Protein & Cell

http://link.springer.com/journal/13238

List of Papers (Total 700)

Reprogrammed mouse astrocytes retain a “memory” of tissue origin and possess more tendencies for neuronal differentiation than reprogrammed mouse embryonic fibroblasts

Direct reprogramming of a variety of somatic cells with the transcription factors Oct4 (also called Pou5f1), Sox2 with either Klf4 and Myc or Lin28 and Nanog generates the induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with marker similarity to embryonic stem cells. However, the difference between iPSCs derived from different origins is unclear. In this study, we hypothesized that...

Apolipoproteins and amyloid fibril formation in atherosclerosis

Amyloid fibrils arise from the aggregation of misfolded proteins into highly-ordered structures. The accumulation of these fibrils along with some non-fibrillar constituents within amyloid plaques is associated with the pathogenesis of several human degenerative diseases. A number of plasma apolipoproteins, including apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, apoA-II, apoC-II and apoE are...

High affinity soluble ILT2 receptor: a potent inhibitor of CD8+ T cell activation

Using directed mutagenesis and phage display on a soluble fragment of the human immunoglobulin super-family receptor ILT2 (synonyms: LIR1, MIR7, CD85j), we have selected a range of mutants with binding affinities enhanced by up to 168,000-fold towards the conserved region of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. Produced in a dimeric form, either by chemical...

Polycomb repressive complex 2 in embryonic stem cells: an overview

Polycomb Group Proteins (PcG) are a family of epigenetic regulators responsible for the repression of an array of genes important in development and cell fate specification. PcG proteins complex to form two types of epigenetic regulators: Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 and 2 (PRC1 and PRC2). Although the mechanisms regulating PRC2 recruitment and activity in mammals remain poorly...

Structure and function of interleukin-17 family cytokines

The recently identified interleukin-17 (IL-17) cytokines family, which comprises six members in mammals (IL-17A-F), plays essential roles in the host immunity against infectious diseases and chronic inflammatory diseases. The three-dimensional structures containing IL-17A or IL-17F have become available and revealed the unique structural features of IL-17s as well as their...

Essential residues for the enzyme activity of ATP-dependent MurE ligase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

The emergence of total drug-resistant tuberculosis (TDRTB) has made the discovery of new therapies for tuberculosis urgent. The cytoplasmic enzymes of peptidoglycan biosynthesis have generated renewed interest as attractive targets for the development of new anti-mycobacterials. One of the cytoplasmic enzymes, uridine diphosphate (UDP)-MurNAc-tripeptide ligase (MurE), catalyses...

Dynamics of the higher-order structure of chromatin

Eukaryotic DNA is hierarchically packaged into chromatin to fit inside the nucleus. Dynamics of the chromatin structure plays a critical role in transcriptional regulation and other biological processes that involve DNA, such as DNA replication and DNA repair. Many factors, including histone variants, histone modification, DNA methylation and the binding of non-histone...

A study of miRNAs targets prediction and experimental validation

microRNAs (miRNAs) are 20–24 nucleotide (nt) RNAs that regulate eukaryotic gene expression post-transcriptionally by the degradation or translational inhibition of their target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). To identify miRNA target genes will help a lot by understanding their biological functions. Sophisticated computational approaches for miRNA target prediction, and effective...

Influence of glycosylation and oligomerization of vaccinia virus complement control protein on level and pattern of functional activity and immunogenicity

Vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP) is one of the proteins encoded by vaccinia virus to modulate the host inflammatory response. VCP modulates the inflammatory response and protects viral habitat by inhibiting the classical and the alternative pathways of complement activation. The extended structure of VCP, mobility between its sequential domains, charge distribution...

Phosphorylation of Rictor at Thr1135 impairs the Rictor/Cullin-1 complex to ubiquitinate SGK1

The Rictor/mTOR complex plays a pivotal role in a variety of cellular functions including cellular metabolism, cell proliferation and survival by phosphorylating Akt at Ser473 to fully activate the Akt kinase. However, its upstream regulatory pathways as well as whether it has additional function(s) remain largely unknown. We recently reported that Rictor contains a novel...

Human gut microbiome: the second genome of human body

The human body is actually a super-organism that is composed of 10 times more microbial cells than our body cells. Metagenomic study of the human microbiome has demonstrated that there are 3.3 million unique genes in human gut, 150 times more genes than our own genome, and the bacterial diversity analysis showed that about 1000 bacterial species are living in our gut and a...

Analyses of SELEX-derived ZAP-binding RNA aptamers suggest that the binding specificity is determined by both structure and sequence of the RNA

The zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP) is a host factor that specifically inhibits the replication of certain viruses, including murine leukemia virus, Sindbis virus and Ebola virus, by targeting the viral mRNAs for degradation. ZAP directly binds to the target viral mRNA and recruits the cellular RNA degradation machinery to degrade the RNA. No significant sequence similarity...

Recent advances in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating platelet integrin αIIbβ3 activation

Integrins are allosteric cell adhesion receptors that cycle from a low to a high affinity ligand binding state, a complex process of receptor activation that is of particular importance in blood cells such as platelets or leukocytes. Here we highlight recent progress in the understanding of the molecular pathways that regulate integrin activation in platelets and leukocytes, with...

A loop matters for FTO substrate selection

Recent studies have unequivocally established the link between FTO and obesity. FTO was biochemically shown to belong to the AlkB-like family DNA/RNA demethylase. However, FTO differs from other AlkB members in that it has unique substrate specificity and contains an extended C-terminus with unknown functions. Insight into the substrate selection mechanism and a functional clue...

Progranulin promotes neurite outgrowth and neuronal differentiation by regulating GSK-3β

Progranulin (PGRN) has recently emerged as a key player in a subset of frontotemporal dementias (FTD). Numerous mutations in the progranulin gene have been identified in patients with familial or sporadic frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). In order to understand the molecular mechanisms by which PGRN deficiency leads to FTLD, we examined activity of PGRN in mouse cortical...

The next-generation sequencing technology and application

As one of the key technologies in biomedical research, DNA sequencing has not only improved its productivity with an exponential growth rate but also been applied to new areas of application over the past few years. This is largely due to the advent of newer generations of sequencing platforms, offering ever-faster and cheaper ways to analyze sequences. In our previous review, we...