Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control

http://www.aricjournal.com/

List of Papers (Total 1,132)

Self-sampling is appropriate for detection of Staphylococcus aureus: a validation study

Background Studies frequently use nasal swabs to determine Staphylococcus aureus carriage. Self-sampling would be extremely useful in an outhospital research situation, but has not been studied in a healthy population. We studied the similarity of self-samples and investigator-samples in nares and pharynxes of healthy study subjects (hospital staff) in the Netherlands. Methods...

Estimating the burden of healthcare-associated infections caused by selected multidrug-resistant bacteria Finland, 2010

Background Knowledge of the burden of healthcare-associated infections (HAI) and antibiotic resistance is important for resource allocation in infection control. Although national surveillance networks do not routinely cover all HAIs due to multidrug-resistant bacteria, estimates are nevertheless possible: in the EU, 25,000 patients die from such infections annually. We assessed...

Implementation of an antimicrobial stewardship program on the medical-surgical service of a 100-bed community hospital

Background Antimicrobial stewardship has been promoted as a key strategy for coping with the problems of antimicrobial resistance and Clostridium difficile. Despite the current call for stewardship in community hospitals, including smaller community hospitals, practical examples of stewardship programs are scarce in the reported literature. The purpose of the current report is to...

Prevalence and risk factors for VRE colonisation in a tertiary hospital in Melbourne, Australia: a cross sectional study

Background Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) has been established as a significant health-care associated problem since its first isolation in Australia in 1994. In this study, we measured the point prevalence and identified risk factors associated with vanB VRE colonisation in a tertiary care hospital in Melbourne, Australia where VRE has been endemic for 15 years. Methods...

Utility of the first few100 approach during the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic in the Netherlands

Background To guide policy and control measures, decent scientific data are needed for a comprehensive assessment of epidemiological, clinical and virological characteristics of the First Few hundred (FF100) cases. We discuss the feasibility of the FF100 approach during the 2009 pandemic and the added value compared with alternative data sources available. Methods The pandemic...

“Save Antibiotics, Save lives”: an Indian success story of infection control through persuasive diplomacy

Background Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae is a worldwide threat, with increasing prevalence in many countries. Restricted usage of higher end antibiotics, especially carbapenem is of great importance in tackling these super bugs. Purpose of this retrospective study was to analyse the impact of antibiotic stewardship activities on the prevalence of carbapenem resistant...

Concordance between European and US case definitions of healthcare-associated infections

Background Surveillance of healthcare-associated infections (HAI) is a valuable measure to decrease infection rates. Across Europe, inter-country comparisons of HAI rates seem limited because some countries use US definitions from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC/NHSN) while other countries use European definitions from the Hospitals in Europe Link for...

A randomized trial to evaluate a launderable bed protection system for hospital beds

BackgroundHospital beds are potential reservoirs of bacteria in hospitals. Preventing contamination of the bed and providing a cleaner surface should help prevent hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). Most hospital beds are cleaned between patients (terminal cleaning) using quaternary ammonia compounds (quats).ObjectiveThe study had two objectives: identify levels of bacterial...

The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates from Gulf Corporation Council countries

BackgroundThe burden of antimicrobial resistance worldwide is substantial and is likely to grow. Many factors play a role in the emergence of resistance. These resistance mechanisms may be encoded on transferable genes, which facilitate the spread of resistance between bacterial strains of the same and/or different species. Other resistance mechanisms may be due to alterations in...

WAAR (World Alliance against Antibiotic Resistance): Safeguarding antibiotics

Summary Resistance to antibiotics has increased recently to a dramatic extend, and the pipeline of new antibiotics is almost dry for the five next years. Failures happen already for trivial community acquired infections, like pyelonephritis, or peritonitis, and this is likely to increase. Difficult surgical procedures, transplants, and other immunosuppressive therapies will...

The step from a voluntary to a mandatory national nosocomial infection surveillance system: the influence on infection rates and surveillance effect

Background The German national nosocomial infection surveillance system, KISS, has a component for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (called NEO-KISS) which changed from a system with voluntary participation and confidential data feedback to a system with mandatory participation and confidential feedback. Methods In order to compare voluntary and mandatory surveillance data...

Control of multidrug resistant bacteria in a tertiary care hospital in India

Background The objective of this study was to assess the impact of antimicrobial stewardship programs on the multidrug resistance patterns of bacterial isolates. The study comprised an initial retrospective analysis of multidrug resistance in bacterial isolates for one year (July 2007-June 2008) followed by prospective evaluation of the impact of Antimicrobial Stewardship...

