Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control

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List of Papers (Total 1,132)

Assessing the magnitude and trends in hospital acquired infections in Canadian hospitals through sequential point prevalence surveys

Background Healthcare acquired infections (HAI) are an important public health problem in developed countries, but comprehensive data on trends over time are lacking. Prevalence surveys have been used as a surrogate for incidence studies and can be readily repeated. Methods The Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program conducted prevalence surveys in 2002 and 2009 in a...

Meta-analysis of proportion estimates of Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in East Africa hospitals

Background A high proportion of Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae is causing common infections in all regions of the world. The burden of antibiotic resistance due to ESBL in East Africa is large but information is scarce and thus it is unclear how big the problem really is. To gain insight into the magnitude and molecular epidemiology of ESBL...

The 2014–2015 Ebola outbreak in West Africa: Hands On

The International Consortium for Prevention and Infection Control (ICPIC) organises a biannual conference (ICPIC) on various subjects related to infection prevention, treatment and control. During ICPIC 2015, held in Geneva in June 2015, a full one-day session focused on the 2014–2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa. This article is a non-exhaustive compilation...

APSIC guide for prevention of Central Line Associated Bloodstream Infections (CLABSI)

This document is an executive summary of the APSIC Guide for Prevention of Central Line Associated Bloodstream Infections (CLABSI). It describes key evidence-based care components of the Central Line Insertion and Maintenance Bundles and its implementation using the quality improvement methodology, namely the Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) methodology involving multidisciplinary...

Cross-border comparison of antibiotic prescriptions among children and adolescents between the north of the Netherlands and the north-west of Germany

Background Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide problem and inappropriate prescriptions are a cause. Especially among children, prescriptions tend to be high. It is unclear how they differ in bordering regions. This study therefore examined the antibiotic prescription prevalence among children in primary care between northern Netherlands and north-west of Germany. Methods Two...

Infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamases producing Enterobacteriaceae: clinical and economic impact in patients hospitalized in 2 teaching hospitals in Dakar, Senegal

Background Infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamases producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) are of major concern in clinical practice because of limited therapeutic options effective to treat them. Published studies showed that ESBL-E, widely spread in Europe, United States or Asia; are also frequent in Africa. However, the impact of ESBL-E infections is yet to be...

Modern technologies for improving cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces in hospitals

Experts agree that careful cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces are essential elements of effective infection prevention programs. However, traditional manual cleaning and disinfection practices in hospitals are often suboptimal. This is often due in part to a variety of personnel issues that many Environmental Services departments encounter. Failure to follow...

Ultrasound transducer disinfection in emergency medicine practice

Background External ultrasound transducer disinfection is common practice in medicine. Unfortunately, clinically significant organisms, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumonia spread throughout healthcare facilities via direct contact despite disinfection protocols. Ultrasound transducers and coupling gel...

Biofilm formation, antimicrobial susceptibility, serogroups and virulence genes of uropathogenic E. coli isolated from clinical samples in Iran

Background Uropathogenic Escherichia coli O- Serogroups with their virulence factors are the most prevalent causes of UTIs. The present research performed to track common uropathogenic E.coli serogroups, antibiotic resistance pattern of strains and prevalence of virulence genes in isolations having the ability to constitute biofilm. Methods In this research 130 E.coli isolation...

Quantitative evaluation of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli strains in the wastewater of a French teaching hospital and relation to patient strain

Background Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli has become ubiquitous and has been reported in diverse ecosystems. We evaluated the potential impact of post-acute and long-term healthcare activities on the environment by quantifying ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in wastewaters of a French geriatric hospital. Methods We collected wastewater specimens...

Prevalence, risk factors and molecular epidemiology of highly resistant gram negative rods in hospitalized patients in the Dutch region Kennemerland

Background This paper describes (1) the Highly Resistant Gram Negative Rod (HR-GNR) prevalence rate, (2) their genotypes, acquired resistance genes and (3) associated risk factors of HR-GNR colonization among the hospitalized population in the Dutch region Kennemerland. Methods Between 1 October 2013 and 31 March 2014, cross-sectional prevalence measurements were performed in...

Antimicrobial stewardship in long-term care facilities in Belgium: a questionnaire-based survey of nursing homes to evaluate initiatives and future developments

Background The use of antimicrobials is intense and often inappropriate in long-term care facilities. Antimicrobial resistance has increased in acute and chronic care facilities, including those in Belgium. Evidence is lacking concerning antimicrobial stewardship programmes in chronic care settings. The medical coordinator practicing in Belgian nursing homes is a general...

