Protein & Cell

http://link.springer.com/journal/13238

List of Papers (Total 705)

Oral microbiomes: more and more importance in oral cavity and whole body

Microbes appear in every corner of human life, and microbes affect every aspect of human life. The human oral cavity contains a number of different habitats. Synergy and interaction of variable oral microorganisms help human body against invasion of undesirable stimulation outside. However, imbalance of microbial flora contributes to oral diseases and systemic diseases. Oral...

Gut microbiota derived metabolites in cardiovascular health and disease

Trillions of microbes inhabit the human gut, not only providing nutrients and energy to the host from the ingested food, but also producing metabolic bioactive signaling molecules to maintain health and elicit disease, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. In this review, we presented gut microbiota derived metabolites involved in...

Single-cell metagenomics: challenges and applications

With the development of high throughput sequencing and single-cell genomics technologies, many uncultured bacterial communities have been dissected by combining these two techniques. Especially, by simultaneously leveraging of single-cell genomics and metagenomics, researchers can greatly improve the efficiency and accuracy of obtaining whole genome information from complex...

The development of HIV vaccines targeting gp41 membrane-proximal external region (MPER): challenges and prospects

A human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) vaccine which is able to effectively prevent infection would be the most powerful method of extinguishing pandemic of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Yet, achieving such vaccine remains great challenges. The membrane-proximal external region (MPER) is a highly conserved region of the envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp41...

Myeloid-specific targeting of Notch ameliorates murine renal fibrosis via reduced infiltration and activation of bone marrow-derived macrophage

Macrophages play critical roles in renal fibrosis. However, macrophages exhibit ontogenic and functional heterogeneities, and which population of macrophages contributes to renal fibrosis and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we genetically targeted Notch signaling by disrupting the transcription factor recombination signal binding protein-Jκ (RBP-J), to...

Of genes and microbes: solving the intricacies in host genomes

Microbiome research is a quickly developing field in biomedical research, and we have witnessed its potential in understanding the physiology, metabolism and immunology, its critical role in understanding the health and disease of the host, and its vast capacity in disease prediction, intervention and treatment. However, many of the fundamental questions still need to be...

Ligand binding and conformational changes of SUR1 subunit in pancreatic ATP-sensitive potassium channels

ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP) are energy sensors on the plasma membrane. By sensing the intracellular ADP/ATP ratio of β-cells, pancreatic KATP channels control insulin release and regulate metabolism at the whole body level. They are implicated in many metabolic disorders and diseases and are therefore important drug targets. Here, we present three structures of...

Whole-tissue 3D imaging reveals intra-adipose sympathetic plasticity regulated by NGF-TrkA signal in cold-induced beiging

Sympathetic arborizations act as the essential efferent signals in regulating the metabolism of peripheral organs including white adipose tissues (WAT). However, whether these local neural structures would be of plastic nature, and how such plasticity might participate in specific metabolic events of WAT, remains largely uncharacterized. In this study, we exploit the new volume...

Neoblast-enriched zinc finger protein FIR1 triggers local proliferation during planarian regeneration

Regeneration, relying mainly on resident adult stem cells, is widespread. However, the mechanism by which stem cells initiate proliferation during this process in vivo is unclear. Using planarian as a model, we screened 46 transcripts showing potential function in the regulation of local stem cell proliferation following 48 h regeneration. By analyzing the regeneration defects...

Cryo-EM structure of an early precursor of large ribosomal subunit reveals a half-assembled intermediate

Assembly of eukaryotic ribosome is a complicated and dynamic process that involves a series of intermediates. It is unknown how the highly intertwined structure of 60S large ribosomal subunits is established. Here, we report the structure of an early nucleolar pre-60S ribosome determined by cryo-electron microscopy at 3.7 Å resolution, revealing a half-assembled subunit. Domains...

Release and uptake mechanisms of vesicular Ca2+ stores

Cells utilize calcium ions (Ca2+) to signal almost all aspects of cellular life, ranging from cell proliferation to cell death, in a spatially and temporally regulated manner. A key aspect of this regulation is the compartmentalization of Ca2+ in various cytoplasmic organelles that act as intracellular Ca2+ stores. Whereas Ca2+ release from the large-volume Ca2+ stores, such as...