Prospective evaluation of the usefulness of C-reactive protein in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis in a sub-Saharan African region

BackgroundSepsis is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in the newborn. Early diagnosis and treatment is vital to improve outcome. The present study was therefore carried out to determine the usefulness of C-reactive protein (CRP) for evaluation of neonatal sepsis in Port Harcourt, Nigeria in Sub-Saharan Africa.MethodFour hundred and twenty neonates with...

Vancomycin-resistant vanB-type Enterococcus faecium isolates expressing varying levels of vancomycin resistance and being highly prevalent among neonatal patients in a single ICU

BackgroundVancomycin-resistant isolates of E. faecalis and E. faecium are of special concern and patients at risk of acquiring a VRE colonization/infection include also intensively-cared neonates. We describe here an ongoing high prevalence of VanB type E. faecium in a neonatal ICU hardly to identify by routine diagnostics.MethodsDuring a 10 months’ key period 71 E. faecium...

Mortality and Clostridium difficile infection: a review

Background Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a common cause of diarrhoea in hospitalised patients. Around the world, the incidence and severity of CDI appears to be increasing, particularly in the northern hemisphere. The purpose of this integrative review was to investigate and describe mortality in hospitalised patients with CDI. Methods A search of the literature...

Ten-year decrease of acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia at a single institution: the result of a multifaceted program combining cross-transmission prevention and antimicrobial stewardship

Background In France, the proportion of MRSA has been over 25% since 2000. Prevention of hospital-acquired (HA) MRSA spread is based on isolation precautions and antibiotic stewardship. At our institution, before 2000, the Infection Disease and the Infection Control teams had failed to reduce HA-MRSA rates. Objectives and methods We implemented a multifaceted hospital-wide...

Respiratory syncytial virus outbreak in neonatal intensive care unit: Impact of infection control measures plus palivizumab use

BackgroundThe occurrence of a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) outbreak in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) is related to unfavorable outcomes, as this infection can lead to respiratory distress and death in premature in infants. Report the successful control of an outbreak that occurred in April 2010 in a NICU.MethodsAfter the index case, of 18 premature infants placed in...

Prolongation of length of stay and Clostridium difficile infection: a review of the methods used to examine length of stay due to healthcare associated infections

BackgroundIt is believed that Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) contributes to a prolongation of length of stay (LOS). Recent literature suggests that models previously used to determine LOS due to infection have overestimated LOS, compared to newer statistical models. The purpose of this review is to understand the impact that CDI has on LOS and in doing so, describe the...

The safe insertion of peripheral intravenous catheters: a mixed methods descriptive study of the availability of the equipment needed

Background Intravenous cannulation is undertaken in a high proportion of hospitalised patients. Much international attention has been given to the use of care bundles to reduce the incidence of infection in these patients. However, less attention has been given to the systems required to ensure availability of the equipment needed to support these care bundles. Our objectives...

Impact of a hospital-wide hand hygiene promotion strategy on healthcare-associated infections

Background During the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak, high compliance in healthcare workers to hand hygiene was primarily driven by fear. However, the post-SARS period confirmed that this practice was not sustainable. At the Singapore General Hospital, a 1,600-bedded acute tertiary care hospital, the hand hygiene program was revised in early 2007 following...

High load of multi-drug resistant nosocomial neonatal pathogens carried by cockroaches in a neonatal intensive care unit at Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Background Cockroaches have been described as potential vectors for various pathogens for decades; although studies from neonatal intensive care units are scarce. This study assessed the vector potential of cockroaches (identified as Blatella germanica) in a neonatal intensive care unit setup in Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A total of 400 Blatella...

Antimicrobial resistance programs in Canada 1995-2010: a critical evaluation

Background In Canada, systematic efforts for controlling antibiotic resistance began in 1997 following a national Consensus Conference. The Canadian strategy produced 27 recommendations, one of which was the formation of the Canadian Committee on Antibiotic Resistance (CCAR). In addition several other organizations began working on a national or provincial basis over the ensuing...

Ready for a world without antibiotics? The Pensières Antibiotic Resistance Call to Action

Resistance to antibiotics has increased dramatically over the past few years and has now reached a level that places future patients in real danger. Microorganisms such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, which are commensals and pathogens for humans and animals, have become increasingly resistant to third-generation cephalosporins. Moreover, in certain countries, they...

Individual units rather than entire hospital as the basis for improvement: the example of two Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus cohort studies

Background Two MRSA surveillance components exist within the German national nosocomial infection surveillance system KISS: one for the whole hospital (i.e. only hospital based data and no rates for individual units) and one for ICU-based data (rates for each individual ICU). The objective of this study was to analyze which surveillance system (a hospital based or a unit based...