Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control

http://www.aricjournal.com/

List of Papers (Total 1,122)

Evaluating risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection in adult and pediatric hematopoietic cell transplant recipients

Background Although hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients are routinely exposed to classic risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), few studies have assessed CDI risk in these high-risk patients, and data are especially lacking for pediatric HCT recipients. We aimed to determine incidence and risk factors for CDI in adult and pediatric allogeneic HCT ...

Nasal carriage of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus among health care workers at a tertiary care hospital in Western Nepal

Background Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent cause of infections in both the community and hospital. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus continues to be an important nosocomial pathogen and infections are often difficult to manage due to its resistance to multiple antibiotics. Healthcare workers are important source of nosocomial transmission of MRSA. This study aimed to ...

Risk factors for hospital-acquired antimicrobial-resistant infection caused by Acinetobacter baumannii

Background Acinetobacter baumannii can cause serious healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and the incidence is increasing, with many strains now resistant to multiple antibiotic classes. The aims of this study were to examine factors associated with HAIs caused by antimicrobial-resistant as compared with antimicrobial-susceptible strains of A. baumannii and to investigate trends ...

Safety and tolerability of virucidal hand rubs: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial with healthy volunteers

Background The hands of the medical staff play an important role in transmission of pathogens in the health care environment. Hand hygiene is efficient, easy to perform and cost-effective. Safety, tolerability and acceptance of hand hygiene preparations play a major role in hand hygiene compliance, and apply, in particular, to formulations with high anti-viral activity. Aim ...

First detection of Klebsiella variicola producing OXA-181 carbapenemase in fresh vegetable imported from Asia to Switzerland

Background The emergence and worldwide spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is of great concern to public health services. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in fresh vegetables and spices imported from Asia to Switzerland. Findings Twenty-two different fresh vegetable samples were purchased in March ...

Utilization of paediatric isolation facilities in a TB-endemic setting

Introduction In hospital settings, patient isolation is used to limit transmission of certain pathogens (e.g. M. tuberculosis [TB], antibiotic-resistant bacteria and viruses causing respiratory and enteric infection). Data is lacking on utilization of paediatric isolation facilities in low-resource, TB-endemic settings. Methods Prospective weekday observation of 18 paediatric ...

The molecular epidemiology of incident methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus cases among hospitalized patients in Alberta, Canada: a retrospective cohort study

Background Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) surveillance for incident methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitalized patients is performed in a complete provincial surveillance network of all acute care facilities in Alberta, Canada. IPC surveillance is centralized using a web-based data entry platform so that each patient is counted only once. All ...

The first six years of surveillance in pediatric and neonatal intensive care units in Turkey

Background Patients in resourced-limited neonatal and pediatric intensive care units (NICU and PICU) are vulnerable to healthcare associated infections (HAI). We report the incidence of HAI, multidrug resistant microorganisms (MDROs) and the pattern of antibiotic usage in the first six years of a surveillance program in a teaching hospital in Turkey. Methods Between 2007 and 2012 ...

What roles do accredited drug dispensing outlets in Tanzania play in facilitating access to antimicrobials? Results of a multi-method analysis

Background People in low-income countries purchase a high proportion of antimicrobials from retail drug shops, both with and without a prescription. Tanzania’s accredited drug dispensing outlet (ADDO) program includes dispenser training, enforcement of standards, and the legal right to sell selected antimicrobials. We assessed the role of ADDOs in facilitating access to ...

Use of hand hygiene agents as a surrogate marker of compliance in Hungarian long-term care facilities: first nationwide survey

Background Hand hygiene practice is an important measure for preventing infections in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). However, low compliance with hand hygiene has been reported in a number of studies. The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of the first reference data collected on alcohol-based handrub (ABHR) and antiseptic soap consumption, as surrogate markers ...

Colonization with resistant microorganisms in patients transferred from abroad: who needs to be screened?

Background While multi-drug resistant organisms (MDRO) are a global phenomenon, there are significant regional differences in terms of prevalence. Traveling to countries with a high MDRO prevalence increases the risk of acquiring such an organism. In this study we determined risk factors for MDRO colonization among patients who returned from a healthcare system in a high-prevalence ...

What motivates antibiotic dispensing in accredited drug dispensing outlets in Tanzania? A qualitative study

Background Tanzania introduced the accredited drug dispensing outlet (ADDO) program more than a decade ago. Previous evaluations have generally shown that ADDOs meet defined standards of practice better than non-accredited outlets. However, ADDOs still face challenges with overuse of antibiotics for acute respiratory infections (ARI) and simple diarrhea, which contributes to the ...

Differences in identifying healthcare associated infections using clinical vignettes and the influence of respondent characteristics: a cross-sectional survey of Australian infection prevention staff

Background Australia has commenced public reporting and benchmarking of healthcare associated infections (HAIs), despite not having a standardised national HAI surveillance program. Annual hospital Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream (SAB) infection rates are released online, with other HAIs likely to be reported in the future. Although there are known differences between hospitals ...

Six years of a national antimicrobial stewardship programme in Scotland: where are we now?

Background The Scottish Antimicrobial Prescribing Group (SAPG) was established in 2008 to lead delivery of the national antimicrobial stewardship programme. We performed a national self-reported survey in 2014 to evaluate stewardship activities delivered by regional Antimicrobial Management Teams (AMTs). An on-line survey was developed utilising validated indicators from a ...

Risk factors for acquisition of carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae in an acute tertiary care hospital in Singapore

Background Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is increasingly reported worldwide. A similar increase is seen in Singapore since identification of its first case in 2008. The aim of this study was to identify local risk factors for carriage of CRE in patients from an acute tertiary care hospital in Singapore. Method A matched case-control study was conducted on inpatients ...