Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control

http://www.aricjournal.com/

List of Papers (Total 1,134)

APSIC Guidelines for environmental cleaning and decontamination

This document is an executive summary of APSIC Guidelines for Environmental Cleaning and Decontamination. It describes best practices in routine cleaning and decontamination in healthcare facilities as well as in specific settings e.g. management of patients with isolation precautions, food preparation areas, construction and renovation, and following a flood. It recommends the...

Efficacy of the decolonization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriers in clinical practice

Background Nasal and extra nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a pre-existing condition that often leads to invasive MRSA infection, as MRSA colonization is associated with a high risk of acquiring MRSA infection during hospital stays. Decolonization may reduce the risk of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in individual carriers...

Association between microbial characteristics and poor outcomes among patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia: a retrospective cohort study

Background Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) pneumonia is associated with poor clinical outcomes. This study examined the association between microbial characteristics and poor outcomes among patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia. Findings This retrospective cohort study included 75 patients with MRSA pneumonia who were admitted to two large...

Pharmacy-based dispensing of antimicrobial agents without prescription in India: appropriateness and cost burden in the private sector

Background Inappropriate antibiotic use for treatment of common self-limiting infections is a major problem worldwide. We conducted this study to determine prevalence of non-prescription sale of antimicrobial drugs by pharmacies in Bangalore, India, and to assess their associated avoidable cost within the Indian private healthcare sector. Methods Between 2013 and 2014, two...

Impact of different diagnostic technologies for MRSA admission screening in hospitals – a decision tree analysis

Background Hospital infections with multiresistant bacteria, e.g., Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), cause heavy financial burden worldwide. Rapid and precise identification of MRSA carriage in combination with targeted hygienic management are proven to be effective but incur relevant extra costs. Therefore, health care providers have to decide which MRSA...

Implementation of an antimicrobial stewardship program targeting residents with urinary tract infections in three community long-term care facilities: a quasi-experimental study using time-series analysis

Background Asymptomatic bacteriuria in the elderly commonly results in antibiotic administration and, in turn, contributes to antimicrobial resistance, adverse drug events, and increased costs. This is a major problem in the long-term care facility (LTCF) setting, where residents frequently transition to and from the acute-care setting, often transporting drug-resistant organisms...

A cross-sectional observational study about media and infection control practices: are photographic portrayals of healthcare workers setting a bad example?

Background Attempts to increase compliance with infection control practices are complex and are - in part - based on attempts to change behaviour. In particular, the behaviour of significant peers (role models) has been shown to be a strong motivator. While role models within the working environment are obviously the most important, some experts suggest that media and public...

National observational study to evaluate the “cleanyourhands” campaign (NOSEC): a questionnaire based study of national implementation

Introduction The number of national hand-hygiene campaigns has increased recently, following the World Health Organisation’s (WHO) “Save Lives: clean your hands” initiative (2009), which offers hospitals a multi-component hand-hygiene intervention. The number of campaigns to be evaluated remains small. Most evaluations focus on consumption of alcohol hand rub (AHR). We are not...

Antimicrobial resistance: one world, one fight!

The lack of new antibiotic classes calls for a cautious use of existing agents. Yet, every 10 min, almost two tons of antibiotics are used around the world, all too often without any prescription or control. The use, overuse and misuse of antibiotics select for resistance in numerous species of bacteria which then renders antimicrobial treatment ineffective. Almost all countries...

Respiratory consequences of N95-type Mask usage in pregnant healthcare workers—a controlled clinical study

Background Outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases have led to guidelines recommending the routine use of N95 respirators for healthcare workers, many of whom are women of childbearing age. The respiratory effects of prolonged respirator use on pregnant women are unclear although there has been no definite evidence of harm from past use. Methods We conducted a two-phase...

Perspectives of clinical microbiologists on antimicrobial stewardship programmes within NHS trusts in England

Background The Antimicrobial Self-Assessment Toolkit for NHS Trusts (ASAT) was developed in England by a National Pharmacist Reference Group of an Advisory Non-Departmental Public Body on Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare Associated Infections (ARHAI), in conjunction with the Department of Health. It is intended to identify and evaluate interventions for the promotion and...

Risk factors for Candida colonization and Co-colonization with multi-drug resistant organisms at admission

Introduction Candida species are major causes of healthcare-associated infections with colonization preceding infection. Understanding risk factors for colonization by Candida species is important in prevention. However, data on risk factors for colonization by Candida species alone or with other healthcare-associated pathogens is limited. Methods From 2002 to 2006, 498 patients...

