BMC Neuroscience

http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2202

List of Papers (Total 4,349)

Brain metabolic pattern analysis using a magnetic resonance spectra classification software in experimental stroke

Background Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) provides non-invasive information about the metabolic pattern of the brain parenchyma in vivo. The SpectraClassifier software performs MRS pattern-recognition by determining the spectral features (metabolites) which can be used objectively to classify spectra. Our aim was to develop an Infarct Evolution Classifier and a Brain Regions ...

Genistein protects against Aβ 25–35 induced apoptosis of PC12 cells through JNK signaling and modulation of Bcl-2 family messengers

Background Deposition of aggregated amyloid beta (Aβ) protein is hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease, leading to dysfunction and apoptosis of neurons. The isoflavone phytoestrogen compound genistein (Gen) exerts a significant protective effect against Aβ 25–35 induced neurotoxicity and mitochondrial damage in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. However, the mechanisms underlying Gen’s ...

CX 3 C chemokine receptor 1 deficiency modulates microglia morphology but does not affect lesion size and short-term deficits after experimental stroke

Background The fractalkine/CX 3 C chemokine receptor 1 (CX 3 CR1) pathway has been identified to play an essential role in the chemotaxis of microglia, leukocyte trafficking and microglia/macrophage recruitment. It has also been shown to be important in the regulation of the inflammatory response in the early phase after experimental stroke. The present study was performed to ...

Proteomic analyses of limbic regions in neonatal male, female and androgen receptor knockout mice

Background It is well-established that organizational effects of sex steroids during early development are fundamental for sex-typical displays of, for example, mating and aggressive behaviors in rodents and other species. Male and female brains are known to differ with respect to neuronal morphology in particular regions of the brain, including the number and size of neurons, and ...

Hemodynamic effects of intraoperative anesthetics administration in photothrombotic stroke model: a study using laser speckle imaging

Background Previous neuroimaging studies have shown the hemodynamic effect of either preconditioning or postconditioning anesthesia in ischemic stroke model. However, the anesthetic effect in hemodynamics during and immediately after the stroke modeling surgery remains unknown due to the lack of appropriate anesthesia-free stroke model and intraoperative imaging technology. In the ...

Suppression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by ultraviolet light is not mediated by isomerization of urocanic acid

Background Ultraviolet B irradiation confers strong resistance against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model of multiple sclerosis. This protection by ultraviolet B is independent of vitamin D production but causes isomerization of urocanic acid, a naturally occurring immunosuppressant. Methods To determine whether UCA isomerization from trans to cis is responsible for ...

Important modifications by sugammadex, a modified γ-cyclodextrin, of ion currents in differentiated NSC-34 neuronal cells

Background Sugammadex (SGX) is a modified γ-cyclodextrin used for reversal of steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents during general anesthesia. Despite its application in clinical use, whether SGX treatment exerts any effects on membrane ion currents in neurons remains largely unclear. In this study, effects of SGX treatment on ion currents, particularly on delayed-rectifier K + ...

Why does a cooled object feel heavier? Psychophysical investigations into the Weber’s Phenomenon

Background It has long been known that a concomitantly cooled stimulus is perceived as heavier than the same object at a neutral temperature—termed Weber’s Phenomenon (WP). In the current study, we re-examined this phenomenon using well-controlled force and temperature stimuli to explore the complex interplay between thermal and tactile systems, and the peripheral substrates ...

Neural hyperactivity in the amygdala induced by chronic treatment of rats with analgesics may elucidate the mechanisms underlying psychiatric comorbidities associated with medication-overuse headache

Background Patients with medication-overuse headache suffer not only from chronic headache, but often from psychiatric comorbidities, such as anxiety and depression. The mechanisms underlying these comorbidities are unclear, but the amygdala is likely to be involved in their pathogenesis. To investigate the mechanisms underlying the comorbidities we used elevated plus maze and open ...

Yawning reduces facial temperature in the high-yawning subline of Sprague-Dawley rats

Background Yawning is a stereotyped behavior that enhances blood flow to the skull, and the resulting counterflow has been hypothesized as a mechanism for brain cooling. Studies have shown that yawns are strongly associated with physiological and pathological conditions that increase brain temperature, and that they are followed by equivalent decreases in brain temperature. ...

The variability of motor evoked potential latencies in neurosurgical motor mapping by preoperative navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation

Background Recording of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) is used during navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) motor mapping to locate motor function in the human brain. However, factors potentially underlying MEP latency variability in neurosurgical motor mapping are vastly unknown. In the context of this study, one hundred brain tumor patients underwent preoperative ...

Expertise-related functional brain network efficiency in healthy older adults

Background In view of age-related brain changes, identifying factors that are associated with healthy aging are of great interest. In the present study, we compared the functional brain network characteristics of three groups of healthy older participants aged 61–75 years who had a different cognitive and motor training history (multi-domain group: participants who had participated ...

