetic compound, was tested against 18 bacterial strains, including clinical isolates and reference strains from culture collections. Methods The minimal inhibitory concentration (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBCs) were determined by using the broth macrodilution method. The kinetics of the inhibitory ...

Antibiotic trends of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii resistance indicators in an intensive care unit of Southern Italy, 2008–2013

Background The overuse of antimicrobials is one of the main factors responsible for the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance, together with other causes, such as intra- and inter-hospital spread of resistant microorganisms and infection control policies and practices. The objective of the present study is to report the trends of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter ...

The effect of preheated versus room-temperature skin disinfection on bacterial colonization during pacemaker device implantation: a randomized controlled non-inferiority trial

Background In clinical practice, patients who are awake often comment that cold surgical skin disinfectant is unpleasant. This is not only a problem of patients’ experience; heat loss during the disinfection process is a problem that can result in hypothermia. Evidence for the efficacy of preheated disinfection is scarce. We tested whether preheated skin disinfectant was ...

Multidrug resistant Enterobacteriaceae and extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli: a cross-sectional study in National Kidney Center, Nepal

Background Emergence of antibacterial resistance and production of Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are responsible for the frequently observed empirical therapy failures. Most countries have experienced rapid dissemination of ESBLs producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates, particularly E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. ESBLs are clinically significant and when detected, ...