In vitro antimicrobial activity of a novel compound, Mul-1867, against clinically important bacteria

Background The antimicrobial activity of Mul-1867, a novel synthetic compound, was tested against 18 bacterial strains, including clinical isolates and reference strains from culture collections. Methods The minimal inhibitory concentration (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBCs) were determined by using the broth macrodilution method. The kinetics of the inhibitory...

Antibiotic trends of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii resistance indicators in an intensive care unit of Southern Italy, 2008–2013

Background The overuse of antimicrobials is one of the main factors responsible for the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance, together with other causes, such as intra- and inter-hospital spread of resistant microorganisms and infection control policies and practices. The objective of the present study is to report the trends of Klebsiella pneumoniae and...

The effect of preheated versus room-temperature skin disinfection on bacterial colonization during pacemaker device implantation: a randomized controlled non-inferiority trial

Background In clinical practice, patients who are awake often comment that cold surgical skin disinfectant is unpleasant. This is not only a problem of patients’ experience; heat loss during the disinfection process is a problem that can result in hypothermia. Evidence for the efficacy of preheated disinfection is scarce. We tested whether preheated skin disinfectant was non...

Multidrug resistant Enterobacteriaceae and extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli: a cross-sectional study in National Kidney Center, Nepal

Background Emergence of antibacterial resistance and production of Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are responsible for the frequently observed empirical therapy failures. Most countries have experienced rapid dissemination of ESBLs producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates, particularly E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. ESBLs are clinically significant and when detected...

Evaluating risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection in adult and pediatric hematopoietic cell transplant recipients

Background Although hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients are routinely exposed to classic risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), few studies have assessed CDI risk in these high-risk patients, and data are especially lacking for pediatric HCT recipients. We aimed to determine incidence and risk factors for CDI in adult and pediatric allogeneic HCT...

Nasal carriage of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus among health care workers at a tertiary care hospital in Western Nepal

Background Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent cause of infections in both the community and hospital. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus continues to be an important nosocomial pathogen and infections are often difficult to manage due to its resistance to multiple antibiotics. Healthcare workers are important source of nosocomial transmission of MRSA. This study aimed...

Risk factors for hospital-acquired antimicrobial-resistant infection caused by Acinetobacter baumannii

Background Acinetobacter baumannii can cause serious healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and the incidence is increasing, with many strains now resistant to multiple antibiotic classes. The aims of this study were to examine factors associated with HAIs caused by antimicrobial-resistant as compared with antimicrobial-susceptible strains of A. baumannii and to investigate...

Safety and tolerability of virucidal hand rubs: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial with healthy volunteers

Background The hands of the medical staff play an important role in transmission of pathogens in the health care environment. Hand hygiene is efficient, easy to perform and cost-effective. Safety, tolerability and acceptance of hand hygiene preparations play a major role in hand hygiene compliance, and apply, in particular, to formulations with high anti-viral activity. Aim...

First detection of Klebsiella variicola producing OXA-181 carbapenemase in fresh vegetable imported from Asia to Switzerland

Background The emergence and worldwide spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is of great concern to public health services. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in fresh vegetables and spices imported from Asia to Switzerland. Findings Twenty-two different fresh vegetable samples were purchased in...

Utilization of paediatric isolation facilities in a TB-endemic setting

Introduction In hospital settings, patient isolation is used to limit transmission of certain pathogens (e.g. M. tuberculosis [TB], antibiotic-resistant bacteria and viruses causing respiratory and enteric infection). Data is lacking on utilization of paediatric isolation facilities in low-resource, TB-endemic settings. Methods Prospective weekday observation of 18 paediatric...

The molecular epidemiology of incident methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus cases among hospitalized patients in Alberta, Canada: a retrospective cohort study

Background Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) surveillance for incident methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitalized patients is performed in a complete provincial surveillance network of all acute care facilities in Alberta, Canada. IPC surveillance is centralized using a web-based data entry platform so that each patient is counted only once. All...

The first six years of surveillance in pediatric and neonatal intensive care units in Turkey

Background Patients in resourced-limited neonatal and pediatric intensive care units (NICU and PICU) are vulnerable to healthcare associated infections (HAI). We report the incidence of HAI, multidrug resistant microorganisms (MDROs) and the pattern of antibiotic usage in the first six years of a surveillance program in a teaching hospital in Turkey. Methods Between 2007 and 2012...

What roles do accredited drug dispensing outlets in Tanzania play in facilitating access to antimicrobials? Results of a multi-method analysis

Background People in low-income countries purchase a high proportion of antimicrobials from retail drug shops, both with and without a prescription. Tanzania’s accredited drug dispensing outlet (ADDO) program includes dispenser training, enforcement of standards, and the legal right to sell selected antimicrobials. We assessed the role of ADDOs in facilitating access to...