Planar cell polarity genes Frizzled3a, Vangl2, and Scribble are required for spinal commissural axon guidance

Background A fundamental feature of early nervous system development is the guidance of axonal projections to their targets in order to assemble neural circuits that control behavior. Spinal commissural neurons are an attractive model to investigate the multiple guidance cues that control growth cone navigation both pre- and post-midline crossing, as well as along both the ...

Investigating potentially salvageable penumbra tissue in an in vivo model of transient ischemic stroke using sodium, diffusion, and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging

Background Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the current-state-of-the-art technique to clinically investigate acute (0–24 h) ischemic stroke tissue. However, reduced apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)—considered a marker of tissue damage—was observed to reverse spontaneously during the subacute stroke phase (24–72 h) which means that low ADC cannot be used to reflect ...

Molar loss and powder diet leads to memory deficit and modifies the mRNA expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus of adult mice

Background It is known that tooth loss is known to be a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease and soft diet feeding induces memory impairment. Recent studies have shown that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is associated with tooth loss or soft diet in young animal model, and that BDNF expression is decreased in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. However, single or combined ...

Bone morphogenetic protein-2-mediated pain and inflammation in a rat model of posterolateral arthrodesis

Background Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is a pleiotropic, secreted molecule with diverse effects. The potent ability of BMP-2 to stimulate bone growth prompted its widespread clinical use for arthrodesis (spine fusion). However, elevated post-operative pain in patients treated with BMP-2 has been increasingly reported. Determining whether BMP-2 induces pain directly or ...

Epigenetic evidence for involvement of the oxytocin receptor gene in obsessive–compulsive disorder

Background Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder that affects up to 3% of the general population. Although epigenetic mechanisms play a role in neurodevelopment disorders, epigenetic pathways associated with OCD have rarely been investigated. Oxytocin is a neuropeptide involved in neurobehavioral functions. Oxytocin has been shown to be ...

CatWalk gait analysis in a rat model of multiple sclerosis

Background Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a widely used animal model for multiple sclerosis. The characteristic feature of the MOG-EAE model in Brown Norway rats is consistent involvement of the spinal cord resulting in limb paresis. The aim of the study was to investigate whether early subclinical gait ...

Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) regulates α-synuclein clearance in microglia

Background α-Synuclein (αSYN) has been genetically implicated in familial and sporadic Parkinson’s disease (PD), and is associated with disease susceptibility, progression and pathology. Excess amounts of αSYN are toxic to neurons. In the brain, microglial αSYN clearance is closely related to neuronal survival. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is the one of the other genes ...

Expression of Barhl2 and its relationship with Pax6 expression in the forebrain of the mouse embryo

Background The transcription factor Barhl2 is an antiproneural transcription factor with roles in neuronal differentiation. The functions of its homologue in Drosophila development are better understood than its functions in mammalian brain development. Existing evidence suggests that its expression in the embryonic forebrain of the mouse is regional and may complement that of ...

Genotypic differences in intruder-evoked immediate early gene activation in male, but not female, vasopressin 1b receptor knockout mice

Background The neuropeptide arginine vasopressin (Avp) modulates social behaviors via its two centrally expressed receptors, the Avp 1a receptor and the Avp 1b receptor (Avpr1b). Recent work suggests that, at least in mice, Avp signaling through Avpr1b within the CA2 region of the hippocampus is critical for normal aggressive behaviors and social recognition memory. However, this ...

Interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) mediates epilepsy-induced sleep disruption

Background Sleep disruptions are common in epilepsy patients. Our previous study demonstrates that homeostatic factors and circadian rhythm may mediate epilepsy-induced sleep disturbances when epilepsy occurs at different zeitgeber hours. The proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 (IL-1), is a somnogenic cytokine and may also be involved in epileptogenesis; however, few studies ...

mTOR and MAPK: from localized translation control to epilepsy

Background Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases characterized by excessive hyperexcitability of neurons. Molecular mechanisms of epilepsy are diverse and not really understood. All in common is the misregulation of proteins that determine excitability such as potassium and sodium channels as well as GABA receptors; which are all known as biomarkers for epilepsy. ...

TfAP-2 is required for night sleep in Drosophila

Background The AP-2 transcription factor APTF-1 is crucially required for developmentally controlled sleep behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans larvae. Its human ortholog, TFAP-2beta, causes Char disease and has also been linked to sleep disorders. These data suggest that AP-2 transcription factors may be highly conserved regulators of various types of sleep behavior. Here, we tested ...

A method for isolation of cone photoreceptors from adult zebrafish retinae

Background Cone photoreceptors are specialised sensory retinal neurons responsible for photopic vision, colour perception and visual acuity. Retinal degenerative diseases are a heterogeneous group of eye diseases in which the most severe vision loss typically arises from cone photoreceptor dysfunction or degeneration. Establishing a method to purify cone photoreceptors from retinal ...