Protein & Cell

http://link.springer.com/journal/13238

List of Papers (Total 662)

Potent and conditional redirected T cell killing of tumor cells using Half DVD-Ig

Novel biologics that redirect cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) to kill tumor cells bearing a tumor associated antigen hold great promise in the clinic. However, the ability to safely and potently target CD3 on CTL toward tumor associated antigens (TAA) expressed on tumor cells remains a challenge of both technology and biology. Herein we describe the use of a Half DVD-Ig format...

The crystal structure of Ac-AChBP in complex with α-conotoxin LvIA reveals the mechanism of its selectivity towards different nAChR subtypes

The α3* nAChRs, which are considered to be promising drug targets for problems such as pain, addiction, cardiovascular function, cognitive disorders etc., are found throughout the central and peripheral nervous system. The α-conotoxin (α-CTx) LvIA has been identified as the most selective inhibitor of α3β2 nAChRs known to date, and it can distinguish the α3β2 nAChR subtype from...

Effective gene editing by high-fidelity base editor 2 in mouse zygotes

Targeted point mutagenesis through homologous recombination has been widely used in genetic studies and holds considerable promise for repairing disease-causing mutations in patients. However, problems such as mosaicism and low mutagenesis efficiency continue to pose challenges to clinical application of such approaches. Recently, a base editor (BE) system built on cytidine (C...

IL-2 and IL-15 dependent thymic development of Foxp3-expressing regulatory T lymphocytes

Immunosuppressive regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg) expressing the transcription factor Foxp3 play a vital role in the maintenance of tolerance of the immune-system to self and innocuous non-self. Most Treg that are critical for the maintenance of tolerance to self, develop as an independent T-cell lineage from common T cell precursors in the thymus. In this organ, their...

LRRC25 plays a key role in all-trans retinoic acid-induced granulocytic differentiation as a novel potential leukocyte differentiation antigen

Leukocyte differentiation antigens (LDAs) play important roles in the immune system, by serving as surface markers and participating in multiple biological activities, such as recognizing pathogens, mediating membrane signals, interacting with other cells or systems, and regulating cell differentiation and activation. Data mining is a powerful tool used to identify novel LDAs...

Novel T cells with improved in vivo anti-tumor activity generated by RNA electroporation

The generation of T cells with maximal anti-tumor activities will significantly impact the field of T-cell-based adoptive immunotherapy. In this report, we found that OKT3/IL-2-stimulated T cells were phenotypically more heterogeneous, with enhanced anti-tumor activity in vitro and when locally administered in a solid tumor mouse model. To further improve the OKT3/IL-2-based T...

Salivary exosomal PSMA7: a promising biomarker of inflammatory bowel disease

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an intestinal immune-dysfunctional disease worldwide whose prevalence increasing in Asia including China. It is a chronic disease of the gastrointestinal tract with unknown cause. Exosomes are small vesicles in various body fluids. They have diameters of 40–120 nm, and one of their functions is long-distance transfer of various substances. In...

Structural and functional roles of ether lipids

Ether lipids, such as plasmalogens, are peroxisome-derived glycerophospholipids in which the hydrocarbon chain at the sn-1 position of the glycerol backbone is attached by an ether bond, as opposed to an ester bond in the more common diacyl phospholipids. This seemingly simple biochemical change has profound structural and functional implications. Notably, the tendency of ether...

Potential coordination role between O-GlcNAcylation and epigenetics

Dynamic changes of the post-translational O-GlcNAc modification (O-GlcNAcylation) are controlled by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) and the glycoside hydrolase O-GlcNAcase (OGA) in cells. O-GlcNAcylation often occurs on serine (Ser) and threonine (Thr) residues of the specific substrate proteins via the addition of O-GlcNAc group by OGT. It has been...

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified natural killer cell-based immunotherapy and immunological synapse formation in cancer and HIV

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells contribute to the body’s immune defenses. Current chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cell immunotherapy shows strong promise for treating various cancers and infectious diseases. Although CAR-modified NK cell immunotherapy is rapidly gaining attention, its clinical applications are mainly focused on preclinical...

Cellular microparticles and pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The finding that cellular microparticles (MPs) generated by injured cells profoundly impact on pathological courses of TBI has paved the way for new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. MPs are subcellular fragments or organelles that serve as carriers of lipids, adhesive receptors, cytokines...

Current status and perspectives of chimeric antigen receptor modified T cells for cancer treatment

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is a recombinant immunoreceptor combining an antibody-derived targeting fragment with signaling domains capable of activating cells, which endows T cells with the ability to recognize tumor-associated surface antigens independent of the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. Recent early-phase clinical trials of CAR...

The binding of a monoclonal antibody to the apical region of SCARB2 blocks EV71 infection

Entero virus 71 (EV71) causes hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and occasionally leads to severe neurological complications and even death. Scavenger receptor class B member 2 (SCARB2) is a functional receptor for EV71, that mediates viral attachment, internalization, and uncoating. However, the exact binding site of EV71 on SCARB2 is unknown. In this study, we generated a...

Shielding of the geomagnetic field reduces hydrogen peroxide production in human neuroblastoma cell and inhibits the activity of CuZn superoxide dismutase

Accumulative evidence has shown the adverse effects of a geomagnetic field shielded condition, so called a hypomagnetic field (HMF), on the metabolic processes and oxidative stress in animals and cells. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we evaluate the role of HMF on the regulation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human neuroblastoma SH...

Increasing the safety and efficacy of chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy is a promising cancer treatment that has recently been undergoing rapid development. However, there are still some major challenges, including precise tumor targeting to avoid off-target or “on-target/off-tumor” toxicity, adequate T cell infiltration and migration to solid tumors and T cell proliferation and persistence across the...

Differential regulation of H3S10 phosphorylation, mitosis progression and cell fate by Aurora Kinase B and C in mouse preimplantation embryos

Coordination of cell division and cell fate is crucial for the successful development of mammalian early embryos. Aurora kinases are evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinases and key regulators of mitosis. Aurora kinase B (AurkB) is ubiquitously expressed while Aurora kinase C (AurkC) is specifically expressed in gametes and preimplantation embryos. We found that...

Advancing chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy with CRISPR/Cas9

ABSTRACTThe clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system, an RNA-guided DNA targeting technology, is triggering a revolution in the field of biology. CRISPR/Cas9 has demonstrated great potential for genetic manipulation. In this review, we discuss the current development of CRISPR/Cas9 technologies for therapeutic...

mTORC1 signaling in hepatic lipid metabolism

The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway regulates many metabolic and physiological processes in different organs or tissues. Dysregulation of mTOR signaling has been implicated in many human diseases including obesity, diabetes, cancer, fatty liver diseases, and neuronal disorders. Here we review recent progress in understanding how mTORC1 (mTOR complex 1...

Pharmacokinetics of monoclonal antibodies and Fc-fusion proteins

There are many factors that can influence the pharmacokinetics (PK) of a mAb or Fc-fusion molecule with the primary determinant being FcRn-mediated recycling. Through Fab or Fc engineering, IgG-FcRn interaction can be used to generate a variety of therapeutic antibodies with significantly enhanced half-life or ability to remove unwanted antigen from circulation. Glycosylation of...