New dominant spa type t2741 in livestock-associated MRSA (CC398-MRSA-V) in Finnish fattening pigs at slaughter

Background The emergence of livestock-associated MRSA has become a growing public health concern worldwide. Studies elucidating the population structure, as well as resistance phenotypes and virulence gene profiles of livestock-associated MRSA strains are needed to improve risk assessment and to develop effective control measures. The objective of this study therefore was to...

Correlation between biofilm formation and resistance toward different commonly used antibiotics along with extended spectrum beta lactamase production in uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from the patients suspected of urinary tract infections visiting Shree Birendra Hospital, Chhauni, Kathmandu, Nepal

Background Escherichia coli is the most predominant causative agent of urinary tract infection (UTI). Recently, increase in drug resistance among the uropathogenic bacteria has caused great problem in treatment of UTI. The main objective of this research is to determine the correlation between biofilm formation and resistance toward different commonly used antibiotics along with...

Antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular epidemiology of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae from intensive care units at Hamad Medical Corporation, Qatar

Background The emergence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates has important clinical and therapeutic implications. High prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae has been reported in the literature for clinical samples from a variety of infection sites. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae...

Disinfectant-susceptibility of multi-drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated in Japan

Background Multi-drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been an important problem in public health around the world. However, limited information about disinfectant-susceptibility of multi-drug-resistant strain of M. tuberculosis was available. Findings We studied susceptibility of several Japanese isolates of multi-drug-resistant M. tuberculosis against disinfectants...

Exploration of over the counter sales of antibiotics in community pharmacies of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: pharmacy professionals’ perspective

Background Over the counter sale of antibiotics is a global problem and it is increasingly recognized as a source of antibiotic misuse and is believed to increase treatment costs, adverse effects of treatment and emergence of resistance. The increasing trend of over the counter sale of antibiotics in Ethiopia calls for exploration of why such dispensing is practiced. This study...

Antimicrobial resistance profiles of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 and Non-O157 recovered from domestic farm animals in rural communities in Northwestern Mexico

Background Antimicrobial resistance in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 and non-O157 is a matter of increasing concern. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance profiles of STEC O157 and non-O157 recovered from feces of domestic farm animals in the agricultural Culiacan Valley in Northwestern Mexico. Findings All of the...

Mortality related to hospital-associated infections in a tertiary hospital; repeated cross-sectional studies between 2004-2011

Background Hospital-associated infections (HAIs) are reported to increase patient mortality and incur longer hospital stays. Most studies to date have focused on specific groups of hospitalised patients with a rather short follow-up period. In this repeated cross-sectional study, with prospective follow-up of 19,468 hospitalized patients, we aimed to analyze the impact of HAIs on...

APSIC Guidelines for environmental cleaning and decontamination

This document is an executive summary of APSIC Guidelines for Environmental Cleaning and Decontamination. It describes best practices in routine cleaning and decontamination in healthcare facilities as well as in specific settings e.g. management of patients with isolation precautions, food preparation areas, construction and renovation, and following a flood. It recommends the...

Efficacy of the decolonization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriers in clinical practice

Background Nasal and extra nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a pre-existing condition that often leads to invasive MRSA infection, as MRSA colonization is associated with a high risk of acquiring MRSA infection during hospital stays. Decolonization may reduce the risk of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in individual carriers...

Association between microbial characteristics and poor outcomes among patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia: a retrospective cohort study

Background Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) pneumonia is associated with poor clinical outcomes. This study examined the association between microbial characteristics and poor outcomes among patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia. Findings This retrospective cohort study included 75 patients with MRSA pneumonia who were admitted to two large...

Pharmacy-based dispensing of antimicrobial agents without prescription in India: appropriateness and cost burden in the private sector

Background Inappropriate antibiotic use for treatment of common self-limiting infections is a major problem worldwide. We conducted this study to determine prevalence of non-prescription sale of antimicrobial drugs by pharmacies in Bangalore, India, and to assess their associated avoidable cost within the Indian private healthcare sector. Methods Between 2013 and 2014, two...

Impact of different diagnostic technologies for MRSA admission screening in hospitals – a decision tree analysis

Background Hospital infections with multiresistant bacteria, e.g., Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), cause heavy financial burden worldwide. Rapid and precise identification of MRSA carriage in combination with targeted hygienic management are proven to be effective but incur relevant extra costs. Therefore, health care providers have to decide which MRSA...

Implementation of an antimicrobial stewardship program targeting residents with urinary tract infections in three community long-term care facilities: a quasi-experimental study using time-series analysis

Background Asymptomatic bacteriuria in the elderly commonly results in antibiotic administration and, in turn, contributes to antimicrobial resistance, adverse drug events, and increased costs. This is a major problem in the long-term care facility (LTCF) setting, where residents frequently transition to and from the acute-care setting, often transporting drug-resistant organisms...